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Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type AT-2 Transport 'Thora'

Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type AT-2 Transport 'Thora'


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Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type AT-2 Transport 'Thora'

The Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type AT-2 Transport was the designation given to a number of Army Ki-34 twin-engined transport aircraft that were handed over to the Japanese Navy.

The Nakajima Ki-34 began life in 1935 when the company began work on a smaller version of the Douglas DC-2. This aircraft was a civil transport aircraft, for use on smaller low-traffic routes, where a larger aircraft would be too expensive. The aircraft began life as the Nakajima AT-1 (Aerial Transport No.1), but by the time the design was complete in 1936 it had become the Nakajima AT-2 (Akegawa Transport No.2), named after its chief designer. After some teething problems were fixed the type entered production and 32 were built for civil use.

The type was then adopted by the Japanese Army, where it was given the designation Army Type 97 Transport, Ki-34. Nakajima built 19 Ki-34 and Tachikawa the remaining 299. Although most of these aircraft went to the Army, some were taken over by the Japanese Navy, where they were given the long designation Navy Type AT-2 Transport and the short designation Nakajima L1N1.

The L1N1 was a twin-engined aircraft of all metal construction apart from the fabric covers on the control surfaces. It was powered by two Nakajima Ha-1b nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, each providing 710hp at take off. It could carry a crew of three and eight passengers, so it was more useful as a staff transport and liaison aircraft than as a large-scale military transport.

Engine: Two Nakajima Ha-1b nine-cylinder air cooled radials
Power: 710hp
Crew: 3 plus 8 passengers
Span: 65ft 0 1/8in
Length: 50ft 2 3/8in
Height: 13ft 7 3/8in
Empty weight: 7,716lb
Loaded weight: 11,574lb
Max speed: 224mph at 11,025ft
Cruising speed: 193mph
Climb Rate: 6min 18sec to 9,840ft
Service ceiling: 22,965ft
Range: 745 miles


World War II Database


ww2dbase The Nakajima Aircraft Company had originally intended the AT-2 design to be a civilian transport, and indeed the first 32 examples built were operated by airliners Dai Nippon Koku KK and Manchukuo National Airways for routes between Tokyo, Japan and Xinjing, puppet state of Manchukuo Tokyo, Japan and Tianjin, occupied China and various airports within the puppet state of Manchukuo (these civilian airliners would remain in civilian service until the end of WW2). The demands of war soon led to a military variant of this transport aircraft, designated Ki-34 by Nakajima and Type 97 Transport by the Japanese Army. The first 19 military variants were built by Nakajima, but bulk of the production responsibility were then transferred to Tachikawa, which built a further 299 examples the Manshu Aircraft Company in Manchukuo also built a small number of examples. Production of Ki-34 aircraft ceased in 1942 after 351 examples were built, but they remained in service as transports, liaison aircraft, and paratrooper delivery aircraft until the end of the war. Later in the war, the Japanese Navy operated a small number of them the Japanese Navy designated them Type AT-2 Transport or L1N1 Transport.

ww2dbase The Allied code name for the Ki-34 design was "Thora".

ww2dbase Source: Wikipedia

Last Major Revision: Jul 2012

12 Sep 1936 The AT-2/Ki-34 aircraft took its first flight.

Ki-34

MachineryTwo Nakajima Kotobuki 2-1 9-cyl air-cooled radial engines rated at 710hp each
ArmamentNone capacity for 8 passengers
Crew3
Span19.81 m
Length15.30 m
Height4.15 m
Wing Area49.20 m²
Weight, Empty3,500 kg
Weight, Loaded5,250 kg
Speed, Maximum360 km/h
Speed, Cruising310 km/h
Service Ceiling7,000 m
Range, Normal1,200 km

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Operational history

Civil use (AT-2)

A total of 32 AT-2s were produced for Imperial Japanese Airways (Dai Nippon Koku KK) and Manchukuo National Airways, [2] operating on scheduled routes between Tokyo and Hsinking, Tokyo and Tianjin, and within Manchukuo. These aircraft remained in operational service until the surrender of Japan in August 1945.

Military history (Ki-34 and L1N1)

With a high demand for increased military transport capability after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army adapted the AT-2 design for military use by fitting with more powerful Nakajima Ha-1b radial engines and re-designating the aircraft as the Army Type 97 Transport and Ki-34. The initial 19 aircraft were produced by Nakajima Aircraft, and another 299 aircraft were subsequently produced by the Army-affiliated Tachikawa Hikoki K.K.. The final airframe was delivered in 1942.

In operational service, the Ki-34 was used as a utility aircraft for liaison and communications duties, and for paratrooper training and Special Forces operations.

At a later date, some aircraft were transferred to the Imperial Japanese Navy, where they were known as the Navy Type AT-2 Transport or Nakajima L1N1. Several were also transferred to the air force of the Japanese puppet state of China-Nanjing in 1942.


Thora is the feminine name of the Norse name Thor. The name means "thunder goddess." Ώ]

"Be a person you respect."

"Deviens une personne que tu pourras respecter."

"Sii una persona degna del tuo rispetto."


Japan

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#1 Rygar

Scout Aikoku Armored Car

The IJA armored car. Aikoku is the Chinese letters painted on the car. The proper name of this car is unknown. It is based on the Chiyoda 6-wheeled Type Q truck and it was called as Chiyoda QSW by the manufacturer. It was used by the Hyakutake unit in the Operation Nekka.

Dimensions: 5 x 1.9 x 2.6 (h) mt
Weight: 5.6 tons
Armament: 3x Type 11 6.5mm MG
Propulsion: Gasoline Engine, 75hp
Speed (Max): 60 km/hr
Armor (Max): N/A
Crew: 2

Repair vehicle Type 95 Ri-Ki

This vehicle had both tracks and wheels and it had a mechanism to move the wheels up and down, so it could change the mode between railway and track quickly (one minute to track mode and 3 minutes to railway mode). The width of the wheels could be changed in the narrow, standard and broad gauge. Ri-Ki was used in order to guard railways in Manchuria by railway engineers and some were also used in Burma. Ri-Ki is the engineer vehicle for field works. It had a 3-ton 4.5m-boomed crane.

Dimensions: 5.62 x 2.00 x 2.28(h) m
Weight : 7.8 tons
Armament: N/A
Propulsion: Gasoline Engine, 60 hp
Speed (Max): 32 km/hr
Armor (Max): 8mm
Crew: 3

Medium tank Type 97 Shinhoto Chi-Ha

After the idea of a heavy tank was dropped in the thirties, Japan started the development of a medium tank. The Chi-Ha, initially considered too costly, was preferred after that the outbreak of the war against China had put aside budgetary considerations. Well-adapted for a war against China, it proved to be quite inadequate against the Western or Russian tanks developed during the war. It remained the Japanese standard tank during the whole war. In order to improve the anti-tank capability of Chi-Ha, a new turret mounting a high-velocity 47mm gun was loaded on Chi-Ha. Shinhoto means 'New Turret' in Japanese. Its first service in action was at Corregidor Island of the Philippines in 1942. The defeat against the Russians at Kalkin Gol had shown the necessity for better medium tanks than the original Chi-Ha. Though it has been ready for several months, it only entered service in the spring of 1942, at a time when it was already outdated. The new turret was moved to the right of the vehicle and was equipped with a longer gun. That differentiate easily the Shinhoto from the original model which shared the same hull.

Dimensions: 5.5 x 2.34 x 2.38 (h) mt
Weight: 16 tons
Armament: 1x 47mm Type 1 Gun
Propulsion: Diesel Mitsubishi Type 97, 170 hp
Armor (Max): 25 mm
Speed (Max): 38 km/hr
Crew: 5

Tank destroyer Type 1 Ho-Ni III

A 7.5 cm L/38 gun, planned for the medium tank Chi-Nu and mounted in a closed combat compartment on the hull of a medium tank Type 97 Chi-Ha. The first Japanese assault guns entered in service in 1943, probably influenced by their Italian and German allies. They proved useful during the defensive battles in the Pacific during the last years of the war in Burma and in the Philippines. Ho-Ni III had a closed fighting compartment, while other Ho-Nis were open-topped.

