Martin Baltimore II taking off

Martin Baltimore II taking off

Martin Baltimore II taking off

A Martin Baltimore II taking off from a desert airfield, leaving a wake of sand behind it.

  • Title: Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company Plant No. 2, 2800 Eastern Boulevard, Middle River, Baltimore County, MD
  • Other Title: Middle River GSA Depot
  • Creator(s): Historic American Engineering Record, creator
  • Related Names:
       Kahn, Albert
       Martin, Glenn L
  • Date Created/Published: Documentation compiled after 1968
  • Medium: Photo(s): 3
    Data Page(s): 5
    Photo Caption Page(s): 1
  • Reproduction Number: ---
  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on images made by the U.S. Government images copied from other sources may be restricted. (
  • Call Number: HAER MD-136
  • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
  • Notes:
    • Significance: Plant No. 2 was built in 1941 and designed by pioneering architectural and engineering firm Albert Kahn and Associates of Detroit. It was an expansion of the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company facilities in Middle River. While Plant No. 1 is the earliest example of Kahn’s pioneering industrial design for large-scale aircraft construction at Middle River, Plant No. 2 follows the same formula and is remarkably intact. Part of the industrial mobilization for World War II, Army B-26 bombers were manufactured at Plant No. 2 and easily transported to Baltimore on the adjacent railroad line. Until recently Plant No. 2 was owned by the General Services Administration and used as a warehouse by a number of government agencies. The 50 acre site, including the 1.9 million square foot historic factory complex, was sold to an undisclosed bidder at an online auction for $37.5 million in September 2006. The status of the buildings, which are on the Maryland Register of Historic Places and determined eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, in future redevelopment of the site is uncertain.
    • Survey number: HAER MD-136
    • Building/structure dates: 1941 Initial Construction
    • industrial facilities
    • aircraft industry
    • war (World War II)
    • Maryland -- Baltimore County -- Middle River
    • Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record/Historic American Landscapes Survey

    The Library of Congress generally does not own rights to material in its collections and, therefore, cannot grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise distribute the material. For further rights information, see "Rights Information" below and the Rights and Restrictions Information page ( ).

    • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on images made by the U.S. Government images copied from other sources may be restricted.
    • Reproduction Number: ---
    • Call Number: HAER MD-136
    • Medium: Photo(s): 3
      Data Page(s): 5
      Photo Caption Page(s): 1

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      Maryland Aviation Museum

      Born in 1886 in Macksburg, Iowa, &ldquoThe Flying Dude&rdquo was Glenn L. Martin&rsquos nickname shortly after his pioneering flight in 1909. By 1911 he was being mentioned, along with the Wright Brothers and Glenn Curtiss , as one of the leading Ameri­cans of powered flight.

      In 1912 Glenn Martin set the world record over water by traveling from mainland California to Catalina Island and back. On the return, he delivered mail, also a first.

      He gave starts to several of the most prominent men of the aviation industry. ( See list at right .)

      He built his first aircraft in an abandoned church in Santa Ana, Calif., moved to Los Angeles then was lured to Cleveland. shifted his business to Middle River in 1929 after buying 1,260 acres outside Baltimore. He built the most modern facility of its time, eventually producing more than 11,000 planes. The Glenn L. Martin Company employed more than 50,000 workers during World War II. Glenn L. Martin had a large and lasting impact on the Middle River area. Click here for Glenn L. Martin Company and the Middle River Community.

      Glenn Martin died in 1955.

      In 1995, the merger of Martin Marietta and Lockheed produced the Lockheed Martin Corpora­tion, one of the world&rsquos premiere technology companies.

      The Martin Company employed many of the founders and chief engineers of the American aerospace industry, including:

      Goucher’s secret ‘code girls’ helped end WWII

      I n 1942, in a locked room at the top of a building in downtown Baltimore, 10 young women learned cryptology under the supervision of a Pulitzer Prize winner and a Navy officer. The building was Goucher Hall, in the days when the college was still located in the downtown part of the city, and the Pulitzer winner was Professor Ola Winslow, who was recognized in 1941 for her biography of 18th-century theologian Jonathan Edwards.

      The women, members of the Goucher College class of 1942, were known as WAVES—an acronym for Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service—and many of these Goucher students, along with selected students from the class of 1943, went on to work on the top secret mission of decoding the complex German Enigma code machine. Their work directly contributed to the Allied victory in Europe in World War II.

      “It’s not a surprise to me that Goucher women were chosen,” said President José Antonio Bowen. “Part of the Goucher attitude has always been that women were as capable as men.”

      At the time, in the early ’40s, the dean of students was Dorothy Stimson, a scholar of Copernican theory. She earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1917 and became dean at Goucher in 1921.

      Her cousin was Secretary of War Henry Stimson. After Pearl Harbor, wrote Liza Mundy, author of the book Code Girls: The Untold Story of the American Women Code Breakers of World War II, “he put in a quiet word asking for some of Dean Stimson’s best senior girls” from Goucher to aid in the war effort.

      When she began the research process for her book, Mundy worked closely with cryptographers and historians at the National Security Agency and National Cryptologic Museum. As she delved into the materials, she learned that many of the cryptographers in the early-mid ’40s were college students and recent graduates Goucher was one of the first schools she came across.

