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Battle of Lutetia, May 52 BC

Battle of Lutetia, May 52 BC


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Battle of Lutetia, May 52 BC

The battle of Lutetia (May 52 B.C.) was a victory won by Labienus, Caesar's most able lieutenant during the Gallic War, over the Senones and Parisii on the left bank of the Seine close to the centre of modern Paris.

After the capture of Avaricum Caesar split his army in half. He took six legions south, into the lands of the Arverni, to besiege Gergovia on the Allier, while Labienus was sent north, with four legions, into the lands of the Senones and Parisii.

Labienus decided to set up his main base at Agendicum (now Sens, on the Yonne River fifty miles to the south east of Paris). Leaving his baggage and his newest recruits at Agendicum he then advanced towards the Parisii town of Lutetia, built on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of modern Paris. Labienus's line of advance took him along the left bank of the Seine.

As the Romans advanced towards the town a strong Gallic army was formed to oppose them. Command of this army was given to the elderly but experienced Senones chief Camalugenus. Lutetia was protected by marshes, which Camalugenus used to stop the Roman advance.

After a futile attempt to force his way across the marsh, Labienus decided to attempt to outflank the Gauls. He pulled back up the Seine to Melodunum (modern Melun, twenty miles south-east of Lutetia). Most of the fighting men of Melun were away with the army at Lutetia, and so the Romans were able to capture the town without much difficulty and begin their march up the right bank of the Seine back towards Lutetia.

Although Labienus had successfully crossed the river, he was still unable to capture Lutetia. As the Romans approached the town Camalugenus ordered it to be burnt down. The bridges across the Seine were destroyed, and the Gauls took up a new position on the south bank of the river opposite the Roman camp.

Events further south now intervened and placed the entire Roman expedition in the north in jeopardy. The Aedui tribe, Rome's firmest ally in Gaul, joined the revolt. Caesar was forced to abandon the siege of Gergovia, and was believed to be trapped on the wrong side of the Loire to help Labienus.

This news encouraged the Bellovaci tribe to join the revolt. Labienus was now trapped between two Gallic armies – the Bellovaci to his north and the Senones and Parisii to his south. He was forced to abandon any plans for further campaigns in the north and instead find a way to fight his way back across the Seine and back to his baggage at Agendicum.

Labienus decided to try and convince the Gauls that he was planning to march up the Seine, while his main force actually crossed the river downstream from Lutetia. Overnight the boats he had used to cross the river originally were quietly floated down the river. Five cohorts of infantry and a flotilla of small boats were then ordered to move noisily upstream. Five more cohorts guarded the camp while the remaining three legions marched quietly downstream to the boats. Catching the Gallic scouts by surprise all three legions and their cavalry were quickly shipped across the river and were able to form up ready to defend themselves against the inevitable Gallic attack.

Camalugenus responded by splitting his own force. One part was sent upstream to watch the Roman diversion and one remained in the Gallic camp, but the largest part of the army advanced downstream to attack the Romans. Caesar mentions two of the three legions involved. The Seventh Legion was posted on the Roman right, where it won a quick victory, forcing its opponents to turn and flee. The Twelfth Legion, on the Roman left (presumably closest to the river), was harder pressed by a force led by Camalugenus.

The battle was decided by the Seventh Legion, which having won its own battle turned to its left and attacked Camalugenus from the rear. The Gallic right was surrounded, but refused to surrender and was virtually wiped out. Camalugenus was amongst the dead.

When the force that was guarding the Gallic camp discovered that a battle had broken out they advanced towards the battlefield, but they arrived too late to make any difference to the fighting. Instead they attempted to make a stand on a hill behind the original Gallic lines, but were swept away by the victorious Roman legions.

Having defeated the Senones and Parisii Labienus retreated back to his camp at Agendicum, where he collected his baggage and the new recruits. His force then moved to join Caesar, and the reunited Roman army moved south-east to the decisive siege of Alesia.


