Irish neutrality during the Second World War presented Britain with significant challenges to its security. Exploring how British agencies identified and addressed these problems, this book reveals how Britain simultaneously planned sabotage in and spied on Ireland, and at times sought to damage the neutral state's reputation internationally through black propaganda operations. It analyses the extent of British knowledge of Axis and other diplomatic missions in Ireland, and shows the crucial role of diplomatic code-breaking in shaping British policy. The book also underlines just how much Ireland both interested and irritated Churchill throughout the war. Rather than viewing this as a uniquely Anglo-Irish experience, Eunan O'Halpin argues that British activities concerning Ireland should be placed in the wider context of intelligence and security problems that Britain faced in other neutral states, particularly Afghanistan and Persia. Taking a comparative approach, he illuminates how Britain dealt with challenges in these countries through a combination of diplomacy, covert gathering of intelligence, propaganda, and intimidation.The British perspective on issues in Ireland becomes far clearer when discussed in terms of similar problems Britain faced with neutral states worldwide.
Professor Bernadette Whelan, MRIA
Associate Fellow, Department of History, University of Warwick, UK, 2014-17.
Research Interests: Diplomacy US-Irish relations US foreign policy: Irish foreign policy history of women
- US-Irish relations
- US foreign policy
- Irish foreign policy
- History of women
2021 De Valera and Roosevelt, Irish and American Diplomacy in Times of Crisis, 1932-1939 (Cambridge University Press, 2021).
2020 Joint General Editor with Michael Kennedy, Eunan O’Halpin, Documents on Irish Foreign Policy, volume 12, (Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade/National Archives of Ireland/Royal Irish Academy, 2020) http://www.difp.ie/
2018 Joint General Editor with Kennedy et al, Documents on Irish Foreign Policy, volume 11, Irish Department of Foreign Affairs/National Archives of Ireland/Royal Irish Academy. http://www.difp.ie/
2017 ‘American propaganda and Ireland during world war one: the work of the Committee of Public Information’, Irish Studies Review. 25i. 2017, pp.1-29, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670882.2017.1286080
2016 'The transatlantic world of Charles Stewart Parnell, 1846-91', Journal of Transatlantic Studies (2016), iii,pp. 276-303. Doi s:10.1080/14794012.2016.1200304
2015 ‘Women on the Move: A review of the historiography of Irish emigration to the USA, 1750-1900’ Women’s History Review, vol 24, pp. 1-17 and e version.
2015 ‘Ireland, the United Nations and the Congo’, Reviews in History, Institute for Historical Research, http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1708
2015 ‘Recognition of the Irish Free State, 1924: The Diplomatic Context to the Appointment of Timothy Smiddy as the First Irish Minister to the U.S. Irish Studies in International Affairs, vol 15, pp. 121-7
Bernadette Whelan, Mary O’Dowd, Gerardine Meaney, Reading the Irishwoman: Studies in Cultural Encounters and Exchange, 1714-1960. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013
American government in Ireland, a history of the US consular Service 1790-1913. Manchester: Manchester University Press/Palgrave, 2010
United States foreign policy and Ireland: from empire to independence, 1913-29. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2006
Ireland and the Marshall Plan, 1947-57. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000
The poor relation. Irish foreign policy and the third world. Dublin. Trocaire/Gill and MacMillan (230 pp) (with Michael Holmes and Nicholas Rees), 1993
2000 Women and Paid Work, 1500 to 1939. Dublin: Four Courts Press
1997 Clio’s Daughters: Essays on Irish Women’s History 1845 to 1939. Limerick: University of Limerick Press
1995 The last of the great wars: essays on the war of the three kings in Ireland, 1688-91. Limerick: University of Limerick Press
Edited journal edition
2014 Bernadette Whelan (ed.), ‘Marketing and Consumption History in Ireland’ , Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, issue 1.