      “Goucher probably has the best records of the women and the work,” Mundy said, “A lot of schools don’t know about the history or their own role in it. Hats off to Goucher for making the effort to record this history and to honor and recognize the women.”

      Indeed, throughout history, Goucher students have been undaunted, bravely facing and overcoming obstacles, and the Goucher WAVES “Code Girls” of World War II thoroughly embodied this spirit.

      Among them was Latin major Janice Martin Benario ’43, a Baltimore native, who worked as part of the Navy’s Enigma code-breaking team known as Operation ULTRA.

      In 2013, Benario, by then Dr. Janice Martin Benario, spoke to a group of seventh and eighth grade students at the Paideia School in Atlanta, GA.

      “My life was governed by secrecy,” she said, her Baltimore accent still apparent after more than 40 years in Atlanta. “We were not to breathe a word about what we were doing once we got in that office. In wartime it would have been considered treason if any talk had gotten out.”

      According to a 2010 Cryptologia article, when the war ended, Janice Martin completed her active duty at the U.S. Navy’s Bureau of Medicine and Surgery in Falls Church, VA. In 1946, she was discharged as a lieutenant junior grade. She went on to earn M.A. and Ph.D. degrees at Johns Hopkins University, where she met her future husband, Herbert Benario.

      Benario’s ability to keep a secret held fast. Herbert never learned of his wife’s service in naval cryptology during the war until 25 years into their marriage. Of course, most of the information was classified until the late 1990s. Benario only began speaking publicly on her experiences in 2002.

      When the opportunity was finally available to shine a spotlight on the WAVES, Goucher’s Curator of Special Collections and Archives Tara Olivero provided research assistance to Mundy for her Code Girls book, helping her cull through Goucher’s history.

      In the early days of World War II, the college developed a war program called the Defense Program.

      “They took up a call to service and community,” Olivero said.

      Student committees were dedicated to training—from nursing and mechanics to education, protection, and community service. The curriculum was redesigned. The school paper featured advertisements for military participation, alongside the clips about students getting engaged or other social concerns.

      “It was one of the first times for women in the workforce,” Olivero said. “We were shedding the idea that college was just for women to find husbands.”

      “It was a rare moment in American history—” Mundy writes, “—unprecedented, when educated women were not only wanted but competed for.”

      With men fighting overseas, women were needed at home to take up the mantle—rather than merely decorate the mantelpiece. Engineering and chemical firms, the Office of Strategic Services, and the FBI all began recruiting women students at top schools like MIT, Wellesley, Vassar, and Goucher.

      That’s not to say, of course, that sexism wasn’t still front and center.

      “Select beautiful ones for we don’t want them on our hands after the war,” Mundy writes one electrical company specified in its request to Goucher for 20 female engineers.

      The students were smart, loyal, and willing, but they had to prove they could be tenacious by enduring the long hours and high demands of training.

      Working the midnight to 8 a.m. night shift was biology major Frances Steen ’42. Duty to country was part of the Steen family tradition. Her brother Egil, a Naval Academy graduate, was on North Atlantic convoy duty, and the family strove to contribute where they could, even saving bacon grease, which could be used to produce glycerin for bombs. Steen’s ambition was to become a doctor. “They laid their plans aside to answer the Navy’s call,” said Mundy. “The work was extremely stressful they knew the men whose lives they were trying to save.”

      By 1944, Steen had been promoted to lieutenant. She’d spent a year as part of the team recovering the code that helped orchestrate Operation Vengeance, the 1943 military operation that took down Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of the Japanese Imperial Navy and one of the masterminds behind Pearl Harbor. Steen was now part of the Enigma chain decoding German ciphers.

      During one of her watches, a message came in that the ship captained by her brother was targeted for a kamikaze raid. Despite the advance knowledge, nothing could be done to prevent the attack. The boat was sunk, and Egil Steen was one of only a few men to survive.

      The codebreaking way of thinking never left Steen. “Her thought processes were highly analytic and different from what most people’s were,” her son, James “Jed” Suddeth Jr., told Mundy.

      In 2004, Rear Admiral (Ret.) David Shimp arranged for Frances Steen Suddeth Josephson to be honored by the Navy Cryptologic Veterans Association. Suddeth, who served in the U.S. Naval submarine force, offered a brief, heartfelt tribute:

      “As an American citizen, with all the freedoms we have, I thank you as a fellow naval officer, I salute you and as a son, I love you.”

      Steen died in 2007, of natural causes, at the age of 86.

      She, Janice Martin Benario, and all the Code Girls of Goucher are part of the college’s long tradition of courageous service and barrier-breaking.

      “The code girls are one example,” said President Bowen. “We have lots of other examples of firsts. The first woman doctor in the U.S. Army was a Goucher graduate, as was the inventor of the TB test. To be undaunted is the sense of perseverance, of doing good work, even if it’s not in the spotlight, will pay off for you and for the good of your fellow human beings. A lot of what we are about is finding potential. It happens in ways both big and small.”

      He continued: “We are connecting the future to the past. While we adapt to change and propel forward, we remain true to the undaunted spirit of our history.”