Dimensions: 5.6 x 2.36 x 2.39 (h) mt
Weight: 15.8 tons
Armament: 1x 75mm L/38 gun
Propulsion: Diesel Mitsubishi, 170 hp
Armor (Max): 50 mm
Speed (Max): 38 km/hr
Crew: 5

Gas scattering Vehicle Type 94

The primary role of the Type 94 was to carry supplies in the battlefield area but it was often used in the reconnaissance role for which it was totally unsuited as its armor could be penetrated by ordinary rifle bullets. In 1936, each Japanese Infantry Division had a Tankette Company that had 6 Type 94s, for use in reconnaissance role. It was often used to tow a tracked ammunition trailer in a fashion similar to the British and French tankettes of this period. The Type 97 replaced the Type 92 in service. There was also a chemical/biological trailer constructed for this tank. Model 94 Tankette had a codename, "TK", which means "Tokushu (Special) Ken-in sha (Tractor)". The TK's true purpose was to pull the supply/toxic gas/bleaching powder (to counteract toxins) trailer.

Dimensions: 3.09 x 1.59 x 1.62 (h) mt
Weight: 3 tons
Armament: 1x 6.5mm, MG 1x Mustard gas scatter
Propulsion: Gasoline engine, 32 hp
Speed (max.): 40 km/hr
Armor (max.): 14 mm
Crew: 2

Anti aircraft Type 98 SPAAG

The Type 98 20mm AAG "Ho-Ki" is a well-known Japanese AAG. During the process of Ho-Ki's development and improvement, the Japanese Army produced some SPAAG types experimentally. The single AAG type had the codename "Ta-Se", which means "Taikuu (Anti-Air) Sensha (Tank)". Development of Ta-Se was based on the failure of Ki-To, so Ta-Se had circumferential protected turret. A trial product of Ta-Se was completed in November 1941, but adoption was canceled again, because the hit ratio of Ta-Se's AAG was inferior. Development of twin AAG type began in 1941, and was canceled in 1943. Completion would be planned in March 1944.

Dimensions: 4.78 x 2.19 x 2.58 (h) mt
Weight: 22 tons
Armament: 2x Type 2 20mm AA guns
Propulsion: Gasoline
Speed (Max): 42 km/hr
Armor (Max): 25 mm
Crew: 5

Mortar carrier Type 4 Ha-To

The Type 4 30cm SP Mortar "Ha-To" was developed in 1944. Ha-To had a Type 3 300mm Mortar Its chassis was converted from the prime mover "Chi-So" or "Chi-Ke". Its weight of projectile was 170kg and the effective range was 3000m. Ha-To was regarded as an effective vehicle, but it was not mass produced due to the progress of rocket artillery.

Weight: 15 tons
Dimensions: 6.8 x 2.4 x 2.75 (h) mt
Armor (max): 8 mm
Speed (max): 4 km/hr
Engine: Diesel Engine, 165 hp
Armament: 1x Type 3 300 mm Heavy Mortar, 1x Type 97 7.7 mm MG
Crew: 7

Heavy tank Type 4 Chi-To

Chi-To's development began in 1942, to succeed Shinhoto Chi-Ha. In the first plan, the hull would be modified type of Chi-Ha, and main armament would be high velocity 57mm ATG. The plan changed in July 1943, to arm with 75mm high velocity cannon (copy of Bofors M29 75mm AAG) to catch up with world standard specification. So, it was decided that Chi-To would be designed all over again - from the ground up. The first prototype was finished in May 1944. Owing to war material priorities and other factors, only 6 were ever completed. The Type 4 Chi-To was one of the best Japanese tanks with good armor and good fire-power, but it was introduced too late. Its gun was converted from Type 4 75mm AA Gun and can penetrate the front armor of M4 Sherman from 1,000m distance. This design never went beyond prototype before the war ended.

Dimensions: 6.34 x 2.86 x 2.86 (h) mt
Weight: 24 tons
Armament: 1x 75mm 75 mm Type 4 gun, 1x 7.7 mm MG
Propulsion: Diesel Mitsubishi Type 4, 400 hp
Speed (Max): 45 km/hr
Armor (Max): 75 mm
Crew: 5

Super heavy tank O-I

Heavy armored and heavy armed tank. It is said that one prototype was being manufactured when WWII ended. However, according to an engineer concerned with it, it had been completed and was disassembled for dispatching to Manchuria. No photo nor drawing of O-I is known. The O-I had three-turrets and weighed 120 tons. Its dimensions were 10 meters by 4.2 meters by 4 meters high. The armor was 200mm (MAX). The tank had a top speed of 25km/hr. This version a two gasoline engines developing 550 PS/1500 rpm. The O-I had 1 x 105mm Cannon, 1 x Type 1 37mm (in a forward mounted sub turret), and 3 x Type 97 7.7mm (one mounted in a forward sub turret) where as the Experimental version also mounted a Type 1 37mm in a rear facing sub turret.

Dimensions: 10 x 4.2 x 4 (h) mt
Weight: 120 tons
Armament: 1 x 105mm Cannon, 1 x Type 1 37mm (in a forward mounted sub turret), 3 x Type 97 7.7mm (one mounted in a forward sub turret), 1x Type 1 37mm in a rear facing sub turret
Propulsion: 2x Gasoline engines, 550 hp each
Speed (max): 25 km/hr
Armor (max): 200mm
Crew: 11

Armored Engineer Vehicle Soukou Sagyou Ki "SS-Ki"

SS had following nine functions (1)destruction of pillbox, (2) digging trench, (3)mine sweep, (4)destruction of wire entanglements, (5)disinfection, (6)scattering poison, (7)flamethrow, (8)crane, (9)smoke discharge, and a bridgelaying function was added later. On the upper photo, two stick-like projections in front of the vehicle and in the side of vehicle are flamethrowers. The wheels on the top of the hull are the device for loading a bridge.At first, SS was developed in order to destroy the Soviet pillbox in the border of Manchuria. However, during its development, many functions were added by the request of users. SS could achieved many functions by replacing the devices. Though SS had a lot of functions, most of them were insufficent and the really useful one was a bridgelayer only. First four SS were deployed in the 1st Independant Mixed Brigade and they executed the flamethrow in the battle near Peking on July 28th, 1937. It was the first time that SS saw the action. After that, SS was deployed in the special engineer regiment for SS, which was established for the service of the destruction of the Soviet pillbox. When the tank divisions were established, the engineer regiment for SS was taken over to the tank divisions. In tank divisions, SS was mainly used as a bridgelayer. When the 2nd Tank Division went to the Philippines in the last WWII, some SS were also sent there. The action of SS in the Philippines is not known, but eight SS were captured by Americans.

Dimensions: 4.865 x 2.52 x 2.088 (h) mt
Weight: 13 tons
Armament: 3x Flamethrowers, 1x Machine Gun
Propulsion: Diesel Engine, 145 hp
Speed (max): 37 km/hr
Armor (max): 25 mm
Crew: 5

Fighter Mitsubishi A6M8 Zero-Sen

The Mitsubishi A6M Zero Fighter was the finest shipboard fighter in the world during the first year of the Pacific War. It was the first shipboard fighter capable of defeating its land-based opponents. Its world-wide fame was won in a series of astounding victories against all types of land-based and carrier-based Allied aircraft during the first six months after Pearl Harbor. It took part in every major action in which the Japanese Navy was involved, from Pearl Harbor all the way to the final B-29 assault on Japan. It became a legend in its own time for its extremely good maneuverability and its exceptionally long range. Even today, the Zero remains for the Japanese and their erstwhile enemies alike the symbol of Japanese air power during the Pacific War. Despite the fact that it was largely obsolescent by mid-1943, it remained in production until the end of the war. More Zeros were built than any other type of Japanese aircraft, a total of 10,449 being built at Mitsubishi and Nakajima factories. The A6M8 was the last production version of the Reisen. Bomb damage to the Nakajima engine plants (as well as Nakajima's decision to decrease Sakae production in preparation for the production of the 18-cylinder Homare radial) had resulted in a shortage of the Sakae radial engines which had previously powered the Zero Fighter. Consequently, the Navy finally accepted Mitsubishi's proposal to use their more powerful MK8K Kinsei 62 (Ha-33/62) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine.
Manufacture of the Kinsei-powered A6M8 prototypes was finally approved in November 1944. The forward fuselage was completely redesigned to accommodate the 1560 hp Mitsubishi MK8P Kinsei 62, which had a larger diameter than the Sakae, requiring that the fuselage-mounted gun be removed. At the same time, the fuel tank fire-extinguishing system was improved, and additional fuel tankage was added. The fuselage centerline could carry a single 1100-lb bomb, and a pair of 77-Imp gall drop tanks could be carried underneath the wings.

