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Head of Ashurnasirpal II

Head of Ashurnasirpal II


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Nimrud

Nimrud ( / n ɪ m ˈ r uː d / Syriac: ܢܢܡܪܕ ‎ Arabic: النمرود ‎) is an ancient Assyrian city located 30 kilometres (20 mi) south of the city of Mosul, and 5 kilometres (3 mi) south of the village of Selamiyah (Arabic: السلامية ‎), in the Nineveh Plains in Upper Mesopotamia. It was a major Assyrian city between approximately 1350 BC and 610 BC. The city is located in a strategic position 10 kilometres (6 mi) north of the point that the river Tigris meets its tributary the Great Zab. [1] The city covered an area of 360 hectares (890 acres). [2] The ruins of the city were found within one kilometre (1,100 yd) of the modern-day Assyrian village of Noomanea in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.

The name Nimrud was recorded as the local name by Carsten Niebuhr in the mid-18th century. [3] [note 1] In the mid 19th century, biblical archaeologists proposed the Biblical name of Kalhu (the Biblical Calah), based on a description of the travels of Nimrod in Genesis 10. [note 2]

Archaeological excavations at the site began in 1845, and were conducted at intervals between then and 1879, and then from 1949 onwards. Many important pieces were discovered, with most being moved to museums in Iraq and abroad. In 2013, the UK's Arts and Humanities Research Council funded the "Nimrud Project", directed by Eleanor Robson, whose aims were to write the history of the city in ancient and modern times, to identify and record the dispersal history of artefacts from Nimrud, [4] distributed amongst at least 76 museums worldwide (including 36 in the United States and 13 in the United Kingdom). [5]

In 2015, the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) announced its intention to destroy the site because of its "un-Islamic" Assyrian nature. In March 2015, the Iraqi government reported that ISIL had used bulldozers to destroy excavated remains of the city. Several videos released by ISIL showed the work in progress. In November 2016 Iraqi forces retook the site, and later visitors also confirmed that around 90% of the excavated portion of city had been completely destroyed. The ruins of Nimrud have remained guarded by Iraqi forces ever since. [6]


Roman Villa Borg

R uins of a grand Roman countryside villa (villa rustica) were discovered by a local school teacher at the end of the 19th century outside the village of Borg in the municipality of Perl (Germany). The villa consisted of three wings covering an area of more than 7.5 hectares. The complex was excavated in the late 1980s and a plan to reconstruct an authentic representation of the buildings as they originally appeared in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD began in 1994. The project was completed in 2008 although further excavation work is still undergoing.


Ashurnasirpal II: Human-Headed Winged Lion

Audrey Pfeifer
Artwork: Human–headed winged lion (Lamassu) 883–859 B.C. Neo–Assyrian period, reign of Ashurnasirpal II Excavated at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Mesopotamia Alabaster (gypsum) H. 10 ft. 3 1/2 in.

Audrey Pfeifer
ART 111
Professor Scheriff
13th November 2014
Ashurnasipal II – Human-headed Winged Lion (Lamassu)
Ashunasipal II was one of the great, if not the greatest, king of Assyria and ruled from 883-859 B.C.E.. He was one of the earliest conquers of Assyria and he gained territory as far west as the Mediterranean. After he gained the land of Assyria, he turned ancient Kalhu into Nimrund, which he then made the capital. This capital was about 900 acres surrounded by a mud-brick wall. The wall was 42 feet high, 120 feet thick and five miles long. In the southwest corner of this blockaded area were temples, palaces, and administrative offices. After everything was finished in 879 B.C.E., Ashurnasipal II held a festival where 69,574 people attended, to celebrate the completion of their new capital. An inscription documenting that day stated, ‘“the happy people of all the lands together with the people of Kalhu—for ten days I feasted, wined, bathed, and honored them and sent them back to their home in peace and joy.’”(Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art).