2006 (Guest editor), Women’s History Review, volume 15, no. 4, September 2006, Special Issue ‘Family, sexuality and private life’. (with Professor Mary O’Dowd)
Date of Award
Assisted female emigration: Vere Foster’s scheme 1880-1896
Limerick and the ‘economic war 1932-8’: tariff policy and its effect on industry, agriculture and labour
Becoming ‘a useful member of society’: an analysis of policy approaches and treatment of the young offender in the borstal system in Ireland, Clonmel 1906-21
Southern Protestantism: the inter-relationship of religious, social and gender identity in the diocese of Ferns 1945-65
Irish rural housing policy and domestic space: a comparative north/south study, 1942-60
An examination of the life of Edwin Wyndham-Quin, third earl of Dunraven, 1812-71
Caroline Wyndham-Quin, countess of Dunraven (1790-1870): an analysis of her discursive and material legacy
Displaced allegiance: militant Irish republican activism in the United States, 1923-39
Niamh A O’Sullivan (with Dr C Lawless)
Space, identity and the late Victorian woman artist: an examination of Dorothy Tennant’s relationship with and creation of artistic, cultural and social space, 1873-90
Patrick McMahon IRCHSS GREP
The life and career of Brendan Bracken, British Minister of Information, 1941-45
A study of a hobby, an accomplishment and a career: Irish women artists, 1800-1914
‘Always in the human consciousness of the people’, The Anglo-Irish War of Independence in county Clare 1919-21, oral history, tradition and social memory
The ‘indivisible’ truth: the public and private writings of Frank Gallagher, 1911-65
Waging war against immorality: The role of reform organisations in the evolution of the legislative campaign against immorality in Ireland and England, 1869-1939
Irish Historical Studies
The current editors are Dr Mary Ann Lyons (Department of History, St Patrick's College, Drumcondra, Dublin 9) and Dr Fearghal McGarry (School of History and Anthropology, Queen's University, Belfast, BT7 1PA). Articles may be sent to Dr Lyons, and books for review to Dr McGarry. Business/subscription enquiries should go to Dr W. Vaughan, Department of History, Trinity College, Dublin 2.
The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.
Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title. Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.
Why was the border drawn where it was?
The province of Ulster consists of nine counties, but only six of them were included within the legal boundary of Northern Ireland.
That was because unionist leaders were worried about nationalist opposition to partition and believed they needed a built-in majority to stay in power.
The Ulster Unionist Council came to accept that would mean sacrificing counties Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan, which each had Catholic majorities, most of whom traditionally voted for nationalists.
The 1920 Government of Ireland Act had paved the way for Sir James Craig to lead a new unionist-controlled parliament in Belfast and he was elected as Northern Ireland's first prime minister.
Crucially, the Act delineated the border, stating: "Northern Ireland shall consist of the parliamentary counties of Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, and the parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry."
The same Act also legislated for a separate parliament in Dublin, but by that stage, British-sanctioned Home Rule was no longer enough for Ireland's revolutionary leaders.
By early 1919, they had set up their own parliament and were fighting a war for full independence.
The Irish University Review was founded in 1970 at University College Dublin as a journal of Irish literary criticism. Since then, it has become the leading global journal of Irish literary studies. It is affiliated to the International Association for the Study of Irish Literatures (IASIL), whose members receive the journal as a benefit of association membership.
In its early years, the journal published short literary works (poetry, short stories, one-act plays) as well as literary critical essays. Increasingly, however, the journal specialised in defining and expanding the scope of Irish literary studies. The journal has no prescriptive agenda about the subject or methodology of the literary criticism it publishes, other than insisting upon the highest standards of academic scholarship through a rigorous screening and peer review process. It welcomes submissions on all aspects of Irish literature in the English language, particularly submissions which expand the range of authors and texts to receive critical treatment, and which challenge the prevailing trends and assumptions of the field.