Wing span: 10.81 mt
Lenght: 9.1 mt
Height: 3 mt
Weight (max): 3125.25 kg
Propulsion: 1x Mitsubishi MK8P Kinsei 62, 1560 hp
Speed (max): 596.6 km/h
Service ceiling: 11123 mt
Armament: 2x 13.2-mm Type 3 MG, 2x 20-mm Type 99 cannon in the wings.
Bomb load: 495 kg + additional 59.4 kg
Crew: 1

Interceptor Kyushu J7W Shinden

The "Shinden", if it had go further than the prototype status, would have been not only a formidable opponent to the allied air superiority, but also one of the most original plane of its time. It was one of the rare aircraft to adopt the canard configuation (with the rudder near the cockpit instead of near the tail) and a six-bladed push propeller behind the plane.
The program started in Yokosuka under the direction of Masaoki Tsuruno. The concept was first successfully tested on experimental gliders (the MXY6). The concept and the conceptors were transferred to Kyushu (the new name of Watanabe) to pursue the development works. The main qualification of the Kyushu for that task, was that it was less overworked than its competitors in the Japanese aircraft industries. The J7W1 was intended to be an interceptor fighter. First, the canard concept was tested with three MXY6 gliders, then a designing team with
captain Masaoki Tsuruno (Imperial Japanese Navy) developed the J7W1.
Two prototypes were built, the first had its first flight on august, 3rd 1945. The second was never tested. It was an all-metal construction with a full retractable landing gear and a six-blade-propeller. Quantity production was undertaken, but no production aircraft had been completed due to end of the war. The J7W2 version was planned to get a 900kp Ne-130 axial turbojet instead of the radial powerplant.

Wing span: 11.11 mt
Lenght: 9.66 mt
Height: 3.92 mt
Weight (max): 5228 kg
Propulsion: 1xMitsubishi MK9D [Ha-43], 2130 hp
Speed (max): 750 km/h
Service ceiling: 12000 mt
Armament: 4x 30mm Type 5 cannons
Bomb load: 2x 60 kg or 4x 30 kg bombs
Crew: 1

Air transport Nakajima Ki-34/L1N1 "Thora"

Originally designed as a civil transport, the Nakajima AT-2 was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1937 as the Ki-34. Later a number of these Army machines were transferred to the Imperial Navy and redesignated L1N1.

Wing span: 19.81 mt
Lenght: 15.3 mt
Height: 4.15 mt
Weight (Max): 5250 kg
Propulsion: 2x Nakajima Kotobuki-41, 71' hp each
Speed (Max): 360 km/h
Service ceiling: 7000 mt
Armament: N/A
Bomb load: N/A
Crew: 3

Bomber Nakajima G8N1 Renzan

Renzan was a four engine heavy bomber that was being developed by Nakajima for the Imperial Navy. Four prototypes were built, and four production models were in the works when the Navy decided to cancel production in June 1945 because there was no need for such a bomber at that date. Although some have said that the Renzan was the Japanese equivalent to the B-29, it was probably closer to the B-17 after which it was roughly modeled.

Wing span: 32.54 mt
Lenght: 22.94 mt
Height: 7.2 mt
Weight (Max): 32150 kg
Propulsion: 4x Nakajima NK9K-L "Homare-24", 2000 hp each
Speed (Max): 593 km/h
Service ceiling: 10200 mt
Armament: 6x 20mm cannons, 4x 12.7mm MG
Bomb load: 4000 kg
Crew: 10

Turbojet fighter/interceptor Nakajima Ki-201 Karyuu

The data for the Me262 jet intercepter were brought to Japan from Germany by 1944.
The fighter "Ki-201 Karyuu" was developed with Nakashima based on this data.
This project was the joint development of the imperial army and navy.
"Karyuu" expanded Me262. However, development progressed slowly.
Pacific war was ended at the moment when a production drawing was completed.

Wing span: 13.70 mt
Lenght: 11.50 mt
Height: 4.05 mt
Weight (max): 7000 kg
Propulsion: 2x Ishikawajima Ne-130 Turbojet, 908 kg each
Speed (max): 852 km/h
Service ceiling: over 12000 mt
Armament: 2x 30mm Type5 cannons, 2x 20mm Type99 cannons
Bomb load: 1x 800 kg
Crew: 1

Super heavy bomber Nakajima G10N1 Fugaku

In April of 1943, Nakajima undertook the study and design of just such a bomber and they did so on their own volition, not at the request of either the Navy or the Army air arms, although ultimately, the Navy would hold sway over the project. Entitled Project Z, Nakajima looked at the requirements for an aircraft able to attack the United States and it should not be a surprise that they looked to the Boeing B-29 as a basis to begin, given that it had the range and ability, which the Japanese could plainly see as those very planes bombed their cities. The work attracted the attention of the military and the data and concepts worked up by Nakajima formed the basis of an official inquiry jointly conducted by the Navy and Army. Initially, Nakajima wanted to use the powerful Nakajima Ha-505 thirty-six cylinder radial, mounting three per wing. Each would develop 5,000hp. But it was to be seen that the Ha-505 would not be available in any reliable form and the project could not wait for them to be ready and so six Nakajima NK11A radials would have to be used instead, each developing only 2,500hp. This settled on, the aircraft, now designated as the G10N1 Fugaku ( Mount Fuji ), began to emerge and take shape.
The G10N1 was a pretty impressive aircraft with capability close to and in many cases, exceeding the B-29. But the Japanese could ill-afford, like the Germans, to spend critical war assets on building such large aircraft when the usefulness of them was highly dubious by the time they would have appeared on the tarmac.
Unlike some of the other large bomber designs the Japanese were working on ( such as the Kawasaki Ki-91 and the Nakajima G8N Renzan ) which actually made it to the flightline or were in the process of tooling up for construction, the G10N1 did not have any metal cut on it, remaining forever in the advanced design stage as the war came to a close for Japan.

Wing span: 63 mt
Lenght: 40 mt
Height: 8.80 mt
Weight (max): 160000 kg
Propulsion: 6x Nakajima NK11A, 2500 hp each
Speed (max): 680 km/h
Service ceiling: over 10000 mt
Armament: 7x 20mm cannons
Bomb load: 20000 kg
Crew: 11

Destroyer Matsu class

The Matsu Class, approved in the 1942 Supplementary Programme was laid down 1943-1944 and completed between April 1944 and January 1945. Designed for simplicity and rapid construction, they were analogous to the American destroyer escorts, but much more heavily armed. The 6-21inchTT in a sextuple mounting originally proposed were dropped, and a quadruple 24-inch mounting installed. The light AA armament was increased to 28 or 29 x 25 mm by 1945. The two sets of machinery were arranged in separate units to prevent a single hit immobilizing the ship.

Displacement (Max): 1506 tons
Dimensions: 92.15 x 9.35 x 3.3 (lenght x beam x draft) mt
Propulsion: 2x shaft geared Kanpon turbines, 2x boilers, 19000shp shp
Speed (Max): 27.75 knots
Main Armament: 3 x 127/50mm cal (Model 1914) (1x2, 1x1)
Secondary Armament: 4x 610mm torpedo tubes 4x depth charge throwers
AA: 24 x 25mm/60 cal cannons
Crew: 150

Submarine Sen Toku (I-400) class

While Japan built many submarines that were larger than those of other Navies, the three Sen Toku boats were far larger than anything ever seen before. The most unusual feature was that they each carried three floatplane bombers (and parts for a fourth), a feat never achieved by any other class of submarine. These aircraft folded to fit into the 34.5 mt cylindrical hangar, which was slightly offset to starboard and opened forward to access the catapult. The huge double hull was formed of parallel cylindrical hulls so that it had a peculiar lazy-eight cross section, and may have inspired the Soviet Typhoon-class built some 40 years later. Although aircraft must be considered their primary armament, they also carried a formidable torpedo battery and the usual 14cm deck gun. Anti-aircraft armament included ten 25mm cannons in three triple mounts and one single. Each of these boats had radar and a snorkel. The aircraft were the Aichi M6A1 Seiran, also carried by the Type AM submarines. Each of these monoplanes could carry one aerial torpedo or a bomb weighing up to 800kg. Powered by the 1400hp Atsuta 32 engine (similar to Germany's DB601) they had a top speed of 295mph and were credited with a range of 642 nautical miles. The Sen Toku submarines carried four aerial torpedoes, three 800kg bombs, and twelve 250kg bombs to arm these aircraft. These aircraft had their assembly points coated with fluorescent paint to ease assembly in the dark, so four trained men could prepare an aircraft for launch in seven minutes. All three aircraft could be prepared, armed, and launched in 45 minutes. Unfortunately for Japan, the war situation deteriorated so rapidly that these boats were never allowed to show what they could do. On 26 July 1945, I-400 and I-401 set out on a combat mission to launch their aircraft in Kamikaze attacks on the American fleet anchorage at Ulithi. In coordination with a Kaiten attack, they were scheduled to launch early on 17 August, but by then hostilities had ceased. Both boats therefore returned to Japan and were surrendered to the Allies.

