4 April 1940

4 April 1940

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

4 April 1940

April 1940


Great Britain

Government forms a company to maintain trade with the Balkans during the war

Haunting echoes of horrific 1940 Little Falls train wreck

1 of 3 Inside page of the Times Union from April 21, 1940, showing the fatal train crash in Little Falls, N.Y., where an westbound New York Central Lake Shore Limited derailed and crossed two tracks killing 30, including the engineer, and injuring 100 on April 19, 1940. (Times Union) Show More Show Less

2 of 3 Front page of the Times Union from April 21, 1940, showing the fatal train crash in Little Falls, N.Y., where an westbound New York Central Lake Shore Limited derailed and crossed two tracks killing 30, including the engineer, and injuring 100 on April 19, 1940. (Times Union) Show More Show Less

The Lake Shore Limited was 21 minutes behind schedule when it pulled out of Albany at 10:09 p.m. on April 19, 1940, raked by sleet and wet snow.

Veteran engineer Jesse Earl, 65, of Albany, a month shy of retirement, was eager to make up for lost time. He pushed the throttle on Engine No. 5315 until it hurtled through the stormy blackness at more than 70 mph.

Nearly 200 people were aboard the 15-car train. Some passengers slept in berths in the nine Pullman sleepers, lulled into slumber by the gentle rocking as the train churned through the Mohawk Valley, bound for Chicago.

Earl had made this run hundreds of times, without incident, and was cognizant of the need to slow the train's speed to less than 45 mph on the sharp and treacherous bend 72 miles west of Albany at Little Falls where the track was squeezed between a cliff of bedrock and the Erie Canal. It was known as the Gulf Curve. And it was feared.

It was the site of a deadly train crash in 1903 and the New York Central Railroad &mdash "fast and safe" was its motto &mdash imposed a lower speed at the Little Falls curve in response.

Trying to shave precious minutes, Earl waited until he was than one mile from the curve before he applied the brakes. The train was traveling at more than 60 mph and perhaps as fast as 78 mph &mdash almost twice the recommended speed &mdash when the engine derailed and the locomotive slammed into the cliff. It exploded into a massive fireball of blue-orange flame and acrid black smoke that was seen and heard for miles around.

Cars and steel rails peeled off in the traumatic force and puddled into a twisted heap of torn and shredded metal that sent a high, keening mechanical screech echoing down the valley. The sickening noise was followed by the muted, plaintive screams of the injured.

The "worst train wreck of the century" left 31 dead and nearly 140 injured. Earl the engineer died in the crash, but a lengthy investigation concluded its cause was excessive speed and human error.

Bernard J. Malone Jr. grew up in Little Falls and recalled hearing his late father tell stories about pulling bodies from the wreckage 75 years ago.

"He was a young attorney in town who answered a siren and call for able-bodied men to rush to the Gulf Curve because there had been a terrible accident," said Malone, a retired state Supreme Court Appellate Division judge who was born three years after the wreck. His father, Bernard J. Malone Sr., died in 2004.

Malone said his father talked about what he witnessed in the aftermath of the Little Falls train catastrophe the way he spoke about his experiences in World War II.

"He talked about it only when he was asked, without much detail," Malone said. His father told Malone and his siblings when they were growing up to stay away from the crash site. "He said it was too dangerous."

When Malone, now senior counsel at Whiteman Osterman & Hanna law firm in Albany, saw the news on TV of Tuesday's deadly crash in Philadelphia &mdash which killed eight people and injured more than 200 &mdash he had an unsettling feeling in his gut. He was thrown back to a childhood shaped by the gruesome Little Falls wreck at the Gulf Curve.

On Tuesday, engineer Brandon Bostian, 32, of Queens, was traveling at 106 mph &mdash more than twice the speed limit of 50 mph&mdash as he entered a sharp curve and the train derailed.

"All I could think of was Little Falls and the Gulf Curve wreck," Malone said. "There's something terribly wrong in this age of advanced technology when one young man is placed in a situation where this could happen once again."