Ashrunasipal II’s human headed winged lion reliefs are crumbled today but they stand in the Metropolitan Museum of Art rebuilt and standing are standing strong with pride. Made in 879 B.C.E. these, over ten feet tall, creatures were designed to guard the palace. They were put at the entrance of the throne room. Large statues, like the Lamassi, were often used, and still are, to protect people and buildings of importance. This throne

room was designed with different reliefs on the walls showing the king and his attendants interacting with guardians depicted as supernatural figures. The lamassi, as they are called, in the doorway of the room show their guardianship with their horned caps that signify their divine nature and the belt that portrays their power (Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art). One figure is a bull with a human head and the other a lion with a human head. These animals alone show strength and power. The lion with his natural ability of hunting, and the bull showing is strengths with his horns and his power to charge at an enemy are both mixed with the human head for human intelligence. The idea of mixing humans with animals made them even more powerful.

Ashurnasipal II wanted these creatures to guard this room, as well as the rest of the palace. With them standing so strongly in the doorway of the throne room, which showed other reliefs of Ashunasipal II and guardian-like figures, one could think that these lamassi were also protecting him from losing his role as ruler, and his contact with ones of higher power than himself. In an inscription written about the palace, it says, ‘“Beasts of the mountains and the seas, which I had fashioned out of white limestone and alabaster, I had set up in its gates. I made it [the palace] fittingly imposing.’”(Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art). These reliefs are two different reliefs in one. The head, all the way down to the front feet of the creatures, is high relief, meaning they stick out very far from the original material. The body however, is low to medium relief, meaning it does not stick out as much. The detail on all the reliefs are incredible, especially the winged guardians. There

is such intricate detail for the wings and the face and hair. Each curl of the beard is much like a pattern but is extremely intricate, the feathers on the wings resemble feathers but remain to look much like a patter as well. The feathers look very much as if they were the same one that was just twisted and turned, and shrunk and enlarged to make a full wing. The faces were designed very traditionally. There is a slight archaic smile on both the creatures faces. They are both wearing a horned hat that was common for gods and kings to be shown wearing. The faces are the quintessential faces for all ancient near east artwork. They were designed with a total of five legs. This does not mean that the animal has five legs but people from the ancient near east would depict things for the way they were. If one were to view a lion or a horse from the front it would seem to only have two legs, where if it were walking and one saw it from a profile perspective it would appear to actually have four. They did this with people too. People were shown to with all their features, their face was at a profile perspective where their eyes were head on, their waists were twisted to view them from the front but their feet were twisted to the profile view as well. They would place the hands palm up to show all five fingers but show them with the thumbs both on the same side.

Although it was not uncommon to show godly figures with the king, it was slightly unusual because most of the artwork in his reign usually involved the king slaying the enemy, whomever that was at the time. Most art spoken about during this time period was about war and death of the other civilizations that the Assyrians were conquering. ‘“The vast majority feature depictions of the Assyrian army on campaign in foreign lands’ accumulating foreign prisoners and booty, and the Assyrian king receiving

the tributaries and tribute of foreign lands.( n6) In other words, the narrative decorative programs in Assyrian palaces focus for the most part on the interaction between Assyrians and non-Assyrians, and they portray this interaction in terms of hostility and the ultimate subjugation of foreign lands and people’” (Cifarelli). To have a whole room of Ashurnasipal II interacting with half-human, half-animal, guardian like creatures, shows the important status, and how important the protection of Ashurnasipal II was. Not only does it show this to us today, but, it shows the people of that time the importance of their ruler.

As stated in the passage earlier, these statues were made of limestone and alabaster. These are sturdy materials that were used for important art that was meant to stay up for a long time. The main reason why these statues are so important and need to be held up over a long period of time is so Ashurnasipal II’s status, as a good ruler with a connection with the gods, stays as it is when he is gone. Archeologists can tell the importance of sculpture work mostly on the material that was used to make them. If an item was just made with sand, then the piece was most likely of unimportance and we may not even know that it existed. Pieces like the lamassi were meant to stand tall for many many years and indeed they did.

These two reliefs of the ancient near east had a lot of history behind them. Between Ashurnasipal II’s ruling and him being king, to the overall history of the artwork of the near east. They stood strong and show the projected the king and his throne room. These pieces show the stern, strong, powerful, protected state under the ruling of Ashurnasipal II.