Displacement (max): 6560 tons
Dimensions: 120.9 x 11.79 x 6.9 (lenght x beam x draft) mt
Propulsion: 4x diesel engines, 7700 shp 2x electric motors, 2400 hp
Speed: 18.75 (surfaced), 6.5 (submerged) knots
Main Armament: 1x 140/50mm cannon
Secondary Armament: 8x 533.4mm (8 bow), 3x Aichi M6A1 Seiran aircrafts with 800 kg of bombs each
AA: 10x 25mm cannons in 3 triple mounts and 1 single
Crew: 144

Naval transport Type 4 Ka-Tsu

Ka-Tsu was the amphibious carrier of cargo or troops developed by IJN. The engine component and electric devices are watertight and it can be carried underwater by submarine.

Some Ka-Tsu's were equipped with two torpedoes on the deck. They were the special model to attack the Allied vessels at anchor in the Pacific atolls. However, the attack by Ka-Tsu was not carried out.

Displacement (max): 16 tons
Dimensions: 11 x 3.3 x 2.8 (lenght x beam x draft) mt
Propulsion: 1x Diesel Engine, 120 shp
Speed (max): 20 km/hr (ground), 8 km/hr (water)
Main Armament: 2x 13mm MG
Secondary Armament: 2x torpedoes
AA: N/A
Crew: 5 + 4 tons cargo or 40 men

Battleship Yamato class

Yamato, lead ship of a class of two 65.000-ton (over 72.800-tons at full load) battleships, was built at Kure, Japan. She and her sister, Musashi were by far the largest battleships ever built, even exceeding in size and gun caliber (though not in weight of broadside) the U.S. Navy's abortive Montana class. Their nine 460mm (18.1-inch) main battery guns, which fired 1460kg (3200 pound) armor piercing shells, were the largest battleship guns ever to go to sea, and the two ships' scale of armor protection was also unsurpassed. Commissioned in December 1941, just over a week after the start of the Pacific war, Yamato served as flagship of Combined Fleet commander Isoroku Yamamoto during the critical battles of 1942. During the following year, she spent most of her time at Truk, as part of a mobile naval force defending Japan's Centeral Pacific bases. Torpedoed by USS Skate (SS-305) in December 1943, Yamato was under repair until April 1944, during which time her anti-aircraft battery was considerably increased. She then took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June and the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October. During the latter action, she was attacked several times by U.S. Navy aircraft, and fired her big guns in an engagement with U.S. escort carriers and destroyers off the island of Samar. Yamato received comparatively light damage during the Leyte Gulf battle, and was sent home in November 1944. Fitted with additional anti-aircraft machine guns, she was based in Japan during the winter of 1944-45. Attacked by U.S. Navy carrier planes in March 1945, during raids on the Japanese home islands, she was again only lightly damaged. The following month, she was assigned to take part in the suicidal "Ten-Go" Operation, a combined air and sea effort to destroy American naval forces supporting the invasion of Okinawa. On 7 April 1945, while still some 200 miles north of Okinawa, Yamato was attacked by a massive force of U.S. carrier planes and sunk. Musashi, "sister" of the 65.000-ton battleship Yamato, was built at Nagasaki, Japan. Commissioned in August 1942, she was stationed at Truk from January 1943 into 1944 as part of a heavy force covering the Central Pacific against the threat of an American offensive. When the latter materialized, with the invasion of the Marshalls and raids by aircraft carrier planes against Japanese positions further west, Musashi's base was moved to the Palaus. She was torpedoed by the submarine USS Tunny (SS-282) on 29 March 1944, necessitating repairs in Japan, during which her anti-aircraft firepower was enhanced. In June 1944, with the torpedo damage repaired, Musashi took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Her next, and last, major operation was the Battle of Leyte Gulf, in which the Japanese surface navy made a final major effort to repulse the U.S. drive into the Western Pacific. On 24 October 1944, while en route to the prospective battle area off the Leyte landing beaches, Musashi and her consorts were attacked by hundreds of U.S. Navy carrier aircraft. In this Battle of the Sibuyan Sea, she was hit by some nineteen torpedoes and seventeen bombs. Though her heavy protection withstood this massive damage to a degree probably unsurpassed by any other contemporary warship, Musashi capsized and sank about four hours after she received her last hit.

Displacement (max): 72809 tons
Dimensions: 263.2 x 38.9 x 10.9 (lenght x beam x draft) mt
Propulsion: 12x Kanpon boilers, 4x Kanpon geared steam turbines, 4x shafts, 153533 shp
Speed (max): 27.46 knots
Main Armament: 9x 460mm/45 cal cannons Model 1934 in 3 triple turrets
Secondary Armament: 12 x 155mm/60 cal cannons Model 1914 in 4 triple turrets, 24 x 127mm/40 cannons cal Model 1928 in 12 twin turrets 2x Aichi E13A1 aircrafts, 2x Mitsubushi F1M2 aircrafts
AA: 146x 25mm/60 cal cannons
Armour: 200 mm (deck), 410 mm (side), 650 mm (turrets), 495.3 mm (control tower)
Crew: over 2500

Aircraft carrier Akagi class

The Akagi is very similar to the Kaga. The Akagi's keel was first laid down in December, 1920 as a battlecruiser of the Amagi class. When the Japanese signed the Washington Treaty, it wa decided to convert the Akagi to an aircraft carrier. Upon completion as a carrier, she looked very similar to the Kaga, which also had three flight decks when she was comleted as a carrier. Between 1935 to 1938 the Akagi was at Sasebo Naval Base going through a refit and modernization. She was fitted with one flight deck extending the length of the ship, and as something new, her bridge was placed on the port side of the ship along with a single funnel 275 feet long on starboard side. While in the Sasebo Naval yard for modernization the horsepower was increased from 131000 to 133000, four of the 203.2mm guns were removed, and the aircraft capacity was increased from 61 to 91. Later on the long rectangular funnel was removed and a squat funnel very similar to the Kaga's was added. The flight deck inclined downward slightly, fore and aft from a point one third of the length from the bow. The battle cruiser's machinery was basically retained. Smoke discharged via a large, downward-angled funnel supplemented by a smaller, upward-pointing stack further aft. The reason for this was to assist planes getting more speed during takeoff and to help them slow down more during landings. The Akagi served as the flagship of the Carrier Fleet under Admiral Nagumo. The Akagi was sunk by American planes at he Battle of Midway.

Displacement (max): 41300 tons
Dimensions: 260.7 x 31.3 x 8.7 (lenght x beam x draft) mt
Propulsion: 19x Kampon type B Boilers, 4x Gihon Turbines, 4x shafts, 133000 shp
Speed (max): 31.2 knots
Main Armament: 6x203/50mm Type I cannons
Secondary Armament: 91x Aircrafts
AA: 12x 120/45mm cannons, 28x25/60mm cannons, 22x13,2mm cannons
Armour: 71mm (deck), 53mm (flightdeck), 254 mm (side), 163.5 mm (conning tower)
Crew: 2000

Suicide motorboat Maru Re

Maru-Re is the motorboat loading a 250kg explosive charge. It was possible to drop a charge near an enemy ship and return, but the most crews selected to crash against an enemy ship. In Jan., 1945, Maru-Re first saw action and sunk several US vessels in the Gulf of Lingayen, Philippines.