Editors and Editorial Board
Dr Emilie Pine, University College Dublin
Dr Lucy Collins, University College Dublin
Dr Paul Delaney, Trinity College Dublin
Editorial Advisory Board
Dr Csilla Bertha, University of Debrecen
Professor Fran Brearton, Queen’s University Belfast
Professor Matthew Campbell, University of York
Professor Andrew Carpenter, University College Dublin
Professor Joe Cleary, Yale University
Professor Claire Connolly, University College Cork
Professor Elizabeth Butler Cullingford, University of Texas, Austin
Professor Nicholas Daly, University College Dublin
Professor Joan FitzPatrick Dean, University of Missouri-Kansas City
Professor Maud Ellmann, University of Chicago
Professor R.F. Foster, University of Oxford
Professor Colin Graham, Maynooth University
Professor Nicholas Grene, Trinity College Dublin
Professor Laura Izarra, University of São Paulo
Professor Margaret Kelleher, University College Dublin
Professor John Kerrigan, University of Cambridge
Professor Declan Kiberd, University of Notre Dame
Professor Richard Kirkland, King’s College London
Professor Heinz Kosok, University of Wuppertal
Professor David Lloyd, University of California, Riverside
Professor Ken'ichi Matsumura, Chuo University, Tokyo
Professor J.C.C. Mays, University College Dublin
Professor Anna McMullan, University of Reading
Professor Stephen Regan, University of Durham
Professor Shaun Richards, Staffordshire University
Professor Ian Campbell Ross, Trinity College Dublin
Professor Ann Saddlemyer, University of Toronto
Professor John Waters, New York University
Professor Clair Wills, Queen Mary, University of London
Professor Nicholas Allen, University of Georgia
Dr Claire Bracken, Union College, New York
Professor John Brannigan, University College Dublin
Professor Mary Burke, University of Connecticut
Dr Catriona Clutterbuck, University College Dublin
Dr Lucy Collins, University College Dublin
Dr Marie-Louise Coolahan, National University of Ireland, Galway
Dr Luca Crispi, University College Dublin
Professor Alex Davis, University College Cork
Dr Paul Delaney, Trinity College Dublin
Dr Fionnuala Dillane, University College Dublin
Professor Eric Falci, University of California, Berkeley
Professor Anne Fogarty, University College Dublin
Dr Alan Gillis, Edinburgh University
Dr Derek Hand, St Patrick’s College, Drumcondra
Professor Liam Harte, University of Manchester
Professor Moyra Haslett, Queen’s University Belfast
Professor Geraldine Higgins, Maynooth University
Dr Eamonn Hughes, Queen’s University Belfast
Dr Aaron Kelly, Edinburgh University
Dr Cathy Leeney, University College Dublin
Professor Joseph Lennon, Villanova University
Professor Patrick Lonergan, National University of Ireland, Galway
Dr Anne Mulhall, University College Dublin
Dr Tina O’Toole, University of Limerick
Professor Eve Patten, Trinity College Dublin
Professor Lance Pettitt, Birkbeck, University of London
Professor Ondrej Pilny, Charles University, Prague
Dr Emilie Pine, University College Dublin
Professor Paige Reynolds, College of the Holy Cross
Professor Hedwig Schwall, University of Leuven
Dr Eibhear Walshe, University College Cork
Professor Stephen Watt, Indiana University
Caisson disease during the construction of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges: A review
The Eads Bridge (St. Louis) and the Brooklyn Bridge (New York City) were testing grounds for caisson construction. These caissons were enormous compressed air boxes used to build riverine piers and abutments anchoring the bridges. Caisson meant faster and cheaper construction, but there was a hidden cost---caisson disease (decompression sickness). Within caissons, workers labored at pressures as high as 55 psig and caisson disease was common. This discourse is a brief history of the caisson, a brief discussion of the illness as viewed in the mid 1800's, and an abbreviated history of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges. It also provides a detailed description and evaluation of the observations, countermeasures, and recommendations of Dr. Alphonse Jaminet, the Eads Bridge physician, and Dr. Andrew Smith, the Brooklyn Bridge physician, who published reports of their experience in 1871 and 1873, respectively. These and other primary sources permit a detailed examination of early caisson disease and Jaminet's and Smith's thinking also serve as good examples from which to study and learn.
In 'Say Nothing,' The Story Of A Murder In Northern Ireland
In 'Say Nothing,' The Story Of A Murder In Northern Ireland
As powerful as Keefe's account of the Troubles is, it's the aftermath that makes for a truly agonizing story, when, in particular, so many of the IRA members he profiles must reckon, in late middle age, with the consequences of decisions they made as teenagers.