Puzzling artifacts found at Europe's oldest battlefield

Archaeologists have spent decades trying to figure out who fought near Germany's Tollense River some 3,300 years ago. Now, an unusual cache deepens the mystery of the brutal battle.

Since 1997, archaeologists have been excavating miles of land along the Tollense River in northern Germany and recovering the weapons and remains of hundreds of men who fought on its banks here around 1,200 B.C. The sheer scale and violence at Tollense— considered Europe’s oldest battlefield site—put to rest a stubborn 20th-century idea that Bronze Age Europe was a relatively peaceful place.

But what prompted the fighting at Tollense? Was this a battle between different groups of people from across Europe, or just a very large, localized family feud? Researchers continue to examine clues from bones and weapons found at the site, and a paper published this week in Antiquity looks at an unusual group of artifacts that provide yet another twist in the decades-long search to understand exactly who fought at Tollense, and why.


Battle of Lutetia, May 52 BC - History



Battle of Gergovia &mdash 52 BC

The Battle of Gergovia was part of the Gallic Wars .

Reconstruction and animation of the Battle of Gergovia presented by the French.

Go here for the entire and utterly awesome presentation. (Speak French, it will help. If you don't, it's still fantastic.)

Who Fought the Battle of Gergovia?

Vercingetorix and various tribes

Who Won the Battle of Gergovia? Who Lost?

The Romans lost the battle due to Caesar's strategic withdrawal. Almost 700 Roman soldiers and 46 Roman centurions were killed.

But Vercingetorix and his team didn't have long to celebrate. Alesia was just around the corner.

The Battle of Gergovia is also called the Siege of Gergovia .

And rightly so, because Vercingetorix and his men were defending the fortified city of Gergovia that was located on a flat hill top. (See graphic at the top of this page.)

Here is Gergovia on a map:


Julius Caesar eventually abandoned the siege. It was his first outright defeat in the Gallic Wars.


In his own account of this battle Caesar blamed it on his soldiers, for which, by the way, they received a good scolding.

Read Caesar's account of this battle . Scroll down to chapter 52 for the official rebuke.


Guide of Paris, France

Paris was founded around the end of the 3rd century BC by the Gauls who were called Parisii. In 52 BC Julius Caesar's legions conquered the territory, founding the Roman city, Lutetia on the earlier settlement. Christianity was introduced in the second century AD, while the Roman domination ended in the 5th century with the arrival of the Franks. In 508 Clovis I established Paris as the capital of the kingdom.

The Middle Ages was a period of great prosperity for the city of Paris: construction was started on the cathedral of Notre Dame in the 12th century (the work would continue for almost 200 years), while the swampy area of the Marais was drained to become the area now called the Right Bank. Sainte Chapelle (which contained the remains of the True Cross) was completed in 1248 and the Sorbonne opened its doors in 1253

The Hundred Years' War broke out between Norman England and the Capetians of France in the 14th century, which ended with the defeat of France in 1415 and English rule over Paris. It was only thanks to Joan of Arc that around the middle of the 1400's the English were driven out and Paris was reconquered.

The 1500's were also marked by constant wars, the battles between the Catholics and Huguenots (French Protestants) were infamous and resulted in the massacre of Saint Bartholomew in which 3000 Protestants were killed in the name of religion.

At the end of the 1600's Louis XIV, the Sun King, was crowned in the period of the country's greatest splendor, which can be seen in the monumental palace of Versailles, but this peace did not last long. In 1789 the Parisians revolted and the famous fall of the Bastille occurred, the event that started the French Revolution. The ideals of the revolution shortly paved the way for the Reign of Terror, during which 17,000 people were guillotined, including some of the patriots who had started the revolt. To give the country stability the general Napoleon Bonaparte took over, with the title of Consul for life. In 1804 the Pope crowned him Emperor of the French and Napoleon extended his reign to much of Europe, until his 1815 defeat at Waterloo, in Belgium.