Displacement (max): 0.83 tons
Dimensions: 5.6 x 1.8 x ? (lenght x beam x draft) mt
Propulsion: Gasoline engine, 70 shp
Speed (max): 24 knots
Main Armament: 250 kg of explosive
Secondary Armament: N/A
AA: N/A
Armour: N/A
Crew: 1

Field howitzer Type 89 15cm

Type 89 was the main gun of the IJA heavy artillery units. It was widely used from the Manchurian Incident to the end of WWII, for example, Nomonhan, Bataan and Corregidor Island, Okinawa.

Caliber: 149.1mm
Barrel weight: 10422 kg
Length: 5963 meters
Weight of the projectile: 40.2 kg
Muzzle velocity: 734 meters per second
Range: 18100 meters

AA gun 120mm Type 3

Heavy antiaircraft gun developed by the Japanese Navy towards the end of the war. This AA was developed in order to protect the major cities in Japan proper from the air raid. It was deployed at cities by small numbers.

Caliber: 120 mm
Length: 6.71 meters
Weight of the projectile: 23.4 kg
Muzzle velocity: 20500 meters
Range: 20500
Ceiling: 14000 meters

AT field gun Type 1 47mm

After the Nomonhan Incident, IJA started the development of new AT, considering that Type 94 would be ineffective against Soviet new tanks. However, Type 1 was late to the openning of the Pacific War and Japanese infantries had to fight desperately against Allied M3 Light Tank.
This AT was also used as the main gun of Shinhoto Chi-Ha.
Type 1 was insuffienct against Allied Medium Tank M3 or M4, but Japan failed to develop the successor of Type 1. Type 1 was used until the end of WWII.

Caliber: 47 mm
Length: 2.5265 meters
Weight of the projectile: 1.5 kg
Muzzle velocity: 830 meters per second
Range: 6900 meters


How to Care For Your Thoracic Vent

  • Your Thora-Vent should touch your body directly. No part of the catheter (tube) should be visible. If your catheter is visible, call your healthcare provider right away.
  • If the adhesive wings start to separate from your skin, use tape to secure them in place. Don’t put tape on the chamber.
  • Don’t change the position or remove your vent at any time. If your vent moves out of place, call your healthcare provider right away. In the meantime, you can put the Vaseline ® gauze that your nurse gave you over the site with clean, dry gauze on top of it. Tape them to your skin.
    • Your healthcare provider may instruct you to go to your local emergency room or to the Urgent Care Center (UCC) at Memorial Sloan Kettering. The UCC is located at:
    • If your vent drains fluid, call your healthcare provider’s office right away.
      • If this happens, you may need to connect your vent to a drainage bag. To remove the fluid, open the valve at the bottom of the drainage bag and pour it into the toilet. If you need to do this, your healthcare provider will give you more information.

      Your healthcare provider will check your Thora-Vent at your next clinic appointment.

      Showering with your vent

      You can shower, but it’s important to keep your vent dry.

      • Cover your vent with a waterproof dressing (such as AquaGuard ® ) before you get in the shower.
      • Use a hand-held showerhead if you have one. A hand-held showerhead can help direct the water away from your vent.

      If your vent gets a little wet, dry it with a towel. If you submerge your vent in water, call your healthcare provider.

      Do not take a bath, use a hot tub, go swimming, or submerge yourself in water while your vent is in place.

      How to use an AquaGuard waterproof dressing

      Follow the instructions below to put an AquaGuard waterproof dressing over your Thora-Vent before you shower. Make sure the AquaGuard sticks to your skin, not to your vent.

      Figure 2. Folding the AquaGuard tape

      • Peel off the top strip of tape and place the top edge of the AquaGuard above your vent. Press down firmly so it sticks to your skin.
      • Peel off one of the side strips of tape and press that edge against your skin. If there’s any extra material, pinch it together so it forms a pleat and fold it down.
      • Repeat step 4 with the opposite side of the AquaGuard.
      • Repeat step 4 with the bottom of the AquaGuard.

      To remove the AquaGuard, start at the top left or right corner and gently peel the AquaGuard down. Try to peel it in the same direction that your hair is growing. Be careful not to pull on your vent.

      Exercising with your vent

      You can exercise while wearing your Thora-Vent. Doing mild exercises, such as walking and climbing stairs, will help you gain strength and feel better.

      You can also do breathing exercises to help expand your lungs, including:

      • Coughing and deep breathing exercises. A member of your care team will teach you how to do these exercises.
      • Using your incentive spirometer every 2 hours while you’re awake.
        • For more information, read How to Use Your Incentive Spirometer.
        • For more information, read How to Use Your Aerobika®.

        My Soul to Take

        This was so confusing. I have nothing more to say honestly. The person who could have committed the murder changes like 10 times and the person who did it. I just don&apost even get it. My brain hurts. This took me about 2 days to finish because it was just a lot of boring dialogue. I don&apost know if I will try the next book in the series or not. It&aposs a shame too since the prologue was very good and intriguing. You are plopped down into a murder that is about to happen and the victim is a little gir This was so confusing. I have nothing more to say honestly. The person who could have committed the murder changes like 10 times and the person who did it. I just don't even get it. My brain hurts. This took me about 2 days to finish because it was just a lot of boring dialogue. I don't know if I will try the next book in the series or not. It's a shame too since the prologue was very good and intriguing. You are plopped down into a murder that is about to happen and the victim is a little girl. It takes a while for all of the pieces to come together though and I kept getting some characters confused.

        "My Soul to Take" follows Thora after she is asked to come stay at a hotel over the weekend to help her client with filing a possible suit against the owners of the land he bought. The client (Jonas) claims the hotel is haunted and guests can hear a crying child. While Thora is away from her family for a much needed break, a woman is found murdered and raped. When Thora's client starts to be investigated, she and her partner (I guess?) Matthew decide to dig in and see who else could be responsible for the murder.

        Thora is kind of aggravating, and I don't like Matthew's character at all. That's all I got.

        I wanted to read something taking place in Iceland, but unlike the first book, the setting of this one feels blank to me. I wanted to know more about the area that Thora was at while investigating. Reading what she was digging through and finding was driving me up the wall after a while.

        I did think the ending was sad though. I just thought the writing and flow were just not good enough to keep me fully engaged with the book. I was really glad to be done with this one. . more

        Thora Gudmundsdottir has some problems. To wit they include (a) her son got his girlfriend pregnant (b) her two children hate spending time with their father (her e husband) because he plays the Icelandic version of Guitar Hero too much, (c) her secretary (d) her relationship with Matthew and, finally, (e) her client who is charged with a murder and who is considering legal action about a land deal because the place might be haunted.

        Iceland is apparently like England in this regard.

        Thora Gudmundsdottir has some problems. To wit they include (a) her son got his girlfriend pregnant (b) her two children hate spending time with their father (her e husband) because he plays the Icelandic version of Guitar Hero too much, (c) her secretary (d) her relationship with Matthew and, finally, (e) her client who is charged with a murder and who is considering legal action about a land deal because the place might be haunted.

        Iceland is apparently like England in this regard.

        The ghost is, of course, connected to the mystery of who killed the architect of Thora’s client’s hotel/spa/New Age Retreat, not to mention the guy who got stomped to death by an Icelandic Horse.

        Thora also has a problem with the trailer she brought. She’s a bit rash that way.

        And I think that is why this book actually works. Thora is just so weird and normal. She might live in Iceland but any reader will know at least one family like hers. The mystery itself does have to do with families and stories, so it too ties into the normalcy despite the almost craziness of the situation.
        . more

        I chose this book because the writer is Icelandic. I&aposm on a European author streak. I&aposm choosing to read a book by an author of each european country and even though I&aposm not choosing the obvious, I tend to find good reviews and recommendations.
        I read a review about "Ashes to dust" which was published in English this August, and the reviewer was very enthusiastic about her.

        Unfortunately this book was disappointing. I ploughed through it because the central intrigue was well conceived but nothing I chose this book because the writer is Icelandic. I'm on a European author streak. I'm choosing to read a book by an author of each european country and even though I'm not choosing the obvious, I tend to find good reviews and recommendations.
        I read a review about "Ashes to dust" which was published in English this August, and the reviewer was very enthusiastic about her.

