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Fiat CR.1

Fiat CR.1


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Fiat CR.1

The Fiat CR.1 was the first in a long series of biplane fighters designed for Fiat by Celestino Rosatelli, and was an unusual sesquiplane aircraft, with larger lower and smaller upper wings. Two prototypes were produced, under the designation Fiat CR, with CR standing for Caccia Rosatelli, or Fighter/ Hunter Rosatelli. The two prototypes (MM.1 and MM.2) shared the same basic design, with a largely fabric covered wooden structure. The aircraft was an unusual type of sesquiplane, with a larger lower and smaller upper wing, the reserve of the normal design. As a result the aircraft does tend to look upside down when on the ground. The two wings were connected by rigid inverted Warren-type 'W' struts and a standard fixed undercarriage. The two prototypes differed in the shape of the tail and the engine cowling.

The CR made its maiden flight in 1923, and was evaluated against the SIAI S.52, beating it on speed and manoeuvrability. As a result it was ordered into production in 1924 as the Fiat CR.1. Two further prototypes were built to prepare the aircraft for military service, and these were followed by 249 production aircraft. Of these 109 were built by Fiat, 40 by O.F.M. of Naples and 100 by Savoia-Marchetti (SIAI). 240 of these aircraft were accepted by the Italian air force, where they served with eight fighter squadrons and with the earliest air force aerobatic teams. The CR.1 was never used in combat, having been replaced by the CR.20 before Italy became involving in fighting in Africa.

The CR.1 was used as the basis for a number of experiments with alternative engines. Three of these only produced prototypes - the Armstrong Siddeley Lynx powered CR.2, the Alfa Romeo Jupiter powered CR.5 and the Fiat A.20 powered CR.10. A fourth, which saw the Hispano-Suiza engine replaced by a 440hp Issotta Fraschini Asso Caccia engine was more successful. Enough aircraft were converted to use the new engine to allow the Asso-powered CR.1 to be used to equip the 163rd Squadron on Rhodes, where they remained in service until 1937.

Several countries considered buying the CR.1, but only Latvia placed an order, for nine aircraft. These were used by a naval fighter unit and remained in service until 1936.

Engine: Hispano-Suiza 42 8-cylinder inline-vee
Power: 300hp
Crew: 1
Wing span: 29ft 4 1/4in
Length: 20ft 2 1/2in
Height: 7ft 10 1/2in
Empty Weight: 1,850lb
Maximum take-off weight: 2,554lb
Max Speed: 169mph
Service Ceiling: 24,440ft
Endurance: 2 hours 35 minutes
Armament: Two forward firing 0.303in Vickers machine guns


Fiat CR.1 - History

The CR 42 was the last in a long line of biplane fighters designed by Celistino Rosatelli, and was preceded by the popular CR.32 fighter, which was still in service at the outbreak of World War II. The CR.32 was succeeded by several prototypes, which used some components from the CR.32 married to larger engines. The CR.40, Cr.40bis and Cr. 41 were stepping stones to a complete redesign, which emerged in 1938 as the prototype Cr.42. All of these aircraft used the "warren truss" strut arrangement instead of the traditional strut and wire bracing method.

The CR.42 was a single seat open cockpit biplane, powered by an 846 hp. Fiat A.74 14 cylinder radial engine turning a three bladed Fiat-Hamilton propeller. The aircraft was all metal with mostly fabric covering. Armament consisted of a pair of 12.7 mm Breda SAFAT machine guns firing through the propeller arc. These could be replaced by lighter 7.7 mm guns to save weight. The design was the result of staff thinking that the ideal fighter should be a light, fast, maneuverable biplane, with maneuverability taking precedence over speed. The Japanese took the same approach, and it didn't work for them either. Although obsolete by modern standards when it was introduced, the CR.42 remained in production until 1944, although, by then, it was being manufactured as a night interdiction and harassment airplane, not as a fighter. It was better than all of the biplanes it encountered, but was hopelessly outclassed by the more modern monoplanes, such as the Hurricane and Tomahawk. A maximum speed of 267 mph at 16,000 feet just wouldn't cut it in 1940 and 1941.

The CR.42 was active in all areas where the Regia Aeronautica was active, and served as a day fighter until replaced by more modern types. It was then used for close support against ground targets, and as a night fighter defending Italian cities. Developments included the ICR.42 floatplane, the CR.42DB with a Daimler Benz DB-601E, and the CR.42B two seat trainer, which was used by the Italians until about 1950. CR.42's were exported to Sweden, Belgium, Hungary, and Germany.