After the fall of Napoleon, a coup d'etat brought Napoleon III to power in 1851 Over a period of 17 years, the new emperor assigned Baron Hausmann with major city planning projects, including the construction of wide boulevards, which changed the appearance of Paris for good. The war with Prussia led to the fall of the emperor and start of the Third Republic at the end of the 1800's.

The Nazi occupation of the capital in 1940 was a sad time in French history. They controlled Paris until its liberation on 25 August 1944. At the end of the war, Paris reconquered its role as promoter of innovation and encouraged a strong liberal movement which reached its peak with the famous student revolt of 1968. During the 1980's, president François Mitterand started the so-called "grands projects", a series of significant city planning projects which brought Paris into the third millennium.


Anchorite Karja: With all due respect, A'dal sent us here to investigate Kael's activities, not mount a full-scaled attack.

Spymaster Thalodien: Look, sweetheart. No one's talking about storming Tempest Keep ourselves, but when we see a target of opportunity we have to take it.

Exarch Orelis: Hold your tongue, Knave! Do not dare use that tone with a priestess of the Light!

Magistrix Larynna:[Thalassian] DOr shar'adore da shando (I'm surrounded by idiots!)

Anchorite Karja: The magistrix will be happy to know I'm fluent in Thalassian. Your courtesy is not lost on me.

Anchorite Karja: Back to the topic. we should focus our attention on these manaforges. We need to learn what the enemy is doing with them and why.

Magistrix Larynna: We've told you all there is to know! Do you forget that many of us used to be trusted followers of Kael'thas?

Spymaster Thalodien: . and just look at where that got us!

Exarch Orelis: Even you must admit that your information from defectors is outdated and unreliable. Let us make calculated attacks on these manaforges and gather what information we can.

Spymaster Thalodien: Finally some talk of action from the big guy!

  • The city can be reached via [ Dimensional Ripper - Area 52 ] .
  • The innkeeper in Area 52 does not sell any goods, but food and drink can be purchased from Gant.

There are numerous areas where you can attack the opposing factions (and vice versa) and guards will not be aggroed. It is advisable to stay in a building or fly above the ground if you need to go away from keyboard if you play in a PvP realm or are PvP flagged. Area 52 Death Machines kill roof-campers, but engineers can control them with [ Gnomish Universal Remote ] .


Celts in Ptolemaic Egypt

Many Celts in the armies of foreign countries came from Galatia, an area once situated in the highlands of central Anatolia in what is now Turkey. From the early 3 rd century, Celtic warriors from the Eastern European tribes were included in the Egyptian battle-order. During the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphios, a band of four thousand Celtic warriors were recruited from the Balkans, with the aid of Antigonos Gonatas of Makedon.

According to the Greek historian Pausanias, the 4,000 Celtic warriors helped Ptolemy to win a crushing victory over his half-brother usurper, Ptolemy Keraunos. He also claims that the war-leaders of the Celtic bands wanted to overthrow both Ptolemy and Magas of Cyrene, a Greek Macedonian nobleman who was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Their goal was to set themselves up as the rulers of Egypt. To punish this Celtic rebellion, Ptolemy expelled these exotic warriors to a small island in the Nile to die of starvation. However, this episode did not mean the end of the association between the Celts and the Ptolemies.

In 250 BC, Ptolemy II hired more Celtic warriors to assist the native Egyptian army in road construction and to put down rebellions. He and his son Ptolemy III Euergetes, who became Pharaoh in 247 BC, also employed Celtic mercenaries. This time they marched through Syria and Judea in a victorious campaign against Seleukos Kallinikos, a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, in the invasion of the Seleucid Empire, ravaging Mesopotamia and western Persia. During the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopater (222-205 BC), Celtic soldiers had become a part of the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt. Until the fall of Ptolemaic dynasty, they remained a very important part of the army. Ptolemy V Epiphanes hired an army of Thracian Celts to put down a revolt of the native Egyptian population in Upper Egypt. It is also known that the last ruler of the dynasty – Cleopatra – used the Celtic mercenaries.