        Unfortunately this book was disappointing. I ploughed through it because the central intrigue was well conceived but nothing else could pull the novel together. The main character, a lawyer who "sticks out her tongue" when her boyfriend teases her, has some detective skills and nothing characterises her as a lawyer except when the author reminds us. The rest of the time she is questioning other characters, and conducting a murder investigation as if she were a real detective. This leaves me puzzled, why didn't the author just make her a detective?

        When elements in a novel lack credibility, from characters to timelines, to situations, the case or mistery is not enough to make a good book. Everything seemed forced, when something didn't have a reasonable explanation, the next paragraph magically offered an answer.
        When the character was -out of character- there were bits of information sprinkled in a line or two that seemed to pull it back into some coherence.

        Sadly I don't think I could endure another Thóra Gudmundsdóttir mystery.
        . more

        4.0 out of 5 stars -- A chilling and absorbing read -- Nordic noir.

        The second book in this series featuring the lawyer Thóra Gudmundsdóttir and her lover, Matthew Reich, is just as absorbing and interesting as the first. The setting is modern day Iceland, almost a character in itself, with its uniqueness and history. In this mystery, Thora is asked to represent the owner of a New Age spa and resort who wants to sue the previous owners who he claims misrepresented the old farmstead and sold him a 4.0 out of 5 stars -- A chilling and absorbing read -- Nordic noir.

        The second book in this series featuring the lawyer Thóra Gudmundsdóttir and her lover, Matthew Reich, is just as absorbing and interesting as the first. The setting is modern day Iceland, almost a character in itself, with its uniqueness and history. In this mystery, Thora is asked to represent the owner of a New Age spa and resort who wants to sue the previous owners who he claims misrepresented the old farmstead and sold him a haunted property. Although Thora doesn't hold with the supernatural, she goes to stay at the health resort in Snaefellsnes and is immediately drawn into an different sort of investigation there when the owner, Jonas, is accused of the murder of the architect who was working for him after her mutilated body is found on the beach nearby. As Thora starts digging into the case, she unearths some photos and information about the brothers, their wives and children who had lived on and owned the farmstead property many years ago. Then a second person is murdered. Thora and Matthew must figure out why these two were killed and who committed the crimes.

        With a huge cast of characters and with the Icelandic names, it can be a feat just to keep everyone straight! But alternate point of view narration provides some clues that there is much more going on here than first thought. The mystery is well-plotted and complex with mutiple red herrings and I was glad not to be able to be sure that my guesses were correct until the final few chapters. I like the personality and character of Thóra Gudmundsdóttir -- divorced mother of two, about to be a grandmother. She's snarky and intense, definitely not damaged, and has a good sense of humor. I enjoy all the details about Iceland and its culture and landscape. I like the writing style and the translation flows nicely as well.

        This is the third book by this author that I've read (#1, #2 and #5) and I have plans to read #3 and #4 as soon as I can get hold of copies. I really like this series. I guess you could say I'm hooked on crime fiction and the unusual setting.

        Please send me any recommendations of other authors/series of this type and unique settings. . more

        Ever since I “discovered” Yrsa Sigurdardottir’s books a year ago when I picked up the Children’s House series, I have been steadily reading my way through all her previous books and absolutely loving each and every one of them. MY SOUL TO TAKE was no exception, and I look forward to reading all the others in the Thora Gudmundsdottir series.

        I am happy to say that this books contains all the elements that I love so much in Sigurdardottir’s writing – there is the hallmark remote atmospheric setting Ever since I “discovered” Yrsa Sigurdardottir’s books a year ago when I picked up the Children’s House series, I have been steadily reading my way through all her previous books and absolutely loving each and every one of them. MY SOUL TO TAKE was no exception, and I look forward to reading all the others in the Thora Gudmundsdottir series.

        I am happy to say that this books contains all the elements that I love so much in Sigurdardottir’s writing – there is the hallmark remote atmospheric setting, a spooky element, a bunch of well-rounded characters and of course some gruesome murders. You could almost describe MY SOUL TO TAKE as a “closed door mystery”, as it all takes place in a remote hotel in the Snaefellsnes region, where the barren and eerie landscape lends itself perfectly not only to the murders but also to the strange noises in the night of a child crying inconsolably. Since access to the hotel had been cut off during the murder due to roadworks that made the drive impassable, the list of suspects is contained to patrons of the hotel or local residents in the small village nearby. But if you think that will make the task easier, you are wrong – this is one clever killer, and the motive may not be as clear cut as suspected. Lucky for the police, Thora Gudmundsdottir is on the case, since the hotel belongs to one of her clients who has called her to investigate the claims that the hotel grounds are haunted, which has been hurting his business.

        I loved the way Sigurdardottir manages to infuse her story with so many elements that made it both entertaining and interesting. Since the present murders seem to be connected to events of the past, we also learn some of Iceland’s history on our journey. Sigurdardottir drew me immediately into the story with a chilling first paragraph and it consumed me until I knew all the answers. I can’t wait to read the next in the series!

        Prepare to be spooked and chilled in Iceland’s chilly landscape…..

        The Snæfellsnes is also known as Iceland in Miniature, because many national sights of Iceland that are popular and well known are actually located here including the Snæfellsjökull volcano. You can see it quite clearly fro the capital city Reykjavik on a good day and another exciting fact – its the setting of the novel Journey to the Centre of The Earth by Jules Ve Prepare to be spooked and chilled in Iceland’s chilly landscape…..

        The Snæfellsnes is also known as Iceland in Miniature, because many national sights of Iceland that are popular and well known are actually located here including the Snæfellsjökull volcano. You can see it quite clearly fro the capital city Reykjavik on a good day and another exciting fact – its the setting of the novel Journey to the Centre of The Earth by Jules Verne!

        Well, if you of a nervous disposition you may want to skip certain parts when reading this as, well, the sound of babies crying in the fog for example is not something you forget easily.

        The supernatural theme in this book is quite fascinating though so I persevered as there’s something about a building on the old grounds of an area which has a strange and spooky history.

        The air of strange and gruesome goings on starts when you realise just how the victim has been found murdered. Even before I got to that point though – the very first chapter seen through the eyes of a small frightened child was perhaps one of the most chilling for what it leads to.

        I’m amazed I was able to continue reading - as vivid as my imagination is – but I had to know what happened to her!

        The book is interesting on so many levels – the Icelandic setting is only one of them – but the culture and heritage as well as the mythology alluded to is quite interesting and there were many things I felt I discovered from the book. The role of Nazism in Iceland during the war was one.

        Bbrrrrr Iceland is very chilly indeed!
        . more

        Another chilling mystery by Yrsa Sig. I am so excited for this one.

        My predictions were true. Another totally awesome thriller by one of the best mystery crime author Yrsa Sig. This like the before of this series had small time lawyer Thora solving another crime relating to one of her client alongside her on and off lover Mathew. It was not disappointing at all. Awesome book with a good plot base in Iceland. Only problem how she kept ignoring or more like not caring about her children who r Another chilling mystery by Yrsa Sig. I am so excited for this one.

        My predictions were true. Another totally awesome thriller by one of the best mystery crime author Yrsa Sig. This like the before of this series had small time lawyer Thora solving another crime relating to one of her client alongside her on and off lover Mathew. It was not disappointing at all. Awesome book with a good plot base in Iceland. Only problem how she kept ignoring or more like not caring about her children who ran away from home with a heavily pregnant girl. Well other than this was cool ) . more