Railroad historian Richard Barrett, of Colonie, was similarly troubled by the haunting echoes between crashes attributed to excessive speed on curves and human error that include the Little Falls fatal crash 75 years ago a 2013 crash of a Metro-North Railroad train clocked at 82 mph in a 30 mph curve that killed four people and injured more than 70 in the Bronx and Tuesday's crash on the curve in Philadelphia.

"The Little Falls crash was a horrible scar on the face of the New York Central and it still took seven years before they spent the money and straightened the Gulf Curve," said Barrett, a trustee of the New York Central System Historical Society. He attended the society's convention in Utica May 1-3 and members visited the Little Falls crash site, where there is a commemorative plaque.

"Human error and excessive speed on curves continue to cause fatal train crashes 75 years after Little Falls," Barrett said. "How could the engineer in Philadelphia not realize he was doing twice the speed limit coming up to the curve in Philadelphia? It's frightening that it comes down to one person because humans make mistakes. They fall asleep. They doze off. They zone out. They get distracted on their cellphone."

Barrett has long been a proponent of positive train control, or PTC, a system that monitors and controls a train's operation and can override an engineer by applying brakes in cases of excessive speed approaching sharp turns.

"History keeps repeating itself since 1940 and the Little Falls wreck," Barrett said. "The technology exists. PTC is long overdue. There's no reason not to use it."

Barrett noted on that same stretch of track in Philadelphia's Port Richmond neighborhood on Sept. 6, 1943, the Pennsylvania Railroad's Congressional Limited derailed after an axle overheated and broke, causing a crash that killed 79 people and injured 117 others. It was one of the worst rail disasters in U.S. history.

"Documentaries on the worst train wrecks always show the Congressional Limited and the Little Falls crashes," Barrett said. "Unfortunately, we haven't learned the lessons of history."

4 April 1940 - History

Famous Birthdays by Month:

April 1, 1815 - Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor, statesman

April 1, 1928 - Jane Powell, actress/singer

April 1, 1932 - Debbie Reynolds, actress

April 1, 1939 - Ali MacGraw, actress

April 1, 1947 - David Eisenhower, author, grandson of Pres. Dwight Eisenhower

April 1, 1963 - General Hospital premiered on television.

April 2, 1513 - Ponce de Leon discovers Florida.

April 2, 1805 - Hans Christian Anderson, children's author

April 2, 1834 - Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, sculpted the Statue of Liberty

April 2, 1908 - Buddy Ebsen, actor

April 2, 1914 - Sir Alec Guinness, actor

April 2, 1920 - Jack Webb, actor, "Joe Friday "on TV series "Dragnet"

April 2, 1939 - Marvin Gaye, singer

April 2, 1955 - Dana Carvey, actor, comedian

April 3, 1783 - Washington Irving, author

April 3, 1924 - Marlon Brando, actor

April 3, 1924 - Doris Day, American actress, singer

April 3, 1926 - Virgil "Gus" Grissom, astronaut , died in a fire during a simulation aboard Apollo 1

April 3, 1942 - Wayne Newton, singer and actor

April 3, 1944 - Tony Orlando, singer

April 3, 1958 - Alec Baldwin, American actor

April 3, 1961 - Eddie Murphy, American actor, comedian

April 3, 1970 - Rick Schroder, actor

April 3, 1971 - Picabo Street, Olympic champion skier

April 4, 1895 - Arthur Murray, dance studio fame

April 4, 1906 - John Cameron Swayze, TV news anchorman

April 4, 1915 - Muddy Waters, blues singer

April 4, 1924 - Gil Hodges, baseball player, manager

April 4, 1926 - Cloris Leachman, actress

April 4, 1946 - Craig T. Nelson, actor

April 4, 1965 - Robert Downey Jr., actor

April 5, 1900 - Spencer Tracy, actor

April 5, 1908 - Bette Davis, actress

April 5, 1916 - Gregory Peck, actor

April 5, 1920 - Arthur Hailey, author

April 5, 1934 - Frank Gorshin, actor, comedian

April 5, 1937 - Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Secretary of State