Ashurnasirpal II’s Banquet Inscription

[This is] the palace of Ashurnasirpal, the high priest of Ashur, chosen by Enlil and Ninurta, the favorite of Anu and Dagan [who is] destruction personified among all the great gods – the legitimate king, the king of the world, the king of Assyria, son of Tukult-Ninurta, great king, ligitimate king, king of the world, king of Assyria [who was] the son of Adad-nirari, likewise great king, legitimate king, king of the world and king of Assyria – the heroic warrior who always acts upon trust- inspiring signs given by his lord Ashur and [therefore] has no rival among the rulers of the four quarters [of the world] the shepherd of all mortals, not afraid of battle [but] an onrushing flood which brooks no resistance the king who subdues the unsubmissive [and] rules over all mankind the king who always acts upon trust-inspiring signs given by his lords, the great gods, and therefore has personally conquered all countries who has acquired dominion over the mountain regions and received their tribute he takes hostages, triumphs over all the countries from beyond the Tigris to the Lebanon and the Great Sea, he has brought into submission the entire country of Laqe and the region of Suhu as far as the town of Rapiqu personally he conquered [the region] from the source of the Subnat River to Urartu.

I returned to the territory of my own country [the regions] from the pass [which leads to] the country Kirrure as far as Gilzani, from beyond the Lower Zab River to the town of Til-bari which is upstream of the land of Zamua – from Til-sha-abtani to Til-sha-sabtani – [also] Hirimu and Harrutu [in] the fortified border region of Babylonia [Karduniash]. I listed as inhabitants of my own country [the people living] from the pass of Mt. Babite to the land of Hashmar.

Ashur, the Great Lord, has chosen me and made a prounouncement concerning my world rule with his own holy mouth [as follows]: Ashurnasirpal is the king whose fame is power!

I took over again the city of Calah in that wisdom of mine, the knowledge which Ea, the king of the subterranean waters, has bestowed upon me, I removed the old hill of rubble: I dug down to the water level I heaped up a [new] terrace [measuring] from the water level to the upper edge 120 layers of bricks upon that I erected as my royal seat and for my personal enjoyment 7 beautiful halls [roofed with] boxwood, Magan-ash, cedar, cypress, juniper, boxwood and Magan-ash with bands of bronze I hung them in their doorways I surrounded them [the doors] with decorative bronze bolts to proclaim my heroic deeds I painted on [the palaces’] walls with vivid blue paint how I have marched across the mountain ranges, the foreign countries and the seas, my conquests in all countries I had lapis lazuli colored glazed bricks made and set [them in the wall] above their gates. I brought in people from the countries over which I rule, those who were conquered by me personally, [that is] from the country Suhi [those of] the town Great [?], from the entire land of Zamua, the countries Bit-Zamani and [Kir]rure, the town of Sirqu with is across the Euphrates, and many inhabitants of Laqe, of Syria and [who are subjects] of Lubarna, the ruler of Hattina I settled them therein [the city of Calah].

I dug a canal from the Upper Zab River I cut [for this purpose] straight through the mountains[s] I called it Patti- hegalli [“Channel-of-Abundance”] I provided the lowlands along the Tigris with irrigation I planted orchards at [the city’s] outskirts, with all sorts of fruit trees.

I pressed the grapes and offered [them] as first fruits in a libation to my lord Ashur and to all the sanctuaries of my country. I [then] dedicated that city to my lord Ashur.

[I collected and planted in my garden] from the countries through which I marched and the mountains which I crossed, the trees [and plants raised from] seeds from wherever I discovered [them, such as]: cedars, cypress, simmesallu-perfume trees, burasu-junipers, myrrh-producing trees, dapranu-junipers, nut- bearing trees, date palms, ebony, Magan-ash, olive trees, tamarind, oaks, tarpi’u-terebinth trees, luddu-nut-bearing trees, pistachio and cornel-trees, mehru-trees, semur-trees, tijatu- trees, Kanish oaks, willows, sadanu-trees, pomegranates, plum trees, fir trees, ingirasu-trees, kamesseru-pear trees, supurgillu-bearing trees, fig trees, grape vines, angasu-pear trees, aromatic sumlalu-trees, titip-trees…. In the gardens in [Calah] they vied with each other in fragrance the paths [in the garden were well kept], the irrigation weirs [distributed the water evenly] its pomegranates glow in the pleasure garden like the stars in the sky, they are interwoven like grapes on the vine …in the pleasure garden…in the garden of happiness flourished like [cedar trees]….