        I’m not a fan of serials, but knew I was going to continue with this one as soon as I finished book one. Yeah, it took some time to warm up to Thora and I’m not even going to try to make Icelandic joke out of it, she’s something of a stick in a mud at times, but she gets in the most darkly fascinating adventures. And the exotic quality of the locale can’t be beat. In fact, it becomes something of a character in and of itself, providing excellent and aptly eerie atmosphere.
        This novel doesn’t gi I’m not a fan of serials, but knew I was going to continue with this one as soon as I finished book one. Yeah, it took some time to warm up to Thora and I’m not even going to try to make Icelandic joke out of it, she’s something of a stick in a mud at times, but she gets in the most darkly fascinating adventures. And the exotic quality of the locale can’t be beat. In fact, it becomes something of a character in and of itself, providing excellent and aptly eerie atmosphere.
        This novel doesn’t give Thora a lot of time to rest, taking up some months after the first one ended and just in time, since she already spent all of her money of an SUV and a camping trailer. When an opportunity to visit a client who owns and operates a luxury retreat arises, Thora goes for it, it practically sounds relaxing…organic food, massages, etc. But of course, of course, things get murderously complicated almost immediately and soon her client stands accused of murder while the past all around the seemingly quiet area suddenly decides to unbury itself in a very disturbing ways.
        Which is pretty much what you’d expect with a novel whose prologue reads like a scene from a certain Japanese/later American scary franchise.
        Stick in a mud or not, you gotta give it to Thora, she is diligent, stubborn, smart, she is exactly the sort of person her client is fortunate to have on his side as she sets off to uncover the long buried local secrets, covered up Nazi connections, murders, etc. With her perennially good natured visiting new boyfriend as a sidekick, Thora makes quite a detective…for a lawyer or otherwise. She’s also about to become a grandma at the freakishly young age of 36 or 37, due to some interesting multigenerational reproductive choices. It’s a lot to juggle and she’s doing a great, circus worthy, job of it.
        Much as with the previous novel, the author’s flirtations with the supernatural genres come through, this time in some ghostly child’s cries. That’s always fun. Maybe one day these mysteries will take that even further. For now though, they offer plenty. No matter how the protagonist strikes you, you gotta admire the intricate plotting, the clever twists and turns and the sheer excellence of just how unpredictable and exciting of a narrative the author spins. It’s all the things you’d want in a dark psychological thriller and it’s genuinely thrilling to boot. Very enjoyable, very entertaining, very good. Recommended.

        My Soul To Take
        By Yrsa Siguroardottir
        Translated by Bernard Scudder & Anna Yates
        2009
        William Morrow

        Set in modern day Iceland, in this absorbing page turner Thora Gudmundsdottir is a lawyer hired to represent the owner of a New Age spa and resort who wants to sue the previous owner because they feel the place is haunted and were not told. Thora immediately leaves for a stay at the spa and is drawn into a murder investigation of the owner, Jonas, accused of the murder of an architect. The mutilate My Soul To Take
        By Yrsa Siguroardottir
        Translated by Bernard Scudder & Anna Yates
        2009
        William Morrow

        Set in modern day Iceland, in this absorbing page turner Thora Gudmundsdottir is a lawyer hired to represent the owner of a New Age spa and resort who wants to sue the previous owner because they feel the place is haunted and were not told. Thora immediately leaves for a stay at the spa and is drawn into a murder investigation of the owner, Jonas, accused of the murder of an architect. The mutilated body is found on the beach with no real clues. Then a second body is found. This is a book that will keep you guessing. The plot is powerful and seductive. Multiple twists and clues dropped, but the truth is not revealed until the last few chapters. Excellent noir mystery, the details of Iceland's culture and landscape added much to this thriller.
        Recommended. . more

        I really didn&apost like this one at all and even took to skimming towards the end, but she gets a star for good prose style. If you are ok with that sort of silly, burlesque humor (such as Ruth Rendell, for example, can get into -- someone I know describes it as &apostongue in cheek&apos), then you may like this one just fine. Unfortunately, it drives me crazy. So that was part of the problem. There were dopey gags like her 15 yo son walking out of his father&aposs house with his 8 yo sister and his about-to-g I really didn't like this one at all and even took to skimming towards the end, but she gets a star for good prose style. If you are ok with that sort of silly, burlesque humor (such as Ruth Rendell, for example, can get into -- someone I know describes it as 'tongue in cheek'), then you may like this one just fine. Unfortunately, it drives me crazy. So that was part of the problem. There were dopey gags like her 15 yo son walking out of his father's house with his 8 yo sister and his about-to-give-birth 15 yr old girlfriend, taking the mother's trailer, in spite of not having a license, because his father's karaoke singing (on the sisters toy machine) was irritating him. And the main character, their mother, in one breath says "I'd better see to my children's safety. They're the most important thing in my life" and in another completely blows them off, not picking them up as planned, saying "oh, they'll be alright". Weird.

        Another problem was that the whole set up was too off the wall unrealistic. The main character investigating is a lawyer named Thora. She doesn't work with the police but mostly in opposition to them, doing her own investigation, stealing key evidence because she's curious about it, conducting her own interviews on the thin pretext that she's a lawyer helping her client out, and proceeds to ask the most probing investigative questions - and everyone opens right up to her (unless they're obviously blocking her - which, if they do that, they do with a vengance!). The result of all this is that she never has all the evidence and the police never have all the evidence, so instead of cogently solving a crime, you end up trailing around with this woman as she bounces through her comical life. It ends up feeling wasteful of time and frustrating.

        Another anomaly: In pretty much any crime novel in the world, the scene of a horrific crime is secured, people (especially in a setting like a hotel where people come and go) are interviewed right away, and action is at least begun in a meaningful way right away. Not here. These police lolly gag around and barely try get out to start investigation on a crime that happened on a Thurs until the following Monday! They collect some tantalizing evidence but you never see their thought process, their crime-solving. You instead bounce back to Thora, who goes on and on in her crazy way. She's utterly inexperienced at criminal law, but does she try to help this client who could die because of her ineptitude? No. In that burlesque humor - that silly style - she instead sort of laughs and shrugs and says 'oh well' and hopes her client doesn't find her out. It left me saying "oh for heaven's sake!" way too much. And I got really bored as she dragged round and round with incomplete information.

        The storyline itself was pretty interesting (I won't put out any spoilers), and so if you can stand the other issues with plotting and character, it could be a good read. Personally I couldn't get over what I thought were its flaws. . more

        Iceland&aposs perhaps best known accidental detective, Thora, investigates ghosts and two deaths in a holistic spa in the rural Ireland.
        World, or those who missed Last Rituals, meet Thora: a single mum and lawyer, 40ish, who is definitely not your standard alcoholic loose cannon detective. Imagine an adult Nancy Drew. a single mum Nancy Drew who&aposs much more a 40 year old Bridget Jones (charm, clumsy awkward things she says, thinks, wears, and does). gone Angela Lansbury. With her, like in the fi Iceland's perhaps best known accidental detective, Thora, investigates ghosts and two deaths in a holistic spa in the rural Ireland.
        World, or those who missed Last Rituals, meet Thora: a single mum and lawyer, 40ish, who is definitely not your standard alcoholic loose cannon detective. Imagine an adult Nancy Drew. a single mum Nancy Drew who's much more a 40 year old Bridget Jones (charm, clumsy awkward things she says, thinks, wears, and does). gone Angela Lansbury. With her, like in the first book, is her German boyfriend Matthew, and her kids.

        Thora gets a nice break of her typical cases involving e.g. older folks who don't like the Icelandic rules of where the opening for mail delivery should be located on the door when a friend and client asks her to investigate ghosts and bad spirits in his holistic spa far away from everything. Since that'll be a nice break she accepts, and soon she finds herself investigating the death of the architect who was planning the renovation of the hotel. I still don't know if the book, like the first one, is supposed to funny, or is it just me who finds Thora like soaps in TV seeing how she's awful in mostly anything (financially a disaster, and has no problems when her 15 years old son knocked up a 14 year old girl, and who now drives her SUV and winnebago she can't afford, without a licence. for which the legal age in Iceland is 18 by the way. That's just a few examples), she makes everyone else feel good about themselves. The story is again told much from Thora's point of view, so there are plenty of moments when you'd want to smack her, but it's getting better. The story has good elements, lots of interesting characters that could work in a lot of twisted ways for the resolution. The location, Iceland, the bits of myths and history are interesting too.

        Yet for a while again I was wondering why I read the book. Well, I had got this book before I read the first one (I wasn't that impressed with the first one, by the way). It has still the same kind of awkward and funny pieces in both Thora's thinking or her dialogs, and in the general telling that I did add on the first book's notes. Thora's still awful. But it had it's grace - the elements and possibilities in the story, some of the delicious and way more interesting characters than Thora. But it still had also Thora, and it still felt too much of a Bridget and a bad soap. If Thora was ever to be made in films or TV series, I'd want to see either a really fattened up Renee Zellweger or a fat version of Amanda Freitag (from Chopped in Food Network) play her, as I can' t think of any ladies to do the bridgetness better. . more

        I&aposm a fan. Reading them out of order, I come back to #2 in the Thora series. This one is "away from home" and Thora&aposs client has trouble after a large land sale. They want recompense in value the site of their spa hotel seems haunted.