The last production models were designated CR.42LW, and were ordered by the Luftwaffe as night attack aircraft. A total of 200 was ordered, but Allied bombing interrupted production, and out of 150 completed, the Luftwaffe accepted only 112. These were used in Italy for night harassment and anti-partisan missions by single staffeln of NSGr. 9 and NSGr. 7, although a few were operated in France by NSGr. 20 and with various training units. The kit under review today represents one of of the NSGr. 9 aircraft.

This is the third issue of this kit. The first two depicted Italian aircraft, with the first issue including an excellent color booklet giving the basic history of the type. The CR.42LW kit consists of 62 light grey plastic parts, one clear plastic windshield, a set of instructions, and decals for three aircraft, all of which are from the same unit.

In-box reviews that I have read on-line led me to believe that this was probably one of the best kits to appear under the Italeri label, and to a great extent, I agree. However, after having actually built the kit to OTB standard, I find that there are some issues that should be addressed. The kit can be built into an excellent replica of the actual aircraft, and it is much better and more accurate than the old Revell offering that came out in the late sixties.

The instructions consist of ten pages of material in one large fold-out sheet. First is a history of the type in 6 languages, followed by a good sprue chart and a painting color identification guide. Colors are listed by common name and as an ITA number, which is presumably an Italian paint supplier. Eight exploded drawings show how to assemble the model, and these are basically self explanatory. At the end are three 4-view drawings showing camouflage and marking details. These are all from the same unit and all have basically the same paint scheme. I used material from a new publication, #1, Ali E. Colori, Fiat CR.42, which is basically in Italian, but with English translations. There is a lot of color here, and one of the aircraft for which decals are provided is illustrated in color, although the details conflict somewhat with information provided in the kit. I had hoped that the kit would have provided the completely exposed landing gear used on the Luftwaffe examples of NSGr. 20 in France, and illustrated by photographs in the Squadron-Signal In-Action series, but these were not included, although I understand that one of the earlier issues included this landing gear type.

Decals are provided for three aircraft: E8+JK, E8+FK, and E8+AH. All are from NSGr. 9, and operated in Italy in 1944. Decals were of the highest quality, and needed no trimming or decal solutions.

This is one model that requires very careful assembly, following the directions closely. It is also one of the best detailed kits I have seen in recent years. The engine is a work of art, and could be left exposed with little added detail. The wheels are well designed, and have enough of a ridge separating the wheel from the tire so that you can paint it with a brush and the paint will run into the crack and not run onto the other surface. The elevators are very detailed, but remember that the trim tab controls are on the bottom side, not the top. This is shown on the drawings, but it is easily missed,

The major problem I found was the installation of the upper wing. The instructions say to glue all of the struts to the underside of the upper wing, and then attach the wing struts in the proper positions on the fuselage and lower wings. DON'T! It didn't work for me, and I found that during the process I had probably invented a few new four letter words I hadn't heard before. The wing strut assembly is very complicated, and certainly a challenge for even a serious modeler the first time around. I suspect that a wooden or Styrofoam jig for the wing to rest in would be helpful, but I toughed it out and did it the old fashioned way. I attached the outer cabane struts to the wing, and then glued them to the fuselage mounting holes (after enlarging them somewhat with a drill). If I do another one, I'll glue the cabanes onto the fuselage and then set the wing in place. After these were set up and the wing was securely in place, I attached each strut individually using Tenex with a drafting pen applicator. It worked like a charm, and the wing went on straight. By the way, the instructions are very explicit on which strut goes where, so be sure to keep track of which strut is which.

The propeller is well done, but I believe that they got it backwards. I've seen this on other kits. The forward faces of the three bladed prop are flat, while the backs of the blades are curved. On real airplanes, the front of the prop blades are always curved, while the backs are flat, since the prop is really a small rotating wing, or airfoil, and it is this curved portion of the prop that provides the area of low pressure that is translated into thrust. It would be similar to a model where the top of the wing is flat, and the bottom curved. The prop is, however, infinitely better than that of the old Revell kit.

Another problem is that the locations of the wing lights for the night fighter version, on the under surfaces of the lower wings, are marked on the plastic. The purist will want to remove these.

Get at least one of these. It is a very good kit of a significant fighter that has only been modestly done in 1/72 scale up to this time. It does have a few issues, but it comes about as close to perfection as a kit can. The photos include a couple of comparison shots with an old Revell kit that I finished as a Swedish J.11 fighter. It isn't hard to tell the differences.


FIAT TRACTORS - A HISTORY

Fiat was founded in 1899 as an automobile manufacturing company. Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino (FIAT) began developing tractors by 1910, but was delayed by World War I. Fiat Trattori S.P.A. was a Fiat group company founded in 1919. The Fiat 702 was one of the earliest models in production and the first Italian tractor to be built on an industrial scale. The 702 was followed by the 702A, the 703B and 703BN.