I erected in Calah, the center of my overlordship, temples such as those of Enlil and Ninurta which did not exist there before I rebuilt in it the [following] temples of the great gods…. In them I established the [sacred] pedestals of these, my divine lords. I decorated them splendidly I roofed them with cedar beams, made large cedar doors, sheathed them with bands of bronze, placed them in their doorways. I placed representations made of shining bronze in their doorways. I made [the images of] their great godheads sumptuous with red gold and shining stones. I presented them with golden jewelry and many other precious objects which I had won as booty.

I lined the inner shrine of my lord Ninurta with gold and lapis lazuli, I placed at his pedestal fierce ushumgallu-dragons of gold. I performed his festival in the months Shabatu and Ululu. I arranged for them [the materials needed for] scatter and incense offerings so that his festival in Shabatu should be one of great display. I fashioned a statue of myself as king in the likeness of my own features out of red gold and polished stones and placed it before my lord Ninurta.

I organized the abandoned towns which during the rule of my fathers had become hills of rubble, and had many people settle therein I rebuilt the old palaces across my entire country in due splendor I stored in them barley and straw.

Ninurta and Palil, who love me as [their] high priest, handed over to me all the wild animals and ordered me to hunt [them]. I killed 450 big lions I killed 390 wild bulls from my open chariots in direct assault as befits a ruler I cut off the heads of 200 ostriches as if they were caged birds I caught 30 elephants in pitfalls. I caught alive 50 wild bulls, 140 ostriches [and] 20 big lions with my own…

I received five live elephants as tribute from the governor of Suhu [the Middle Euphrates region] and the governor of Lubda [SE Assyria toward Babylonia] they used to travel with me on my campaigns.

I organized herds of wild bulls, lions, ostriches and male and female monkys an dhad them breed like flocks [of domestic animals].

I added land to the land of Assyria, many people to its people.

When Ashurnasirpal, king of Assyria, inaugurated the palace of Calah, a palace of joy and [erected with] great ingenuity, he invited into it Ashur, the great lord and the gods of his entire country, [he prepared a banquet of] 1000 fattened head of cattle, 1000 calves, 10000 stable sheep, 15000 lambs — for my lady Ishtar [alone] 200 head of cattle [and] 1000 sihhu-sheep — 1000 spring lambs, 500 stages, 500 gazelles, 1000 ducks, 500 geese, 500 kurku-geese, 1000 mesuku-birds, 1000 qaribu-birds, 10000 doves, 10000 sukanunu-doves, 10000 other [assorted] small birds, 10000 [assorted] fish, 10000 jerboa, 10000 [assorted] eggs,� [jars of] beer, 10000 skins with wine, � wood crates with vegetables, 300 [containers with] oil, � [containers with] fine mixed beer, � pistachio cones, ….

When I inaugurated the palace at Calah I treated for ten days with food and drink 47074 persons, men and women, who were bid to come from across my entire country, [also] 5000 important persons, delegates from the country Suhu, from Hindana, Hattina, Hatti, Tyre, Sidon, Gurguma, Malida, Hubushka, Gilzana, Kuma [and] Musasir, [also] 16000 inhabitants of Calah from all ways of life, 1500 officials of all my palaces, altogether 69574 invited guests from all the [mentioned] countries including the people of Calah I [furthermore] provided them with the means to clean and anoint themselves. I did them due honors and sent them back, healthy and happy, to their own countries.

Source: “The Banquet of Ashurnasirpal II,” translated by A. Leo Oppenheim, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed. with Supplement, edited by James B. Pritchard (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969), 558-561.


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Relief with the head of a winged genius

Relief with the head of a winged genius
Northwest Palace, Nimrud, Iraq
Neo-Assyrian period, reign of Ashurnasirpal II, 883-859 BCE
Gypsum 64 x 61 cm
Inv. O.1934

Assyrian reliefs convey the taste for luxury and pomp of the Mesopotamian kings who reigned over the entire Near East in the early 1st millennium BCE. This relief, featuring a winged genius, a fragment of a panel at least 2,3 metres tall, and the 'standard inscription' carved over it, were part of a ritual scene frequently reproduced in the palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud. The genius wears a crown with horns, a traditional attribute of a protective spirit who must defend the king against demons and come to his aid to defeat his enemies. All the details are carefully rendered in conformity with Assyrian canon: the divine headpiece, the curly long hair and beard, the magnificent ear pendant and the fringed garment. The high relief creates interplays of light which distort the genius, who becomes an imposing guardian of the sovereign's new residence.