      Seller: jkenned4 ✉️ (37,040) 99.9% , Location: San Diego, California , Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 402835022003 AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMORE Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) MIDDLE EAST TRAINING. Shipping AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMORE Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) MIDDLE EAST TRAINING AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMORE Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) MIDDLE EAST TRAINING SQUADRON OPEN BOX UNBUILT PLASTIC MODEL KIT INVENTORIED 100% COMPLETE INCLUDES ORIGINAL DECALS AND INSTRUCTIONS IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS OR CONCERNS PLEASE ASK ME BEFORE BIDDING / PURCHASING I WANT EVERYONE TO BE 100% SATISFIED WITH NO SURPRISES OR MIS-UNDERSTANDINGS IF YOU ARE BUYING MULTIPLE KITS FROM ME AT THE SAME TIME (OR EXPECT TO IN THE NEAR TERM) THEN LET ME KNOW AND I WILL COMBINE ALL INTO A SINGLE SHIPMENT AND ADJUST THE FINAL INVOICE TO REFLECT THE MOST ECONOMICAL SHIPPING METHOD AVAILABLE TO YOUR ADDRESS -------------------------------------------- Additional Information from Internet Encyclopedia The Martin 187 Baltimore was a twin-engined light attack bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company in the United States as the A-30. The model was originally ordered by the French in May 1940 as a follow-up to the earlier Martin Maryland, then in service in France. With the fall of France, the production series was diverted to Great Britain and after mid-1941, supplied by the U.S. as Lend Lease equipment. Development of the Baltimore was hindered by a series of problems, although the type eventually became a versatile combat aircraft. Produced in large numbers, the Baltimore was not used operationally by United States armed forces but eventually served with the British, Canadian, Australian, South African, Hellenic and the Italian air forces. it was subsequently used almost exclusively in the Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II. Design and development Initially designated the A-23 (derived from the A-22 Martin 167 Maryland design), the Model 187 (company designation) had a deeper fuselage and more powerful engines. The Model 187 met the needs for a light-to-medium bomber, originally ordered by the Anglo-French Purchasing Commission as a joint project in May 1940. The French Air Force sought to replace the earlier Maryland 400 aircraft being ordered. With the Fall of France, the Royal Air Force (RAF) took over the order and gave it the service name Baltimore. To enable the aircraft to be supplied to the British under the Lend-Lease Act the United States Army Air Forces designation A-30 was allocated. With the passing of the Lend Lease Act two further batches of 575 and then 600 were provided to the RAF. Operational history The first British aircraft were delivered in late 1941 to equip Operational Training Units. The RAF only used the Baltimores operationally in the Mediterranean theater and North Africa. Many users were impressed by the step up that the Baltimore represented from older aircraft like the Bristol Blenheim. Users of the Baltimore and Martin pilot Benjamin R. Wallace, praised the aircraft for its heavy armament, structural strength, manoeuvrability, bombing accuracy and relatively high performance but crews complained of cramped conditions similar to those in the earlier Maryland bomber. The narrow fuselage made it nearly impossible for crew members to change positions during flight if wounded (the aircraft's interior structure separated the pilot and observer from the wireless operator and rear gunner, a characteristic shared with several light and medium bomber designs of that era e.g. Handley Page Hampden, Douglas Boston and Blenheim). Crews also complained about the difficulties in handling the aircraft on the ground. On takeoff, the pilot had to co-ordinate the throttles perfectly to avoid a nose-over or worse. Thrown into action to stop Rommel's advance, the Baltimore suffered massive losses when it was used as a low-level attack aircraft, especially in the chaos of the desert war where most missions went unescorted. Operating at medium altitude with fighter escorts, the Baltimore had a very low loss rate, with the majority of losses coming from operational accidents. Undertaking a variety of missions in the Middle East, Mediterranean and European theaters, the Baltimore's roles included reconnaissance, target-towing, maritime patrol, night intruder and even served as highly uncomfortable fast transports. The Baltimore saw limited Fleet Air Arm service with aircraft transferred from the RAF in the Mediterranean to equip a squadron in 1944. Used in the anti-submarine role during the war, the Baltimore achieved moderate success, sinking up to eight U-boats. The RAF also transferred aircraft to other Allies in the Mediterranean area. The Baltimore was used intensively in the Italian campaign to clear the road to Rome for advancing Allied forces after the capitulation of Italy in 1943. After the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces an Italian-manned squadron, the 28th Bomber Wing, was equipped with ex-RAF Baltimores, becoming the co-belligerent Stormo Baltimore. The Italians suffered considerable attrition during their training phase on the Baltimore. The majority of accidents were during takeoffs and landings due to the aircraft's fairly high wing loading, high approach speed and a directional stability problems during takeoffs. The Italians operated the Baltimore for about six months. Many of those operations were in Yugoslavia and Greece, providing air support for partisan forces or dropping supplies. Most Baltimores were scrapped soon after the war, although one RAF squadron continued to use the type in Kenya where the aircraft were used in aerial mapping and locust control until 1948. In post-war service, the Baltimore took part in United States Navy instrument and control surface tests in the effort to break the sound barrier. With its powerful engines and light, yet robust construction, the aircraft was able to be dived at high speed, reaching Mach .74 in tests. All Baltimores were withdrawn from service by the end of 1949, the last one being retired on 23 December 1949. Baltimore B. III The Baltimore GR.IIIA variant supplied to the British under the Lend-Lease program. This variant was equipped with a Martin dorsally mounted turret housing twin .50-caliber M2 machine guns. Modified Mk II design defensive armament was increased to 14 0.303 in (7.7 mm) guns and improved with a hydraulically powered dorsal turret supplied by Boulton Paul in the UK with 4 Browning machine guns. 250 aircraft built. Baltimore B. IIIa (A-30-MA) Ordered by USAAF and supplied under Lend-lease to the RAF, two 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in a Martin-built electrically powered dorsal turret. 281 aircraft built. Baltimore B. IV (A-30A-MA) USAAF order, lend-lease to RAF. Four 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Brownings machine guns in the wings. 294 aircraft built. Baltimore B. V (A-30A-MA) USAAF order - Upgraded with two 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) Wright R-2600-29 radial piston engines, Wings fitted with 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns. 600 aircraft built. Operators Australia Royal Australian Air Force No. 454 Squadron RAAF (Baltimore III, IV, V) (North Africa, Pescara Italy: February 1943 14 August 1945) No. 459 Squadron RAAF (Baltimore IV V) (Mediterranean: July 1944 March 1945) Canada Royal Canadian Air Force Baltimore B. III FA187 A single Baltimore was loaned to the RCAF by RAF Ferry Command for "special" project duties (1942) Free France Free French Air Force GB 1/17 Greece Royal Hellenic Air Force RHAF 13 Light Bomber Squadron (Baltimore II, IV) (Gambut North Africa, Biferno Pescara Italy, Balkans: 19431945) Kingdom of Italy Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force 49 aircraft[7] 28° Gruppo (Stormo Baltimore) (1945 February 1948) 132° Gruppo 254 Wing RAF Italy Italian Air Force operated 49 aircraft until 1947[8] South Africa South African Air Force No. 15 Squadron SAAF (Baltimore IIIa V) (Mediterranean: 19431945) No. 21 Squadron SAAF. (Baltimore III IV) (North Africa, Italy: 19421944) No. 60 Squadron SAAF (Baltimore II III) (North Africa: 19421943) Turkey Turkish Air Force 1st Bomber Regiment United Kingdom Royal Air Force 1st Middle East Training Squadron No. 13 Squadron RAF (Baltimore IV V) (Italy: 1944) No. 52 Squadron RAF (Baltimore IIIa V) (Tunisia, Italy: February 1942 February 1943) No. 55 Squadron RAF (Baltimore I V) (Libya, Tunisia, Italy: 19421944) No. 69 Squadron RAF (Baltimore I IV) (Mediterranean: 19421944) No. 162 Squadron RAF (Baltimore III) (Libya: 19431944) No. 203 Squadron RAF (Baltimore I, II, IIIa, V) (North Africa: 19421943) No. 223 Squadron RAF (Baltimore I V) (North Africa, Italy: April 1941 12 August 1944) No. 249 Squadron RAF (Baltimore IV V) (South-East Europe: October 1945 April 1946) No. 500 Squadron RAF (Baltimore IV V) (Italy: 19441945) No. 680 Squadron RAF (Baltimore III, V) (Italy: 1944) Fleet Air Arm 728 Naval Air Squadron (Baltimore GR IV V) (Malta: September 1944 November 1946) Shipping & Handling Back to Top US ShippingPlease check eBay&aposs Shipping & Payment tab USPS First-Class Mail® International ShippingPlease check eBay&aposs Shipping & Payment tab USPS First-Class Mail International (Worldwide) USPS First-Class Mail International (Canada) FREE scheduling, supersized images and templates. Get Vendio Sales Manager.Make your listings stand out with FREE Vendio custom templates! FREE scheduling, supersized images and templates. Get Vendio Sales Manager. Over 100,000,000 served. Get FREE counters from Vendio today! Condition: Used , Condition: A Complete Collectible Kit. Open Box Unbuilt Plastic Model Kit - inventoried 100% complete. The item you see in the attached images is the exact item that you will receive as I scanned the box top. Any distortion is due to cellophane wrapping. Includes Instructions and Decals. , Return shipping will be paid by: Buyer , All returns accepted: Returns Accepted , Item must be returned within: 30 Days , Refund will be given as: Money Back See More