1932 saw the launch of the Fiat 700C, followed by the lighter 702C with 28 HP instead of 35. Fiat also produced the Fiat 700C crawler tractor, offering impressive traction capacity attributed to the tracks which prevented it from sinking into wet ground.

By 1939 Fiat launched its first mass production tractor the Fiat 40 Boghetto the first tractor with the ability to operate on a variety of fuels.

The Fiat 50 crawler tractor was produced after the Second World War. Followed by the Fiat 600 and the innovative crawler Fiat 601 featuring levers instead of a steering wheel. In 1951 the Fiat 25R was launched onto the European agricultural market produced in a large number of models, The next year saw the launch of the high-power OM tractors including the popular OM 35-40 model. In 1957 Fiat launched the biggest selling tractor of the 1950s, the “little” FIAT 18. Followed by the launch of the Fiat 411.

The Series 200 was introduced in 1959 including the 211 R model ideal for work on small fields, with a gearbox offering 6 forward and 2 reverse speeds, a top speed of 20 km/h and total weight of just 900 kg.

The Diamante series followed including the 215, 315, 415 and 615 models, and were the first tractors to have synchronised speeds, differential lock and the AMPLICUPLE device.

By 1968 the 250, 450 and 550, as well as the 650 and 850 models were launched. They were followed by models 1000 and 1300 targeted to the European market. Buy spare parts for your Fiat here>

At the beginning of the 1970s the range underwent a change, the special 350 was launched and the 480 and 500 models replaced the 450 model, then becoming the 540 Special. Also in the 1970s the 850 became the FIAT 850 super, with an increase in power to 95 HP, the 1000 increased to 110 HP and the super 1300 increased to 150 HP.

By the middle of the 1970s the Fiat 80 series was launched with the models 580, 680, 780, 880, 8805, 980, Fiat 1180, 1280, 1380, 1580 and the top-of-the-range Fiat 1880. These tractors were the first in the world to have a platform mounted cab styled as one with the tractor

From 1979 to 1983 Fiat began the production of high-power tractors the Fiat-Versatile 44 Series: 44-23, 44-28, 44-33, 44-35 of 230, 280, 330 and 350HP. In 1982 Fiat launched the new 66 Series with models known as the “daily” tractors, because they were able to perform any everyday tasks on small scale farms.

In 1984 Fiatagri launched its historic 90 SERIES, which replaced the 80 series with a large number of models: medium-low (55-90, 60-90, 65-90, 70-90, 80-90, 85-90 Turbo) and high powered (115-90, 130-90 Turbo, 140-90 Turbo, 160-90 Turbo, 180-90 Turbo. Since 1985 the company had also been producing the 90 series, known as the “bridge” series, with the 90-90, 100-90 and 110-90 models.

In 1990s the Fiat launched the “Winner series the F100, F110, F120 and F130 Turbo. 1993 saw the introduction of the second series, comprising the F100 and F115 and the two Turbo models, the F130 and F140. In 1992 the 75 series crawler tractors received an upgrade called the "Steering-o-matic", a joystick instead of the steering clutches. The Winner series was followed by the launch of the “G” models designed for large fields and large tilling applications and the M Series, with the M100, 115, 135 and 160 models.

Original equipment manufacturer names and tractor part numbers are quoted for reference purposes only and are not intended to infer that our replacement tractor parts are used as original equipment.


Contents

In 1908, aeronautical production started taking its first steps in Turin, in Fiat, with the decision to design and produce an engine, the SA 8/75, derived from racing cars. It was the beginning of a centennial story whose heritage is today linked directly to Avio. The first mass-produced engine produced by Fiat was the A10, created in 1,070 units between 1914 and 1915: at this point the pioneer age had come to an end and the company decided to design and construct complete aircraft. Thus in 1916 the Società Italiana Aviazione was founded, changing its name in 1918 to Fiat Aviazione. Ώ]

In Turin, besides aircraft engines, and always along the lines of the internal-combustion engine, Fiat diversified production with the constitution in 1909 of Fiat San Giorgio for marine diesel engines, the area from which activities in the field of industrial engines for electric power generation later ensued. In Colleferro (Rome), the Bombrini Parodi-Delfino-BPD Company, established in Genoa in 1912, started manufacturing explosives and chemical products, from which the space segment originated.