April 5, 1941 - Michael Moriarty, actor

April 5, 1949 - Judith Resnick, astronaut, died in the Challenger space shuttle explosion

April 6, 1483 - Raphael (Sanzio), Italian painter, architect

April 6, 1870 - Oskar Straus, Austrian composer

April 6, 1892 - Lowell Thomas, broadcaster, journalist

April 6, 1928 - James D. Watson, biochemist, co-discovered the structure of DNA

April 6, 1937 - Merle Haggard, singer, songwriter

April 6, 1937 - Billy Dee Williams, actor

April 6, 1947 - John Ratzenberger, actor

April 6, 1952 - Marilu Henner, actress

April 6, 1976 - Candace Cameron, actress

April 7, 742 - Charlemagne, King of the Franks

April 7, 1770 - William Wordsworth, poet, philosopher

April 7, 1897 - Walter Winchell, journalist, broadcaster

April 7, 1915 - Billie Holiday, jazz singer

April 7, 1928 - James Garner, actor

April 7, 1933 - Wayne Rogers, actor

April 7, 1939 - Francis Ford Coppola, filmmaker

April 7, 1951 - Janis Ian, singer, songwriter

April 7, 1954 - Jackie Chan, actor

April 7, 1964 - Russell Crowe, actor

April 8, 563 BC - Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama), religious leader, founded of Buddhism

April 8, 1918 - Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States

April 8, 1928 - John Gavin, actor

April 8, 1938 - Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General

April 8, 1940 - John Havlicek, basketball player

April 8, 1963 - Julian Lennon, singer, musician, son of John & Cynthia Lennon

April 8, 1968 - Patricia Arquette, Oscar winning actress

April 9, 1879 - W. C. Fields, actor

April 9, 1883 - Frank King, cartoonist, created "Gasoline Alley"

April 9, 1926 - Hugh Hefner, publisher of Playboy

April 9, 1928 - Tom Lehrer, songwriter

April 9, 1939 - Michael Learned, actress

April 9, 1954 - Dennis Quaid, actor

April 9, 1957 - Seve Ballesteros, golfer

April 10, 1794 - Commodore Matthew Perry, opened naval relations with Japan

April 10, 1847 - Joseph Pulitzer, journalist, publisher

April 10, 1882 - Frances Perkins, first U.S. woman cabinet member- Secretary of Labor

April 10, 1915 - Harry Morgan, actor

April 10, 1921 - Chuck Connors, actor

April 10, 1932 - Omar Sharif, actor

April 10, 1936 - John Madden, football coach, sportscaster

April 10, 1938 - Don Meredith, football player, sportscaster

April 10, 1951 - Steven Seagal, actor

April 10, 1982 - Actress, "Grey's Anatomy", "The Practice".

April 11, 1913 - Oleg Cassini, fashion designer

April 11, 1928 - Ethel Kennedy, wife of Sen. Robert F. Kennedy

April 11, 1932 - Joel Grey, actor

April 11, 1939 - Louise Lasser, actress , "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman"

April 11, 1950 - Bill Irwin, actor, choreographer

April 12, 1777 - Henry Clay, statesman, Speaker of the House

April 12, 1916 - Beverly Cleary, children's author

April 12, 1919 - Ann Miller, actress, dancer

April 12, 1926 - Jane Withers, actress

April 12, 1930 - Tiny Tim, actor, musician, "Tip Toe through the Tulip"

April 12, 1947 - Tom Clancy, author

April 12, 1947 - David Letterman, TV personality, comedian

April 12, 1949 - Scott F. Turow, author

April 12, 1950 - David Cassidy, singer, actor

April 12, 1956 - Andy Garcia, actor

April 12, 1971 - Shannen Doherty, actress, "Beverly Hills 90210"

April 12, 1979 - Claire Danes, actress

April 13, 1743 - Thomas Jefferson, 3rd U. S. President (1801-1809)

April 13, 1866 - Butch Cassidy, Wild West outlaw

April 13, 1899 - Alfred Butts, invented the board game "Scrabble"

April 13, 1923 - Don Adams, TV Actor, "Maxwell Smart" on "Get Smart"

April 13, 1945 - Tony Dow, actor played "Wally Cleaver" on television sitcom "Leave it to Beaver".