      Test Dates and Score Reporting Dates

      Select the Praxis ® test you are taking from the dropdown, then select your test date from the calendar on the left. After your selection, the right-hand calendar will display the score reporting date. Scores are posted after 5 p.m. ET on the date shown.

      Note: When scores are scheduled to be posted on a Monday or Friday that falls on an ETS holiday, they will be reported on the following Friday and Tuesday, respectively.

      Show me the At Home delivery dates.

      To register for a test, log in to your Praxis account.

      Kit 4139 &ndash British

      Mk. I, AG 724, &ldquoP&rdquo of 223 Squadron, July 1942. The aircraft is portrayed as being in Dark Earth, Middle Stone and Light Mediterranean Blue. This aircraft may originally have been in Dark Green Dark Earth and Sky Grey and repainted in the Mediterranean.

      Mk. V, FW418, &ldquoA&rdquo of 13 Squadron. Dark Earth, Middle Stone and Light Mediterranean Blue.

      Mk. V, FW287, &ldquoA&rdquo 55 Squadron, Cecina, Italy, 1944. Experimental night camouflage scheme of overall semi-gloss black.

      Mk. IV, FA654, &ldquoX&rdquo. This aircraft is in the Coastal Command scheme of White and Extra Dark Sea Grey. On the nose is the name &ldquo&Epsilon&Lambda&Lambda&Eta&rdquo (&ldquoHellay&rdquo / Greece) in Greek letters. I believe this aircraft served with 13 &ldquoHellenic&rdquo Squadron of the RAF in the Mediterranean.

      Kit 4140 &ndash Foreign

      Mk. V, FW821, &ldquoGrappa 10&rdquo of 132° Gruppo, Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force, 1944. Dark Earth, Dark Green, Light Mediterranean Blue (or possibly Azure). The aircraft has the name &ldquoFiorelino&rdquo (little flower) on the nose, with a white flower with a yellow center, which was the personal emblem of the pilot, Ten. Roberto Crespi. It also had a star on the fin with the word Stellina, which was the markings of the prior pilot, S.Ten. Rolandi.

      Mk. V, FW695, &ldquo5348&rdquo, Turkish Air Force. Middle Stone, Dark Earth and Light Mediterranean Blue.

      Mk. V, 13 Squadron Royal Hellenic Air Force, 1944. Dark Green (over painting of Middle Stone), Dark Earth and Light Mediterranean Blue. RHAF roundel and fin flash.

      Mk. V, FW565, &ldquoQ&rdquo of GB 1/17 &ldquoPicardie&rdquo, Free French Air Force, Rayak, Syria, circa 1945. Dark Green, Dark Earth and Light Mediterranean Blue. As noted in the marking guide, the use of the Corss of Lorraine on the underside of the wing is open for debate. Decals are available in the kit for these under-wing markings, should you decide to use them.


      While there are clearly some concerns, the issuance of a 1/48 Baltimore fills an important gap in the less than celebrated aircraft of the Second World War. It is not a small model and is about the size of an A-20, but a whole lot chunkier. It will make an impressive addition to ones collection.

      I&rsquom sure some will take issue, but in terms of my modeling interests, I consider this Classic Airframes Baltimore to be highly recommended.

      Martin 187 Baltimore Krzysztof Janowicz & Adam Jarski AJ-Press 2005.

      Martin Baltimore &ndash Ali Straniere in Italia Marco Gueli La Bacarella Aeronautica &ndashTorino 2004.

      Air Arsenal North America Phil Butler & Dan Hagedorn Midland 2004.

      British Airplanes of World War II ed. Daniel J. March Aerospace Publishing Limited 1998.

      Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Factory Disappears During WWII — From The Air

      Under the watch of the 603rd Camouflage Engineer Battalion, not yet assigned to the Ghost Army, an entire aircraft factory disappeared from the coast of Maryland – at least, from the air.

      …The Glenn L. Martin aircraft factory in Middle River, Maryland was one such location. The factory churned out bombers (the most famous being the B-26 Marauder) and attack aircraft for Allied forces. In 1942, the 603rd Camouflage Engineer Battalion helped make the factory disappear. Veteran Ned Harris of the 603rd worked on the plant, noting “Our outfit was responsible for disguising that …from the air, it looked like it was the countryside.” Below are some images of their work.

      Continue reading “Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Factory Disappears During WWII — From The Air” at The Ghost Army.

      Public Accommodations

      Equal access to public accommodations continued to be a highly contested issue during this period. Baltimore’s growing Black population demanded more than the limited number of parks and recreational facilities open to Black residents. In addition, during and after World War II, rising expectations of equal rights for Black Americans as consumers helped make theaters, department stores and restaurants into popular targets for protest. Student groups, particularly those from Morgan State College, proved instrumental in efforts to desegregate downtown department stores and lunch counters. By the early 1960s, public pressure, lawsuits and legislation had resulted in the desegregation of public beaches and parks, as well as department stores and theaters. The changes spread across the state after Maryland passed a law to desegregate public accommodations in 1963.

      Public Parks and Recreational Facilities: 1930s–1950s

      The 1930s and 1940s saw several notable campaigns to challenge segregation in Baltimore’s public parks and recreational facilities. 102 For example, in September 1934, after persistent requests by Black golfers the Carroll Park (B-4609) golf course began allowing them to use the course but kept them segregated from white golfers by limiting them to specific days of the week. In 1938, two Black golfers, Dallas Nicholas and William I. Gosnell, sued Baltimore City to try to overturn this policy but they were unsuccessful. 103

      After World War II, a number of youth-led protests were more successful. On December 17, 1947, a group of white and Black young people organized an integrated youth basketball game at Garrison Junior High School to protest segregation in local youth recreation. Another interracial protest took place on July 11, 1948 when a group of young Black and white tennis players organized a game on the tennis courts at Druid Hill Park (B-56). The protest led to a lawsuit against the city, Boyer v. Garrett (1949), that resulted in the court overturning the city’s long-standing policy of racial segregation in city parks. 104