In the aeronautical field, roots grew in Brindisi with the SACA Company. Gradually, many other realities began such as the CMASA di Marina Company in Pisa, founded in 1921 by German design engineer Claude Dornier, in collaboration with Rinaldo Piaggio and Attilio Odero. Finally, interactions and exchanges, accumulation of skills and experience, and multi-faceted stimuli have come from the many varied forms of international collaboration that have taken place with major companies like General Electric, Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney and Eurocopter, just to mention a few of the most important names with whom current partnerships go back over half a century. ΐ]

From biplanes to jet aircraft [ edit | edit source ]

After the first pioneering design of aircraft engines at the beginning of the twentieth century, against the opinion of over-cautious directors towards new technologies and areas of activity, Giovanni Agnelli, one of Fiat’s founder members, and technical director Guido Fornaca, supported aeronautical production, started up on an industrial basis during the Great War to meet military orders. Therefore, the Società Italiana Aviazione (Italian Aviation Company) was established in 1916, and later passed to the Aviation Section of Fiat in 1918. The first mass-produced aeronautical engine (over 1,000 units), the A10, was installed on several aircraft between 1914 and 1915 such as the Farman, later produced under licence, and the three-engined Caproni bomber aircraft.

At the end of the First World War, the technical and production resources accumulated during the conflict were directed at the emerging sector of the commercial aeroplane. The production of complete aircraft, already started up with the SP series, intensified under the guidance of design engineer Celestino Rosatelli who began his collaboration with Fiat in 1918. In about fifteen years, Rosatelli contributed to the famous CR and BR fighter and bomber aircraft while, thanks to its highly technical and reliable engines, Fiat aircraft had a run of world records: power, with the A14 of 700HP produced between 1917 and 1919 speed, with the 300 km/h achieved by the R700 in 1921 speed and airworthiness, with the AS2 engine that, installed on the Idromacchi M20, established the speed record for seaplanes and won the prestigious Schneider Cup in America in 1926 and speed again, with the new record attained by Francesco Agello in 1934 on an aeroplane powered by the Fiat AS6 engine of 3,100HP.

In 1926, with the acquisition of the Ansaldo factory in Corso Francia, Turin, Fiat Aviazione merged with the Società Aeronautica d’Italia (Italian Aeronautical Company). In 1931, Vittorio Valletta, the then General Manager of Fiat, employed a young design engineer Giuseppe Gabrielli to head the Aviation Technical Office. In 1934, the acquisition of the CMASA Company marked the entry of Fiat into the production of seaplanes. A great many of the targets achieved in the subsequent thirty-year period were linked to the genius of Gabrielli who quickly made a name for himself, beginning with the G2, a commercial plane of six seats besides the pilot, destined to be used by the Società Aviolinee Italiane (Italian Airline Company), with Fiat as majority shareholder, which boasted original innovations and developments under six patents.

While investments in the passenger and cargo transport sector continued with opening up of European routes of civil airlines, which used G18 and APR2 twin-engine monoplanes, in 1937, in the CMASA factory in Marina di Pisa, the G50 was produced, the first single-seater fighter plane employed by the Italian Air Force.

In 1949, having overcome the uncertainties and difficulties of the Second World War, the Fiat aeronautical activities were reorganised in the Aviation area. The delay in the production typologies accumulated in the years of autarchy were soon overcome thanks to the technical competences of Gabrielli and the new climate of Atlantic and inter-European collaboration. Already in 1951, Gabrielli had designed the G80, the first Italian jet aircraft powered by a De Havilland “Goblin” turbojet engine. ΐ]

In the early 1950s, Fiat Aviazione started a production revival by means of American orders and, in particular, was the only company in Europe to obtain the licence from NATO for the construction of the F86 K. It entered into an agreement with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the production of jet engine components. The experience acquired through this work allowed the Company to participate in the international call for tenders by NATO in 1954 for a light tactical fighter aircraft. The following year, the Italian project, named G91, obtained the order for three prototypes, in the same way as the English and French competitors, and then emerged as winner, with the final decision taken in 1958. The G91 was affirmed as NATO’s standard light fighter aircraft in the European zone, becoming the most important Italian post-war aircraft with over 700 planes produced, for the most part exported. Α]

In 1961, Fiat Aviazione took on the role of Italian prime contractor for the NATO F104 G aircraft and, under these circumstances, established collaboration relations with the Alfa Romeo Avio Company in Pomigliano d’Arco, near Naples, directly controlled by the Finmeccanica State Company. From the middle of the 1950s, under the guidance of the engineer Stefanutti, Alfa Romeo Avio had also intensified collaboration relations with Rolls-Royce and General Electric in aeronautical engines. In the second half of the 1960s, following consistent orders of the DC-9 for the national flagship airline Alitalia, controlled by the IRI State Company, the collaboration began between McDonnell Douglas and Aerfer, an aeronautical and railway Construction Company established by Finmeccanica in 1950 on part of the Aeronautical Centre in Pomigliano d’Arco.

In 1969, Fiat and Finmeccanica set up the Aeritalia Company, who Fiat entrusted with the aircraft activities.