Many Celtic warriors found a new home in Egypt, married local women and stayed in the land of the Pharaohs for the remainder of their lives. According to the Greek historian Polybios, the intermarriage between Celtic warriors, and native Egyptian and Greek girls were very common. The children of Celtic-Egyptian marriages were known by the slang term e pigovoi.


Persia

The background of the battle is dominated by the rise of the Persian Empire – which is often described as the world’s first superpower. By 500 BC it had come to cover a huge swathe of territory from India to the Greek city-states of western Turkey, and its ambitious ruler Darius I had aims at further expansion.

Like the Roman Empire, the Persian was religiously tolerant and allowed rule by local elites to continue relatively uninhibited, but in this early stage (its founder, Cyrus the Great, had died in 530) rebellions were still common. The most serious occurred in Ionia – the western part of Turkey, where the Greek city-states threw off their Persian satraps and declared themselves democracies in response to a Persian-backed attack on the independent city of Naxos.

In this they were inspired by the democratic example of Athens, which was tied to many of the old Ionian cities through past wars and intrigues, and by a close cultural bond as many of the Ionian cities had been founded by Athenian colonists. In response to Ionian pleas and Persian arrogance in their diplomacy, the Athenians and the Eritreans sent small task forces to aid the revolt, which saw some initial success before being brutally put down by the might of Darius’ armies.

After the sea battle at Lade in 494 BC, the war was all but over, but Darius had not forgotten the impudence of the Athenians in aiding his foes.

The vast Persian Empire in 490 BC.


Battle of Lutetia, May 52 BC - History

Posidonius – Acclaimed as the greatest polymath of his age.
Chiomara – A Galatian noble woman and the wife of Orgiagon.
Battle of the Allia – Fought between the Senones and the Romans in 390 BCE.
Diviciacus – Druid from antiquity.
Aedui – Gallic people and Tribe of Diviciacus.
Diodorus Siculus – Greek historian .
Helvetii – A Gallic tribal confederation.
Orgetorix – Aristocrat among the Helvetii.
Battle of Magetobriga – Fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul.
Ariovistus – Leader of the Suebi.
Suebi – A large group of related Germanic peoples.
Suetonius – Roman historian.
Cassius Dio – Roman statesman, Greek origin.
Belgae – Large confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul.
Nervii – One of the most powerful Belgic tribes.
Ambiorix – Leader of a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul.
Veneti – A seafaring Celtic people.
Dumnorix – A chieftain of the Aedui and brother to Diviciacus.
Arverni – A Celtic tribe.
Vercingetorix – A king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe.
Siege of Avaricum – Avaricum in the winter of 52 BC.
The Battle of Gergovia – The chief fortified town of the Arverni.
Noviodunum – Meaning “new fort”.
Oppidum – Large fortified Iron Age settlement.
Battle of Alesia – Military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in 52 BCE.


Horses in Mythology

There are also famous horses in mythology. For example, Sleipnir was Odin’s favorite horse in Norse mythology. The horse was grey, it was the son of the trickster god Loki and it had eight legs. Because it had so many legs, it was the fastest horse in all of the nine worlds.

Mythology also speaks about the unicorn, the Pegasus, the equalacorn (the Pegasus with a unicorn horn), the dragon horse of Xuan Zang and the hippocampus (the Phoenician and Greek sea horse). The colors of the horses also have various interpretations. For example, white horses are associated with warrior heroes, fertility and the end of time. The Grim Reaper is said to ride a white horse.

It is clear that horses have played an important role in the life of humans for tens of thousands of years, and continue to do so to this day.

Top image: Horses on Bianditz mountain, in Navarre, Spain. Behind them Aiako mountains can be seen. Source: ( CC BY-SA 2.0 )


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