      In 1950, a group of Black activists attempted to purchase tickets for the beach at Fort Smallwood Park (AA-898), a popular recreational park owned and managed by Baltimore City but located in Anne Arundel County. When park workers refused to sell tickets to the activists, they sued the city initiating a prolonged legal action. Eventually, in 1955, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals found in favor of the activists in Mayor and City Council of Baltimore City v. Dawson, linking the Brown decision to the necessity of integrating public facilities, writing:

      It is obvious that racial segregation in recreational activities can no longer be sustained as a proper exercise of the police power of the State for if that power cannot be invoked to sustain racial segregation in the schools, where attendance is compulsory…it cannot be sustained with respect to public beach and bathhouse facilities, the use of which is entirely optional. 105

      In November 1955, the US Supreme Court ended the debate by upholding the decision by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals without even issuing a separate opinion. 106

      The critical importance of equal access to parks and recreational facilities was tragically demonstrated in 1953 when a Black boy died while swimming with friends in the Patapsco River. The only swimming pool open to Black residents was Pool No. 2 located in Druid Hill Park. Arguing the boy would not have died if the public pool in his southwest Baltimore allowed Black swimmers, the Baltimore NAACP filed suit against the city to force the desegregation of Baltimore’s public swimming pools. The NAACP won their case and the city’s newly desegregated pools opened on June 23, 1956. 107

      Theaters, Department Stores and Restaurants: 1938–1960s

      In many American cities, including Baltimore, downtown department stores had special significance. Historian Paul Kramer called the stores “some of Baltimore’s most prominent sites of civic culture and modernity.” 108 The combination of prominence and prejudice made these stores a key target for protests over an extended period from the late 1930s through the 1960s. The discrimination African Americans faced in public accommodations was not just one of simple exclusion. Historian Paul A. Kramer notes that the discriminatory “racial practices” at Baltimore’s downtown department stores included three main aspects:

      Refusing to serve Black customers at lunch counters

      Prohibiting Black customers from trying on or returning clothing, and

      Discriminating against Black workers by only hiring Black people as maintenance or stockroom workers, elevator operators, porters, and restroom attendants.

      The prohibition on returns from Black customers (known as the “final sale” policy) reveals one of the fundamental motivations behind racial segregation—“anxieties and fears about physical contact between whites and blacks.” Kramer continues to explain:

      For most whites, blacks represented sources of unspecified physical and moral pollution … Black and white bodies might “touch” in the exchange of forks and plates at store lunch-counters. Even more threatening to whites was the possibility that the clothes they tried on or purchased might bear an invisible taint of black physical contact. 109

      Notably, in early 1943, when the Baltimore NAACP sought to overturn the state’s Jim Crow laws, the repeal bill they supported was sent to state legislature Hygiene Committee rather than the Judiciary Committee for consideration. 110

      Some of the earliest efforts to change store policies started between 1938 and 1940 when the Baltimore Urban League and NAACP met for private negotiations with downtown department store owners and urged them to end their discriminatory policies against Black shoppers. Local Black activists met again with a representative of the Retail Merchants Association in February 1943, but no policy changes followed. A more public protest started in 1945 when the Afro-American newspaper began their “Orchids and Onions” campaign to celebrate stores that did not discriminate against Black shoppers (“Orchids”) and to shame downtown department stores with discriminatory policies (“Onions”). 111

      One early challenge to these segregationist policies came from an interracial group of activists affiliated with the local chapter of CORE who used public pressure and sit-ins to protest segregated lunch counters—a strategy used previously in New York City in 1939 and by CORE members in Chicago in 1942. Afro-American columnist Mrs. Elizabeth Murphy Phillips noted their success on November 7, 1953:

      Thanks to the Committee on Racial Equality, (CORE), the Urban league, and the Americans for Democratic Action, (ADA), more stores in the 200 block W. Lexington St. are realizing there is no color line in the dollars you spend. Lunch counters and restaurants in the Kresge and Woolworth Five and Ten have been serving all customers for several weeks. McCrory’s has just reversed its policy and will serve all comers […] Schulte United in the 200 block Lexington is still acting silly. 112

      The scope of such campaigns was limited in comparison to the overall challenge for Black residents in the 1950s. For example, one 1955 survey found that 91% of 191 randomly selected Baltimore businesses reported either the “exclusion” or “segregation” of Black customers. 113 In January 1955, CORE’s campaign against segregated lunch counters on Lexington Street ended with the successful desegregation of the Read’s Drug Store chain.

      As Phillips alludes in her column, the issue of public accommodation was often presented in terms of consumer politics. This made the issue personal for middle-class Black activists like Madeline W. Murphy who wrote to the Vice President of Hochschild Kohn in 1956 to say, “not only [do I] feel equal to the average Hochschild Kohn’s consumers but I feel superior to them.” Such emphasis on racial equality as individual access made the desegregation of public accommodations “less of a challenge to traditional notions of racial equality,” in contrast to education, employment, and voting rights, which were to be granted en masse, and helped secure the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. 114

      Black theater-goers faced similar policies of exclusion and discrimination at local theaters. In addition, theaters often refused to book Black musicians and performers. In February 1948 the Baltimore police arrested a group of Morgan State College students for picketing Ford’s Theatre on Fayette Street for its discriminatory policies. The students and other activists soon returned and continued a five-year campaign at Ford’s Theatre to end segregated seating, a policy the theater finally ended in 1953. After the Lyric Theatre (B-106) on Mount Royal Avenue refused to allow singer and activist Marian Anderson to perform, Baltimore’s Commission on Human Relations intervened and persuaded the theater owners to allow Marian Anderson to appear in January 1954. Despite this progress, however, most hotels and restaurants remained segregated, so after the performance, Sidney Hollander Sr. hosted an afternoon reception with Anderson at his home.