Subsequently, through different international collaborations, Pomigliano d’Arco specialised in the development and production of components for the “hot parts” of jet engines and the overhaul of civil aeroengines.

Instead, Fiat concentrated on aeroengines and transmissions for helicopters, put together in Fiat Aviazione in 1976, with 3,700 employees, and production centres in Turin and Brindisi.

This choice was consistent with the transformation of the aeronautical industry’s worldwide scenario, characterised by the formation of just a few large groups and growing specialisation and internationalisation. A twofold necessity ensued, on the one side, to put into the field collaborations crucial to bringing together the financial resources and technological competences required by an increasingly sophisticated production in the area of materials, electronics and safety systems and, on the other, to identify areas of specialisation in which to play a leading role at a worldwide level. The programme of refinement and improvement of quality control was a strategic factor that gave rise to Fiat Aviazione’s success during those years.

With the change of the company name to Fiat Avio in 1989, the Turin Company collaborated on the design and manufacture of propulsion systems for the Tornado and Harrier Jump Jet (vertical/short take-off and landing) in the military sector, and Boeing and Airbus in the commercial one, just to mention the most important cases in both military and commercial fields.

In 1997, the acquisition of the controlling stake in Alfa Romeo Avio from Finmeccanica was key to a national strategic project aimed at reducing the excessive fragmentation of the Italian companies and at increasing competitiveness through more systematic synergies. ΐ]


Fiat Cr.42 Falco (Falcon)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/31/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

Despite its by-gone era appearance, the Fiat CR.42 Falco (meaning "Falcon") played a crucial role in the early war years for Italy, serving as the primary fighter for the Italian air force (Regia Aeronautica. The system was fielded in some quantity with multiple nations and provided some surprising combat capabilities despite the old-school design. CR.42's served with Italian forces up until the end of Italy's part in the war, ultimately being retired for good in 1945.

Even by 1939 standards, the CR.42 played the role of outdated aircraft by sheer appearance. The system (designed by one Celestino Rosatelli) utilized a sesquiplane biplane approach where the lower wing assembly was shorter in span than the upper. The undercarriage remained fixed and the pilot sat in an open-air cockpit behind the engine and entire wing assembly. A Fiat-brand A.74 R1C 14-cylinder radial piston engine of 840 horsepower powered the type offering up good range and an adequate service ceiling. Armament initially consisted of a pair of synchronized 7.7mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns but this was later upgraded to a more potent array of 2 x 12.7mm heavy machine guns. The latter upgrade could also be complimented with an additional 2 x 12.7mm machine guns in underwing fairing positions. A bombload of up to 440lb could be added underwing for strike sorties.

The Falco was initially fielded in 1939 with over 140 in service by the summer of 1940. CR.42's fared reasonably well as dogfighters and interceptors against French fighters and bombers over Southern France and were adept at bomber escorting and light bombing French ground targets themselves. CR.42's were fielded in this latter role over North Africa as well. Being wholly outclassed by the crop of monoplane aircraft littering the skies by the middle years of the war, the CR.42 played a more diminished role, particularly by the end of Italy's involvement in the conflict. The capitulation of Italy all but ended the Regia Aeronautica-operated CR.42's involvement to which the German Luftwaffe put in an order of their own for some 200 CR.42LW (LuftWaffe) models for "night harassment" duty.

Some 1,784 total CR.42's were produced during the war with just a small portion of that surviving in operational form by war's end. Primary users alongside the Italians included the Germans, Hungarians, Swedes and Belgians. Variants of the base fighter type included a multi-machine gun version in the CR.42bis, a night fighter model in the CR.42CN a two-seat communications platform.


Fiat cars, presented in our catalogue:

1974 Fiat 500 8 $7,500.00
1963 Fiat 600 4 $16,995.00
1951 Fiat Topolino Giardiniera 4 $39,995.00
1978 Fiat Spyder -- 12 $12,595.00
1972 Fiat 500L 8 $17,999.00
1978 Fiat 124 Spider Convertible 21 $US $3,000.00
1981 Fiat 124 Spider 2000 Legend 15 $24,950.00
1983 Fiat 124 Spider 6 $US $122.50
1959 Fiat 500 Fiat 600 21 $US $3,650.00
1967 Fiat Dino 21 $US $5,000.00
1981 Fiat Other 2000 Spider 21 $10,000.00
1954 Fiat 500 /TOPOLINO 21 $24,000.00
1963 Fiat 500 -- 12 $19,900.00
1975 Fiat 124 Spider 12 $US $1,250.00
1928 Fiat 520 torpedo 2 $9,800.00
1971 Fiat 500 21 $11,900.00
1984 Fiat 124 Spider Spider 2000 12 $12,000.00
1959 Fiat 1200 Vetture Speciale 21 $12,900.00
1981 Fiat 2000 SPIDER BY PININIFARINA 12 $12,000.00
1980 Fiat X-1/9 9 $1,000.00
1975 Fiat 124 Spider 8 $12,500.00
1982 Fiat 124 Spider 21 $16,000.00
1960 Fiat 600 16 $11,500.00
1970 Fiat Other 10 $US $7,500.00
1970 Fiat 500L 8 $7,800.00
1977 Fiat 124 Spider 21 $8,500.00
1983 Fiat Other Pininfarina Azzura - Spider Europa 21 $11,990.00
1981 Fiat Other Compact convertible 12 $8,500.00
1963 Fiat 600 4 $16,995.00
1951 Fiat Topolino Giardiniera 4 $39,995.00
1982 Fiat 124 Spider 20 $US $1,025.00
1969 Fiat 124 Spider 17 $US $1,075.00
1984 Other Makes 8 $8,250.00
1979 Fiat Spider 2000 12 $19,995.00
1971 Fiat 500 Ragtop! SEE Video. 21 $11,900.00
1970 Fiat 500L 21 $7,800.00
1977 Fiat Other 21 $15,000.00
1971 Fiat 124 Spider 9 $US $3,500.00
1978 Fiat Spider 21 $9,950.00
1980 Fiat 124 Spider Fiat 2000 8 $1,200.00
1982 Fiat 124 124 12 $18,995.00
1981 Fiat 124 Spider 12 $US $900.00
1963 Fiat 600D 18 $19,988.00
1954 Fiat 500 /TOPOLINO 21 $18,775.00
1979 Fiat 124 Spider Abarth tribute | eBay 21 $US $3,500.00
1982 Fiat 2000 Spider -- 1 $US $2,125.00
1972 Fiat Other 1 $189,500.00
1962 Fiat Other -- 21 $18,900.00
1974 Fiat 500 12 $US $1,525.00
1963 Fiat 1200 12 $US $1,500.00
1962 Fiat Other 12 $US $5,000.00
1970 Fiat 500L 8 $7,800.00
1977 Fiat 124 Spider 12 $7,500.00
1971 Fiat 124 Spider 9 $US $5,723.00
1967 Fiat Other SPORT SPECIALE 21 $US $12,000.00
1973 Fiat Other 1 $5,000.00
1973 Lada 2102 Fiat 124 Wagon 12 $11,500.00
1972 Fiat 500 500L 5 $13,950.00
1928 Fiat 520 torpedo 2 $9,800.00
1971 Fiat 500 21 $12,900.00
1982 Fiat Pininfarina Spider 2000 11 $6,600.00
1969 Fiat 124 Spider 9 $14,900.00
1984 Fiat 124 Spider Spider 2000 12 $10,950.00
1973 Fiat Other 9 $7,250.00
1954 Fiat 500 Topolino 19 $US $15,000.00
1981 Fiat 2000 SPIDER BY PININIFARINA 12 $12,000.00
1983 Fiat Other Pininfarina Azzura - Spider Europa 21 $11,990.00
1982 Fiat 124 12 $US $2,995.00
1970 Fiat 500 -- 12 $25,990.00
1963 Fiat 600 4 $16,995.00
1951 Fiat Topolino Giardiniera 4 $39,995.00
1952 Fiat 500 Topolino Mr. Bean Clown Car! 1 $27,000.00
1975 Fiat Other 13 $16,000.00
1972 Fiat 500 12 $9,495.00
1964 Fiat 500D Fully Restored Like New Drives Great 12 $23,900.00
1962 Fiat Other -- 21 $18,900.00
1979 Fiat SPIDER 2000 Pinifarina 15 $13,900.00
1970 Fiat 500L 21 $7,800.00
1981 Fiat Other Compact convertible 12 $8,600.00
1980 Fiat Other 12 $US $1,000.00
1960 FIAT PININFAINA 1200 Convertible Convertible 1200 12 $9,900.00
1972 Fiat 500 500E 9 $13,500.00
1970 Fiat 500 500 L 12 $9,999.00
1972 Fiat 500 500l 20 $US $2,650.00
1967 Fiat Other 12 $US $6,400.00
1976 Fiat 124 Spider 21 $US $3,100.00
1977 Fiat 124 Spider 12 $7,500.00
1971 Fiat 124 Spider 9 $US $6,500.00
1954 Fiat 500 /TOPOLINO 21 $19,800.00
1981 Fiat Other 21 $US $4,050.00
1963 Fiat 500 -- 12 $19,900.00
1972 Fiat 500 500L 11 $14,950.00
1977 Fiat Other 8 $8,000.00
1972 Fiat SEAT 600 E 21 $US $3,050.00
1939 Fiat Topolino 8 $US $22,200.00
1974 Fiat Spider 12 $2,950.00
1965 Fiat Other 11 $12,500.00
1975 Fiat 124 Spider 8 $12,500.00
1970 Fiat 500L 21 $7,800.00
1979 Fiat SPIDER 2000 13 $US $1,650.00