        But that&aposs not the crux of difficulty, unless a ghost is killing people. Thora has also managed to escape from Mom duty and kinder nurturing- well, at least for a couple of days. Hannes (ex-husband) will fill in. NOT!

        Others will think these slow and rather staid. I'm a fan. Reading them out of order, I come back to #2 in the Thora series. This one is "away from home" and Thora's client has trouble after a large land sale. They want recompense in value the site of their spa hotel seems haunted.

        But that's not the crux of difficulty, unless a ghost is killing people. Thora has also managed to escape from Mom duty and kinder nurturing- well, at least for a couple of days. Hannes (ex-husband) will fill in. NOT!

        Others will think these slow and rather staid. Not the crimes, nor the criminals as much as the lawyer and her German banker. But I think, just the opposite. Although this particular plot is not shabby either.

        Iceland, wit and the dogged nature of Thora's relentless inquiry and nosiness! Three winning pulls of connection. Yes, there is more quantity in proportion Miss Marple than Dirty Harry. And yet the number of priceless quotes and asides are greater than either, IMHO. In this one she gives about 5 of those back to Matthew who clearly seems he is taking more than a vacation?

        All three kids step up to the plate too, and at the same time become 4 upon the return home to Reykjavik. Another lesson on why, if you receive a large cash bonus case reward, you don't go and blow it all on a trailer for use on your future dreamed, rosy colored glasses possible family outings.

        Thora is late 30's in this one. I do think you need to have some life experience re decades of reversals, or have walked years upon the parenthood tightrope to get her. IMHO, these Yrsa Siguaroardottir books featuring Thora Guomundsdottir won't much appeal to the younger adult set. Possibly I am prejudice, but I don't think her nervy, blunt, "because I said so" attitude, would translate. And not only from Icelandic, either.

        Also, I should warn. All of these Thora books start out with a rather grim to gruesome first 4 or 5 pages, that you know little about or have any context to for the first half of the book. I do not like that chewy nasty level as these absolutely are. But they do set the stage. Regardless, 80% of the book has far less aspect of noir shock than in the first few pages. The best is in the middle to the ending. Slow and minute to minute, similar to actual life. No perp closure in 3 hours or 3 days in a Thora case. Closer to a sleepless 4 hour down and 1 hour to go colic night while walking a hallway so the other ones don't wake up. So not the kind of "action" you'll see on Cop TV. . more

        Hearing babies cry in the fog and shadowy images of young girls in mirrors can be chalked up to skittish nerves and flights of fancy, not ghosts, as far as Thora Gudmundsdottir, single mother and attorney at law is concerned. Her client, Jonas, on the other hand is a true believer and he has promised her an all expenses paid indulgent weekend at his New Age resort if she will come and see these supernatural occurrences for herself.

        She travels to the newly renovated health resort that was erecte
        Hearing babies cry in the fog and shadowy images of young girls in mirrors can be chalked up to skittish nerves and flights of fancy, not ghosts, as far as Thora Gudmundsdottir, single mother and attorney at law is concerned. Her client, Jonas, on the other hand is a true believer and he has promised her an all expenses paid indulgent weekend at his New Age resort if she will come and see these supernatural occurrences for herself.

        She travels to the newly renovated health resort that was erected on the grounds of an old farmhouse with a bizarre history. Thora barely settles into her posh room when the resort’s architect is found murdered. Her body found bludgeoned, raped and with pins inserted into the souls of her feet is but the first victim that will suffer such hideous degradation.

        Thora quashes her doubts of the continuing eerie events and delves into the disturbing secrets of the past to discover who is responsible for the macabre killings in this chilling, Icelandic thriller.

        From prologue to epilogue My Soul to Take by Yrsa Sigurdardottir keeps you fastened in your seat!

        I admittedly stuttered over the names of most of the characters (well, and the author’s too), but forged on because the storyline was so fascinating. She conveys the culture and atmosphere of Iceland with finesse and her heroine, Thora, has the doggedness of someone I would definitely want in my legal corner if the need ever arose.

        This is the second book in the Thora Gudmundsdottir series. It is has warranted not only keeping a lookout for the next in the series, but seeking out the first as well.


        Re: Aircraft Unit Identification

        Post by Luftflotte2 » 20 Apr 2011, 01:50

        Correction: it is the 2nd Genzan Kokutai a much smaller unit than the the 1st Genzan Kokutai.

        1. D4Y3 of the 601st Kaigun Kokutai. Can anyone tell me anything about this unit.
        2. D4Y3 of the 502nd Kaigun Kokutai. This aircraft is based at Hokkaido, spring 1944.

        Re: Aircraft Unit Identification

        Post by Luftflotte2 » 20 Apr 2011, 02:51

        Re: Aircraft Unit Identification

        Post by Sewer King » 20 Apr 2011, 06:42

        The 45th Bomber Sentai never had Ki-43s, also it never had a lighting bolt for a symbol. Earlier on in this thread I posted aircraft that were of the 45th Sentai.

        I have yet to find a unit with a lighting bolt that is similar to this aircraft. It seems to be in yellow though.

        The red I used for penciling around what looks the lightning in the Ki-43's weathered tail close-up had no real bearing in itself. In fact some might not even agree with the shape as I penciled it.

        The banded planes are Nakajima Type Ko-3 fighters, licensed copies of the French Nieuport 24.C1. These planes had first been imported as early as 1917, and their copies served as both Army fighters and trainers through the mid-1920s. However, the unbanded plane to their left is a Ho-1 (SPAD XIII) -- does it look painted in camouflage?

        Interestingly, the Ko-3s entered service in 1922 to replace the Ho-1. Light weight and maneuverability of the Nieuport design decided the IJA for it over British Sopwith and other French planes, and early on it helped set the Japanese emphasis on those qualities. The two types appearing together here might roughly date this photo by years, if not better told elsewhere.

        ( cf. Mikesh and Abe, Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941 (Putnam Aeronautical, 1990), page 210-211 )

        I have the impression that "aggressor" or "West" forces for IJA war games usually wore white bands only, while the "defender" or "East" forces wore no bands. If the Ko-3s' colored bands are for recognition, none can be seen on the biplane wings (or at least their upper surfaces).

        Re: Aircraft Unit Identification

        Post by Luftflotte2 » 21 Apr 2011, 02:13

        Thanks for the correction, I'm not good at telling early aircraft apart from each other!
        Also it would appear that has been painted, you can notice the lighter colour on the tail, which is original. It isn't camouflage.

        Here are some Ki-34s of Hikotai units I don't know.
        from http://www.warbirdphotographs.com/

        Re: Aircraft Unit Identification

        Post by Sewer King » 23 Apr 2011, 05:10

        Quite all right, Mikesh & Abe's book is the only English-language book I know for all early Japanese warplanes pre-WW2 back to pre-aviation. Maybe there are good specialized studies in Japanese. But maybe too, there is far less aero modeling interest in that period, both in Japan and abroad?

        Restriction to a single book, however good it is, means limitation to the photos and illustrations in it. So, there are not as many photos of any one early IJA/IJN warplane to compare a new photo here, Especially when the photo is very close up, or obscures an identifying feature.

        Thanks also, it didn't seem right that the only suggestion of camouflage was under the SPAD (or Ho-1) tail. The Squadron/Signal volume on the SPAD fighters mentioned those of the Japanese, but did not include illustrations of them.

        There seems to be little if anything about IJAAF unit emblems of the biplane era. Were there any? Those of the RAF were very large and colorful, geometric banners extending along the fuselage. Some of those were revived for the RAF's jet fighters of the 1960s.

        • Rottman, Gordon Takizawa, Akira. Japanese Paratroop Forces of World War II, Osprey Elite series volume 127 (Osprey Publishing Ltd, 2006), page 22 Plate A, and page 60

        In our photo of the Ki-34 dropping paratroops, the emblem looks like it might have been yellow.

        The second photo may be a Navy L1N1, the naval equivalent of Ki-34. Note the RDF loop antenna not on the Army versions. Not sure, but I thought that the studded cowlings of its engines were more typical of the original civilian AT-2 airliner that the Ki-34 was based on.


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