      Discrimination and segregation made travel difficult. To aid Black travelers, Victor Green, a US postal employee, published the Negro Motorist Green Book, which listed sites welcoming Black customers. The first edition covered businesses in metropolitan New York, but later editions included sites all over the country. Baltimore businesses first appear in the 1938 edition, and include both the YMCA and YWCA—both sites associated with local civil rights organizing. Other listings through the years include the Smith Hotel and others in west Baltimore, as well as several restaurants on Pennsylvania Avenue. Jack’s Garage, listed in the book’s 1947 edition, later, around 1958, became Temple No. 6 (later known as Mosque Six) at 514 Wilson Street, for local members of the Nation of Islam. The 1956 edition of the Green Book lists the Sphinx Restaurant, later known as the Sphinx Club, at 2107 Pennsylvania Avenue. The last edition was published in 1964, coinciding with the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act. 115

      In October 1957, Walter T. Dixon, Democratic City Council member from the Fourth District and then the only Black member of the City Council, introduced a bill to "prohibit discrimination in hotels, restaurants, taverns, stores, theaters, amusement establishments and other places of public accommodation.” 116 While the bill won support from the Baltimore Commission on Human Relations, opposition from the Maryland Hotel Association and Maryland and Baltimore Restaurant Association helped delay the bill for years. By 1958, the Sun noted: “Despite organized demands, the City Council on several occasions has shown its reluctance to enact an ordinance to compel the owners of public accommodations to open their doors to Negroes.” 117

      However, the Sun continued to point to a March 1958 report from the Maryland Commission on Interracial Problems and Relations as evidence that “business men in Baltimore gradually have been lowering their racial bars.” 118 The paper’s enthusiasm for voluntary desegregation elides the very limited changes that had taken place so far. While a number of hotels no longer excluded Black people from their dining rooms, only three—the Lord Baltimore (B-3720), the Congress Hotel (B-2250), and the Sheraton–Belvedere (B-980)—had nondiscrimination policies in place for guest accommodations. While most downtown theaters had ended the exclusion of Black patrons, many restaurants and lunch counters continued to exclude Black customers.

      A new movement of students took up the cause of discrimination at department store restaurants on March 26, 1960, when Black student activists from Morgan State College attempted to purchase food at the Northwood Shopping Center and at downtown establishments in a coordinated effort to test their discriminatory policies. Downtown, they succeeded at Hochschild Kohn (B-2280) at 200–208 N. Howard Street Stewart’s (B-2290), at 226–232 W. Lexington Street, shut their food counters to all customers, white and black and, Hutzler’s (B-2278, B-2279, B-2285), at 210–228 N. Howard Street and 309 W. Saratoga Street, refused to serve a group of 20 students who waited for three hours before leaving.

      The sit-ins continued through April 17, 1960, Easter Sunday, when the Sun reported that Albert D. Hutzler met with Furman Templeton from the Baltimore Urban League, along with activists David Glenn and Robert B. Watts. After the meeting, Hutzler announced: “We have lifted restrictions. Negroes will be served in our restaurants.” Hecht-May (B-3673), at 118 N. Howard Street, and other downtown stores followed Hochschild Kohn and Hutzler’s with the change.

      A large collection of letters sent to Hochschild Kohn after their policy change in late March 1960 documented varied attitudes to desegregation in the period. Interestingly, there are 10 times the number of letters in support of integration, likely because activists recognized both the importance of integration and the fact that the change remained “frighteningly reversible.” Some opponents of desegregation described a rationale of “consumer choice,” as one woman wrote: “Do you realize that by so doing [integrating], you are taking from the White Race any choice they had of segregation or integration when dining outside of their homes?” 119

      Others threatened to stay away from the downtown store, now that the policy of segregation had been abandoned. These threats reflected the racialized geography of the Baltimore metropolitan region as segregated white suburbs quickly expanded after World War II. Historian Paul Kramer notes that

      more than one of the racist critics wrote as self-conscious suburbanites, warning the downtown that integration would further provoke the flight of white residences and businesses. In the process, they revealed the extent to which the suburbs were imagined as racial islands still free of black “invasion”: downtown segregation was the only remaining draw that could pull whites in from their comfortable, newly-designed racial enclaves. 120

      Notably, department stores had their own role in the suburban exodus with the first suburban location for Hutzler’s established in Towson in 1952. They quickly continued their suburban expansion with new stores at Eastpoint Mall (1956) in Dundalk and Westview Mall (1958) near Catonsville. Hochschild Kohn expanded within the city including a new location at the Edmondson Village Shopping Center (B-4223) at the city’s western edge in 1947 and in a modern new store at York Road and Belvedere Avenue (B-1349) in 1948. Hochschild Kohn’s later suburban growth included Harundale Mall (1958), The Mall in Columbia (1971), and Security Square Mall (1972) in Woodlawn.