For the McConville children, some of whom grew up in abusive orphanages after their mother's disappearance, 2003 brought some measure of closure when her remains were discovered on an eroded stretch of beach in the Irish Republic.
At the end of his panoramic book, which gathers together history, politics and biography, Keefe tightens the focus back to the mystery of McConville's abduction and murder. And, as in the most ingenious crime stories, Keefe unveils a revelation — lying, so to speak, in plain sight — that only further complicates the moral dimensions of his tale.
‘Say Nothing’ — Part History, Part True Crime — Illuminates the Bitter Conflict in Northern Ireland
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A True Story of Murder and Memory in Northern Ireland
By Patrick Radden Keefe
Some months ago, I was in Belfast on a Friday evening, wandering, killing the time for a few hours. I was passing a secondhand record store and noticed that its door was open. So I went up the stairs, and in. There were no customers flicking through the records, just a man and a woman, both in their early 40s, I thought, sitting on a step, surrounded by empty beer bottles. The man had a joint in his mouth. They stared up at me.
The man took the joint from his mouth and — eventually — said, “I forgot to shut the shop.”
I mention this episode, because it is impossible to imagine it occurring — the wandering, the door left open — in the Belfast I first visited in 1978 when I was 20, or the Belfast described in Patrick Radden Keefe’s “Say Nothing,” which starts with the abduction of a woman called Jean McConville, a young widow and mother of 10 children, in 1972. Keefe homes in on McConville and other individuals and, while doing that, tells a good-sized chunk of the history of Northern Ireland, a place George Bernard Shaw called “an autonomous political lunatic asylum.” In particular, he writes about what became known as the Troubles, and the people who caused or were caught in the Troubles.
The Belfast of “Say Nothing” is a city of religious divisions, security checks, shootings, no-go areas. The city is small it’s “Blue Velvet,” with none of the velvet. Jean McConville’s children know some of the people who are taking away their mother they are their neighbors. The last thing she says to the eldest son at home at the time is, “Watch the children until I come back.” But she never does come back. She disappears — she is disappeared.
If it seems as if I’m reviewing a novel, it is because “Say Nothing” has lots of the qualities of good fiction, to the extent that I’m worried I’ll give too much away, and I’ll also forget that Jean McConville was a real person, as were — are — her children. And her abductors and killers. Keefe is a terrific storyteller. It might seem odd, even offensive, to state it, but he brings his characters to real life. The book is cleverly structured. We follow people — victim, perpetrator, back to victim — leave them, forget about them, rejoin them decades later. It can be read as a detective story. There’s a nappy pin (a nappy is a diaper) at the start of the story, and at its end. When the pin reappeared, the novelist in me wanted to whoop but the reader wanted to weep. Because “Say Nothing” isn’t a novel, and that comfort — it’s only fiction — isn’t there. The nappy pin isn’t a novelist’s device it was a real nappy pin, a small tool carried everywhere by Jean McConville, a mother.
Its closeness to the novel is a strength of “Say Nothing” and — I’m tempted to write — “also a weakness.” But actually, it’s not a weakness, and only rarely a distraction. Occasionally, Keefe lets rip with the similes. “Petrol bombs,” he writes, “broke open on their steel bonnets, blue flame spilling out like the contents of a cracked egg.” That’s asking too much of an egg. On the other hand, his description of Dolours Price, a member of the I.R.A., in jail, on a hunger strike, being force-fed through a thin length of rubber hose, is vivid and quite rightly shocking.
The book is full of the language of my youth, phrases I heard every day — “political status,” “shoot-to-kill policy,” “dirty protest,” “legitimate target.” And it is full of names, names that are more than names — Gerry Adams, Bobby Sands, the Price sisters, Burntollet Bridge, Bloody Sunday, Enniskillen, Margaret Thatcher, Ian Paisley — the names of people and places, events, that carry huge emotional clout, that can still silence a room or start a fight.
It is about who owned the language, or got the most out of it. Yes, the times were known as the Troubles. But as the Belfast writer Jan Carson puts it in her upcoming novel, “The Fire Starters”: “Troubles is too less a word for all of this. It is a word for minor inconveniences, such as overdrawn bank accounts, slow punctures, a woman’s time of the month. It is not a violent word.” So the I.R.A. invented the “armed struggle.” Violence joins injustice — it was the work of a marketing genius and the solid conviction of hundreds, thousands, of men and women: It was their war, their struggle.