Discover this masterpiece on the online museum catalogue Carmentis, in the gallery Near East and Iran and in the book Masterpieces.


Ashurnasirpal II and a Winged Deity

This splendid series of five Assyrian bas-reliefs (see also 66.4.1, .2, .4, .5) from the ninth-century once decorated the inner walls of the northwest palace of Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883-859 BC).

This splendid series of five Assyrian bas-reliefs (see also 66.4.1, .2, .4, .5) from the ninth-century once decorated the inner walls of the northwest palace of Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883-859 BC). The site of ancient Calah (now called Nimrud), located on the Tigris River in northern Iraq, was first excavated by British archaeologist Austen Henry Layard in 1845. Calah was an ancient capital of Assyria probably founded in the thirteenth century BC. The city was developed under the reign of Ashurnasirpal II, who erected his great northwest palace on earlier ruins. Built of mud brick on stone foundations, the palace was embellished on its lower levels with a series of decorated slabs (from the upper Tigris quarries) that depicted the monarch's skill as a hunter/warrior, as a servant of the gods, and as a mighty king. One of the five panels depicts the king with a learned man. In one hand, the king holds a libation bowl in his other hand, he holds his bow, symbol of royal prowess. A long inscription in cuneiform on the reliefs has come to be known as Ashurnasirpal's "standard inscription" because it was repeated so frequently throughout the palace it mentions the king's prayer and his deeds in founding the city of Calah.

The reliefs were discovered in 1855 by a Scottish geologist, William Kenneth Loftus, after the departure of Layard. They were offered to the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, and for more than a century they were displayed near the entrance of that institution. In 1966, thanks to the generosity of Anna Bing Arnold, the reliefs were purchased and presented to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.


Quick Overview

Since it helps to remember things by seeing the big picture, I will try to represent that here.

    Scarlet Beast (Political entity used by the antichrist

  • 7 heads/mountains - History of political structure from which the final kingdom came about. (Gentile kingdoms through history)
  • 10 horns - Ten leaders of the 10 toes, which represent the 10 voting member-states of the EU
    • Little horn comes up from three plucked horns among the 10.

    This passage shows us that there is a single future &ldquoantichrist,&rdquo who is the beast of Revelation 13. It also shows us a spirit of antichrist, which is not held within the bounds of time and can be manifest in any point in time by any spirit, including ourselves. You are a spirit which manifests daily in the physical world through your temple of flesh. We should desire the Holy Spirit to manifest through us. Having accepted Christ, we accept the Comforter, the Holy Spirit who brings all things to remembrance. Thought: Voice of the Spirit


    Ashurnasirpal II

    Ashur-nasir-pal II (transliteration: Aššur-nāṣir-apli, meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir" [1] ) was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC.

    Ashurnasirpal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 883 BC. During his reign he embarked on a vast program of expansion, first conquering the peoples to the north in Asia Minor as far as Nairi and exacting tribute from Phrygia, then invading Aram (modern Syria) conquering the Aramaeans and Neo-Hittites between the Khabur and the Euphrates Rivers. His harshness prompted a revolt that he crushed decisively in a pitched, two-day battle. According to his monument inscription, while recalling this massacre he says: [2]

    Their men young and old I took prisoners. Of some I cut off their feet and hands of others I cut off the ears noses and lips of the young men's ears I made a heap of the old men's heads I made a minaret. I exposed their heads as a trophy in front of their city. The male children and the female children I burned in flames the city I destroyed, and consumed with fire.

    Following this victory, he advanced without opposition as far as the Mediterranean and exacted tribute from Phoenicia. On his return home, he moved his capital to the city of Kalhu (Nimrud).


    Watch the video: Gods, Heroes and Kings-Ashurnasirpal II Royal Cast Collection (February 2023).

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