April 13, 1950 - Ron Perlman, actor

April 13, 1951 - Peabo Bryson, singer

April 13, 1963 - Gary Karsparov, Russian Chess Master

April 13, 1970 - Rick Shroefder, Actor, "Silver Spoons", "NYPD Blue".

April 14, 1866 - Anne Sullivan, taught Helen Keller

April 14, 1925 - Rod Steiger, actor

April 14, 1935 - Loretta Lynn, country western singer

April 14, 1940 - Julie Christie, actress

April 14, 1941 - Pete Rose, baseball player, manager

April 14, 1960 - Brad Garrett, Actor, "Robert "on TV series "Everybody Loves Raymond"

April 14, 1977 - Sarah Michelle Gellar, actress, "Buffy the Vampire Slayer"

April 15, 1452 - Leonardo da Vinci, artist, sculptor, inventor

April 15, 1741 - Charles Wilson Peale, portrait painter

April 15, 1843 - Henry James, novelist, short story writer, critic

April 15, 1894 - Nikita Khrushchev, Premier of Soviet Union, Famous Cold War Quote to U.S.: "We will bury You"

April 15, 1924 - Henry Mancini, U.S. actor

April 15, 1933 - Elizabeth Montgomery, Actress, "Samantha Stevens" on TV series "Bewitched"

April 15, 1933 - Roy Clark, singer, musician

April 15, 1957 - Evelyn Ashford, Olympic champion, sprinter

April 15, 1959 - Emma Thompson, Oscar winning actress

April 15, 1971 - Selena Quintanilla, U.S. award winning singer

April 15, 1982 - Seth Rogen, actor

April 15, 1990 - Emma Thompson, French actress, Harry Potter films, Beauty and the Beast

April 16, 1867 - Wilbur Wright, pioneer aviator

April 16, 1889 - Charlie Chaplin, comic actor, filmmaker

April 16, 1921 - Peter Ustinov, actor

April 16, 1924 - Henry Mancini, composer

April 16, 1929 - Edie Adams, singer, actress

April 16, 1930 - Herbie Mann, jazz musician

April 16, 1935 - Bobby Vinton, singer

April 16, 1939 - Dusty Springfield, British pop star

April 16, 1947 - Kareem Abdul Jabbar, one of the greatest players in NBA history. Born Frederick Lewis Alcindor Jr.

April 16, 1952 - Bill Belichick, Head Coach, New England Patriots Superbowl teams.

April 16, 1955 - Ellen Barkin, actress

April 16, 1971 - Selena Quintanilla, popular Hispanic singer, tragically murdered at peak of career

April 17, 1837 - John Pierpont Morgan, financier, philanthropist

April 17, 1894 - Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet leader, famous quote: "We will bury you!"

April 17, 1897 - Thornton Wilder, playwright, novelist

April 17, 1918 - William Holden, actor

April 17, 1923 - Harry Reasoner, TV anchorman, journalist

April 17, 1961 - Norman "Boomer" Esiason, NFL Quarterback

April 17, 1972 - Jennifer Garner, Actress, "Sidney Bristow" on TV series "Alias"

April 17, 1974 - Victoria Addams, singer, "Posh Spice" of Spice Girls

April 18, 1857 - Clarence Darrow, attorney

April 18, 1922 - Barbara Hale, actress

April 18, 1946 - Jim "Catfish" Hunter, baseball pitcher

April 18, 1946 - Hayley Mills, actress

April 18, 1947 - Dorothy Lyman, actress

April 18, 1953 - Rick Moranis, actor, "Honey, I Shrunk the Kids"

April 18, 1963 - Conan O'Brien, TV late night talk show

April 18, 1992 - Cloe Bennet, actress played in "Agents of "S.H.I.E.L.D."