      Black Baltimoreans also saw the important role of suburbanization in reshaping the debate over segregated public accommodations in downtown Baltimore. For example, in August 1957, the Afro-American’s “If You Ask Me” columnist Elizabeth Murphy Phillips, remarked: “The big downtown stores and business have not welcomed colored people in the past… Their white only customers have moved to the suburbs and the colored customers they spurned are moving out too. So, the heart of the city is no longer Lexington and Howard Sts.” 121

      On May 1, 1962, local leaders of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Civic Interest Group (CIG) held a joint meeting voicing their frustration with the long delay in securing a public accommodation law, remarking: “Both organizations are sick and tired of stalling tactics and phony excuses by certain members of the City Council and other so-called supporters of a public accommodations bill for the city.” Leo Burroughs, speaking for CIG, said the groups were “likely to stage demonstrations in the city without notice at any time.” A few weeks later, activists from around the country came to Baltimore for a three-day conference on civil rights, organized by CORE, CIG, and the Nonviolent Action Group, with meetings in the churches around Lafayette Square. 122

      Under pressure from activists, in June 1962, Baltimore passed a public accommodations bill, while still exempting any business where revenue from alcoholic beverages exceeded revenue from food sales. Maryland finally followed with a new state law in January 1963. 123 Maryland may have preceded many other Southern states but the national push for public accommodations legislation secured laws in Wilmington, Delaware St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri and El Paso, Texas all around the same time. 124 In late February 1964, the local NAACP helped secure the passage of the Baltimore City Public Accommodations and Fair Employment Practice Ordinances strengthening the 1962 ordinance with a guarantee to end “lawful discrimination in ‘employment practices, educational institutions, places of public accommodation, resort or amusement, and health and welfare agencies.’” 125

      19 thoughts on &ldquo “Over Lincoln’s dead body” … the bizarre story &rdquo

      I got to know Abe Lincoln when I was just a boy by means of books, movies and stories. To think how much a role he played for the goodness of mankind, it’s no wonder why he is so steeped in tradition. And yes, his death was something I also remember, but to loose his son Willie back in 1862 was something I could not get over, especially knowing his father could not except his death until a week or two of his passing.
      Abe’s passing did in fact leave something for us all to behold, but now that his family and him are finally buried in a peaceful setting, let’s hope that the man above will indeed say ” Lincoln Did His Best in times of war and during the best of times.

      Although I was aware of much of this information (not all), it was great to read it all in one well-written article. After I read it, I looked at the signatures of Robt Lincoln and John Stuart that are framed together on one of my walls with greater appreciation.

      I’ve heard that LIFE Magazine published photos of Lincoln before he was buried for the final time. Anyone know?

      Early in 1963, LIFE magazine did print an article on the burial of Lincoln in 1901 with photos of the event. Check on the web for additional photos of the event that were not used with the article. Alan Leake

      Thanks Alan…I’ll check that out!


      I saw this story on the History Channel some time ago. I was amazed how this great man was treated in death. Thank you.

      The only thing missing to this excellent account is the fact that the photograph was not discovered for some 87 years until I found it on July 20, 1952 and I was acquainted with Fleetwood Lindley–two teen-agers who contributed to the Lincoln Story. Fleetwood was 13 years old when he accompanied his father to the final burial. And I was 14 years old when he discovered this last photo taken of President Lincoln–in death.

      Why, do you suppose, Lincoln’s body is so important compared to so many other dead presidents? The civil war? It seems like there is something more to it…

      Dang, the best US President ever didn’t get to rest his bodily remains in peace for a da*m long time.

      I grew up in Petersburg and spent my youth visiting New Salem for their events and then also after I move to Springfield taking all of my relatives, over the following decades, to all of the Lincoln places. However, I still had not realized that his body had been moved so many times. This is a very informative and interesting article. Thank you and I’ll have more to tell when I give free tours !

      Hi! I read this story several times before but enjoyed reading it again. Liked your way of narration a lot. By the way, your alias is fantastic! I am a lover of both ‘history’ and ‘mystery’ myself and glad to see how you combined them. Any kind of history has some element of mystery about it, isn’t it?

      Don, having not heard this story, I was amazed at how it took so many years to settle the President’s remains into a final, safe resting place.

      Hi Ellen. Thanks for taking the time to read it…much appreciated. Can’t believe all that happened to Lincoln, after his death.

      I appreciate reading a part of history that is very good that Lincoln’s body is finally resting and won’t be disturbed any more. Lincoln was a good man and president I don’t why people would dig up a dead body and steal it that is so wrong. Than you for writing this.

      I’ve waited for this story to appear since we discussed it in July at Iowa. Very interesting as usual!

      Thanks Terry…I enjoyed writing it. As always, I appreciate your input. See you at Daytona!

      Absolutely fascinating! Thank you so much for this story.

      Thanks Sue…appreciate you taking the time to read it!

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