What Keefe captures best, though, is the tragedy, the damage and waste, and the idea of moral injury. Dolours Price and many like her believed that, after the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, she had been robbed of any moral justification for the bombings and abductions. The last section of the book, the tricky part of the story, life after violence, after the end, the unfinished business, the disappeared and the refusal of Jean McConville’s children to forget about her — I wondered as I read if Keefe was going to carry it off. He does. He deals very well with the war’s strange ending, the victory that wasn’t.
While much of the language of “Say Nothing” takes me back to my youth, a new word makes its appearance on one of the final pages: Brexit. “It would be ironic, to say the least,” Keefe writes, “if one inadvertent long-term consequence of the Brexit referendum was a united Ireland — an outcome that three decades of appalling bloodshed and some 3,500 lost lives had failed to achieve.”
A more likely outcome, I fear, is a fresh border dividing Ireland, right on top of the old one. When the Republic of Ireland and Britain joined what became the European Union on the same day, in 1973, the border immediately started to become less relevant. The E.U. is a big part — the boring part — of the story. The border is there but hard to discern “Spot the Border” is a popular game with people driving across it. Driving north, the kilometers become miles and the road signs are in English instead of both English and Gaelic. But there’s no evidence of the checkpoints or observation towers that were there before the Good Friday Agreement. Since the Brexit referendum, much has been said, and promised, about “soft” borders and “hard” borders. But as someone observed — I can’t remember who — all borders are hard, and the line across Ireland will be the only land border dividing Britain from the E.U. There will be checkpoints there might also be observation towers. There will be men and women in uniform there might also be armed soldiers with English and Scottish accents. There will be trouble, and there might also be Troubles.
“Say Nothing” is an excellent account of the Troubles it might also be a warning.
John Jameson and his family Edit
John Jameson (1740 – 1823) was originally a lawyer from Alloa in Scotland before he founded his eponymous distillery in Dublin in 1780.  Previous to founding the distillery, he married Margaret Haig (1753–1815) in 1768. She was the eldest daughter of John Haig, the famous whisky distiller in Scotland. John and Margaret had a family of 16 children, eight sons and eight daughters. Portraits of the couple by Sir Henry Raeburn are on display in the National Gallery of Ireland. 
John Jameson joined the Convivial Lodge No. 202, of the Dublin Freemasons on 24 June 1774  and in 1780, Irish whiskey distillation began at Bow Street. In 1805, he was joined by his son John Jameson II who took over the family business that year,  and for the next 41 years, John Jameson II built up the business before handing over to his son John Jameson the 3rd in 1851. In 1901, the Company was formally incorporated as John Jameson and Son Ltd.
Four of John Jameson's sons followed his footsteps in distilling in Ireland, John Jameson II (1773 – 1851) at Bow Street, William and James Jameson at Marrowbone Lane in Dublin (where they partnered their Stein relations, calling their business Jameson and Stein, before settling on William Jameson & Co.).  The fourth of Jameson's sons, Andrew, who had a small distillery at Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford, was the grandfather of Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of wireless telegraphy. Marconi's mother was Annie Jameson, Andrew's daughter.
John Jameson's eldest son, Robert, took over his father's legal business in Alloa. The Jamesons became the most important distilling family in Ireland, despite rivalry between the Bow Street and Marrowbone Lane distilleries.
19th century and turbulent times Edit
By the turn of the 19th century, it was the second largest producer in Ireland and one of the largest in the world, producing 1,000,000 gallons annually. Dublin at the time was the centre of world whiskey production. It was the second most popular spirit in the world after rum and internationally Jameson had by 1805 become the world's number one whiskey. Today, Jameson is the world's third largest single-distillery whiskey.
Historical events, for a time, set the company back. The temperance movement in Ireland had an enormous impact domestically but the two key events that affected Jameson were the Irish War of Independence and subsequent trade war with the British which denied Jameson the export markets of the Commonwealth, and shortly thereafter, the introduction of prohibition in the United States. While Scottish brands could easily slip across the Canada–US border, Jameson was excluded from its biggest market for many years. 