Classic Cars for Sale


Fiat CR.1 - History

Acrobatic flight is a manoeuvre or a series of manoeuvres which give the aeroplane abnormal, dangerous and difficult positions in flight, in order to give a spectacular show. From a military point of view, acrobatic flight is very useful for the fighter pilots because it allows them to put themselves in a position of advantage with respect to the enemy, both to defend themselves and to attack. In fact, if a fighter pilot is more expert than another, he can carry out manoeuvres that the other cannot perform at the same time he will do nothing but try and imitate him.
(fron the the French Encyclopaedia)

The beginnings

Acrobatic flight was not the result of a pilot's exhibitionism, nor was it the result of a desperate manoeuvre carried out while fighting for survival. It was born out of the reflections of a French aviator: Adolphe Pegoud. On September 2nd 1913 at Juvisy (France) in front of a wide public he carried out what he thought was the first loop (one of the most dangerous manoeuvres) in the history of flight . He didn't know that he had been preceded in his masterpiece by the Russian Nicolajevic Niesterov, who had flown a loop six days before. Niesterov's manoeuvre was unknown to the press for a long time. After that, Pegoud devised and carried out a complete roll, which is still considered one of the classic manoeuvres in acrobatic flight.
The two pilots had different approaches to acrobatic flight: for Pegoud it was a means to show the full reliability of the aeroplane in every attitude of flight, while Niesterov had known immediately the value of the aeroplane as an instrument of war.

Adolphe Pegoud

The fundamental use of collective acrobatic flight was explained in the year 1916 by the German pilot Lt. Oswald Boeckle: " Humans are not the conquerors, but they dominate the atmosphere". Born in 1891, in 1914 he was recruited in the German military aviation and got the licence of military pilot in four weeks. He had his fire baptism in France where he was sent to the reconnaissance group, and he revealed from the very beginning an uncommon talent for flight. At the beginning recon was unarmed, but, with the use of aircraft armed with machine guns, the situation changed and Boeckle started his collection of shot-down airplanes by bringing his craft to aiming position and leaving the observer to pull the fryer. In 1916, when he had already gained 18 air victories, he was sent away from the battle field to be used for teching his comrades the theory and praxis of single-seater fighting. Success came soon and the Staffel-Leader was satisfied with his students, as they were with him. On 28. October 1916 Oswald Boelcke was killed after he had been successful in 40 dogfights.


History of the 2º Stormo

The 2º Stormo "Aeropani da Caccia" (2nd Wing "Fighter Aircraft") was born in Turin on December 25th, 1925, made up of the following Units:

  • 7º Gruppo (Squadron) with the Squadriglie (Flights) 76ª, 84ª, 86ª and 91ª Base: Ciampino (Rome) Aircraft: Fiat CR-1 and Macchi-built Nieuport Ni-29
  • 8º Gruppo with the Squadriglie 92ª, 93ª, 94ª and 95ª Base: Mirafiori (Turin) Aircraft: Macchi-built Nieuport Ni-29 and Ansaldo AC-2
  • 13º Gruppo with the Squadriglie 77ª, 78ª, 82ª and 85ª Base: Venaria Reale (Turin) Aircraft: SPAD XIII and Fiat CR-1

All these Units could boast glorious traditions dating back to the World War I, like the 91ª Squadriglia, also known as "the Squadriglia of Aces", in which served Francesco Baracca, Fulco Ruffo di Calabria and Ferruccio Ranza, all aces of World War I.

Macchi-built Nieuport 29 of 91ª Squadriglia
Thanks to Mike Fletcher http://mars.ark.com/

At the beginning these Units were equipped with different types of aircraft: a first attempt to standardize the flight line was made in 1926 when the Nieuport 29s and SPAD XIIIs were phased out and replaced by the Fiat CR 1 type. Then, on January 10, 1927, the 7º Gruppo left the 2º Stormo and was replaced by the 23º Gruppo (with the Squadriglie 74ª,75ª,79ª and 83ª) equipped with Nieuport 29 and Fiat CR1 thus returning to a certain heterogeneity.

The flight line underwent continuous changes: in January 1929 the 13º Gruppo was totally equipped with Fiat CR 1, while the 8º and 23º Gruppo temporarily quit their flight activities because both AC2s and AC3s originated some serious accidents due to structural weakness for this reason AC2s were radiated while AC3s took service again after being overhauled and their structure beefed up. Since they continued to be considered unsafe, they were replaced, at the end of the year, by the Fiat CR20.