The introduction of column stills by the Scottish blenders in the mid-19th-century enabled increased production that the Irish, still making labour-intensive single pot still whiskey, could not compete with. There was a legal enquiry somewhere in 1908 to deal with the trade definition of whiskey. The Scottish producers won within some jurisdictions, and blends became recognised in the law of that jurisdiction as whiskey. The Irish in general, and Jameson in particular, continued with the traditional pot still production process for many years.
Creation of the Irish Distillers Group Edit
In 1966 John Jameson merged with Cork Distillers and John Powers to form the Irish Distillers Group. In 1976, the Dublin whiskey distilleries of Jameson in Bow Street and in John's Lane were closed following the opening of a New Midleton Distillery by Irish Distillers outside Cork. The Midleton Distillery now produces much of the Irish whiskey sold in Ireland under the Jameson, Midleton, Powers, Redbreast, Spot and Paddy labels. The new facility adjoins the Old Midleton Distillery, the original home of the Paddy label, which is now home to the Jameson Experience Visitor Centre and the Irish Whiskey Academy. The Jameson brand was acquired by the French drinks conglomerate Pernod Ricard in 1988 when it bought Irish Distillers.
The old Jameson Distillery in Bow Street near Smithfield in Dublin now serves as a museum which offers tours and tastings. The distillery, which is historical in nature and no longer produces whiskey on site, went through a $12.6 million renovation that was concluded in March 2016, and is now a focal part of Ireland's strategy to raise the number of whiskey tourists, which stood at 600,000 in 2017.   Bow Street also now has a fully functioning Maturation Warehouse within its walls since the 2016 renovation. It is here that Jameson 18 Bow Street is finished before being bottled at Cask Strength.
Sales volume passed 8 million cases in 2019, a new high for the brand, and including sales of 940,000 cases in December alone. It had previously passed 1 million cases in 1996, and 3 million in 2010. 
In 2008 The Local, an Irish pub in Minneapolis, sold 671 cases of Jameson (22 bottles a day),  making it the largest server of Jameson's in the world – a title it maintained for four consecutive years. 
Jameson is produced from a blend of grain whiskey and single pot still whiskey, which uses a mixture of malted and unmalted or "green" Irish barley, all sourced from within a fifty-mile radius around the distillery in Cork. The barley is dried in a closed kiln fired by natural gas (formerly anthracite coal). This is in contrast to the traditional method used in some Scotch whisky distilleries, which fire the kiln with peat, adding a distinctive peat flavour. 
Jameson products – in particular its 18-Year and its Rarest Reserve – have rated very highly at international spirit ratings competitions. The 18-Year received a series of gold and double gold medals at the San Francisco World Spirits Competition between 2005 and 2010.  The Rarest Reserve has won gold and double gold medals there as well. Rarest Reserve is rated as one of the Top 20 whiskies in the world by Proof66.  In 2018 Jameson 18-Year-Old Bow Street won Best Irish Blended Whiskey RRP of €60/$72 or more at the Irish Whiskey Awards. 
John Jameson was also the great grandfather of inventor Guglielmo Marconi. 
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Irish elk, (Megaloceros giganteus), also called Irish deer or giant deer, extinct species of deer, characterized by immense body size and wide antlers, commonly found as fossils in Pleistocene deposits in Europe and Asia (the Pleistocene Epoch began 2.6 million years ago and ended about 11,700 years ago). Despite its distribution throughout Eurasia, the species was most abundant in Ireland. Although several other species of Megaloceros are known, the Irish elk was the largest. It was about the size of the modern moose (Alces alces) and had the largest antlers of any form of deer known—in some specimens, 4 metres (about 13 feet) across. The antlers differed from those of the modern deer: the main part was a massive single sheet from which arose a series of pointed projections, or tines.
Many scientists contend that the Irish elk succumbed to starvation and went extinct during the most recent ice age however, fossils of M. giganteus uncovered in Siberia have been dated to approximately 7,000–8,000 years ago, a period characterized by warm temperatures.
This article was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty, Editor.