An important modification of the structure of the Stormo took place on January 15, 1931: in fact, the 23º Gruppo left the Stormo together with the 85ª Squadriglia (from 13º Gruppo) and 95ª Squadriglia (8º Gruppo) to form the new 3º Stormo based at Cinisello (Milan).


From Daimler to Fiat

Iacocca retired from Chrysler in 1992, but before doing so he recruited his replacement, Robert J. Eaton, president of General Motors Europe. Concerned with the competitive threat of a strong global automotive industry, Eaton was persuaded to embark upon a risky new direction. In May 1998 Chrysler Corporation and Daimler-Benz AG announced plans to merge, with Daimler-Benz (see Daimler AG) acquiring the American automaker for more than $35 billion in a stock swap. Shareholders from each company approved the deal in September, and the merger was completed on Nov. 12, 1998 shares in the newly formed DaimlerChrysler AG began trading on stock exchanges later that month. After a poor performance in 2001, which forced the closing of Plymouth, the Chrysler Group posted profits for several years, owing in part to strong sales for new models such as the Dodge Magnum.

Although the creation of DaimlerChrysler was billed as a “merger of equals,” critics charged that it was actually a takeover by the German company, and they predicted that a clash of cultures, if not goals, would make a successful coupling impossible. After Chrysler posted a loss of $1.5 billion in 2006, Daimler cut it loose, selling the Chrysler Group to the American private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management in 2007. The new firm was named Chrysler LLC. Robert Nardelli, former head of Home Depot, became the chairman and chief executive officer.

In December 2008 Pres. George W. Bush announced an emergency financial rescue plan to aid the “Big Three” automakers—Chrysler, General Motors, and Ford—to prevent the collapse of the country’s struggling auto industry. The plan made immediately available $13.4 billion in government loans from the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP), a $700 billion fund approved by Congress to aid the financial industry in the wake of the subprime mortgage crisis. The loans would allow the auto companies to continue operating through March 2009, when they were required to either demonstrate “financial viability” or return the money. An additional stipulation required the companies to undergo restructuring. The money was initially made available to General Motors and Chrysler Ford claimed to possess adequate funds to continue operations and thus did not apply for government relief.


Fiat CR44 - 3d printed plane

This a plane I've been working on for quite a while,
Modelled in solidworks with help from several threads on here, and made for 3d printing using inspiration from dirty dee's A330 build thread.
Never designed a plane from scratch and certainly never printed one, so how it will turn out who knows.

Plane is sized for parkjet type power system, as that's what I has laying about.
Wingspan 700mm.
Fuse length 643mm.
Weight of printed parts approx 550grams.
2212motor,
6x4 prop
5x 5g servos
25amp esc.
3 cell lipo, 2400mah.

Will add some pictures of the model and the 3d printed test parts I have so far.

Feel free to add comments, improvements, ideas,
Its all a learning curve.

Images

Wing will be printed in 4 parts.
Planned on wing sliding over the fuse, and bolted from underneath through the wing pod.
As it's only 700mm span the wings didn't really need to be detachable but wanted to try.

I currently have the fuse cut up as shown, but changes almost daily as its a work in progress.
Still need to add a battery tray.
Hatch and canopy are held on with magnets.

Images

Images

Printed a test canopy, tried to get the window line/edges in there, split it into 2 parts so can be printed with out support.

Have now changed it, so the canopy can be printed in one piece, the little tab on the end is now a seperate part, that will be glues into a slot on the back of canopy.

So there's a recess at the front for a small magnet and a tab at the back which slots into fuse. The inset lip around the base of the canopy sits inside the fuse.
All parts have 0.2mm clearance which seems to be working well so far.

Images

Underwing pod, again printed into 2 parts, although I may try doing it in one, for the other side.

Also notice that the front part of the pod is missing, not sure what happened to it, think I may have broke it off when removing the supports.

Images

Images

End section of the fuselage.
After the previous parts warped I thought I'd try the little feet similar to the ones dirty dee used on his jumbo.
Also added some little sacrificial supports for the guide rod tubes, and little gussets where the elevators and rudders attach.

This part came out flat, so I guess the feet worked, although I have lowered my print temp by 5degrees to 200.
The little feet and supports for the guide rods easily plucked of the print, and I used the filament cutters to cut the little gussets off.

Having the little sacrificial supports and gussets saved print time and material, because the supports didn't need to be printed from the bed upwards.


Watch the video: МасложорПлюсы и минусыFIAT DOBLO 2012. Отзыв владельца (February 2023).

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