April 19, 1903 - Eliot Ness, American Lawman

April 19, 1912 - Glenn T. Seaborg, chemist, discovered plutonium

April 19, 1925 - Hugh O'Brien, actor

April 19, 1935 - Dudley Moore, actor

April 19, 1962 - Al Unser Jr., auto racer

April 19, 1968 - Ashley Judd, actress

April 19, 1979 - Kate Hudson, actress

April 20, 1889 - Adolf Hitler, Nazi dictator of Germany

April 20, 1908 - Lionel Hampton, bandleader, musician

April 20, 1941 - Ryan O'Neal, actor

April 20, 1949 - Jessica Lange, Oscar winning actress

April 20, 1951 - Luther Vandross, singer, songwriter

April 20, 19770 - Shemar Moore, actor, "S.W.A.T.", "Criminal Minds"

April 20, 1973 - Carmen Electra, actress , "Baywatch"

April 21, 1915 - Anthony Quinn, actor

April 21, 1926 - Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of England

April 21, 1935 - Charles Grodin, actor

April 21, 1951 - Tony Danza, actor

April 21, 1958 - Andie MacDowell, actress, model

April 21, 1961 - Don Mattingly, baseball player

April 22, 1908 - Eddie Albert, actor

April 22, 1928 - Aaron Spelling, TV writer, producer

April 22, 1936 - Glen Campbell, singer

April 22, 1936 - Jack Nicholson, Oscar winning actor, director, producer, writer

April 22, 1939 - Jason Miller, playwright, actor

April 22, 1950 - Peter Frampton, singer

April 23, 1564 - William Shakespeare, playwright, poet. Died: April 23, 1616.

April 23, 1791 - James Buchanan, 15th U.S. President (1857-1861)

April 23, 1928 - Shirley Temple Black, child actress, diplomat

April 23, 1936 - Roy Orbison, singer

April 23, 1940 - Lee Majors, actor, "Six Million Dollar Man"

April 23, 1942 - Sandra Dee, actress

April 23, 1960 - Valerie Bertinelli, actress, "One Day at a Time"

April 23, 1961 - George Lopez, actor and comedian

April 24, 1766 - Robert Bailey Thomas, founder & editor of "The Farmer's Almanac"

April 24, 1884 - Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese Naval Commander who led invasion of Pearl Harbor, starting WWII.

April 24, 1905 - Robert Penn Warren, poet, novelist

April 24, 1934 - Shirley MacLaine, actress, dancer

April 24, 1942 - Barbra Streisand, actress, director, singer

April 24, 1955 - Michael O'Keefe, actor

April 24, 1982 - Kelly Clarkson, First "American Idol" winner

April 25, 1874 - Guglielmo Marconi, inventor, wireless telegraphy

April 25, 1906 - William J. Brennan Jr., Supreme Court justice

April 25, 1917 - Ella Fitzgerald, jazz singer

April 25, 1932 - Meadowlark Lemon, basketball player, Harlem Globetrotters

April 25, 1940 - Al Pacino, actor

April 25, 1969 - Renee Zellweger, Oscar winning actress

April 26, 1564 - William Shakespeare, English writer and actor

April 26, 1785 - John James Audubon, artist, naturalist

April 26, 1798 - Eugene Delacroix, painter

April 26, 1822 - Frederick Law Olmsted, landscape architect, park designer

April 26, 1894 - Rudolf Hess, Nazi leader

April 26, 1900 - Charles Francis Richter, physicist, seismologist, developed Richter scale

April 26, 1936 - Carol Burnett, actress, comedian

April 26, 1942 - Bobby Rydell, singer

Aoruk 26, 1965 - Kevin James, U.S. actor, starred in "King of Queens"

April 26, 1970 - Melania Trump, Slovenian super model, First Lady of the United States of America

April 27, 1521 - Ferdinand Magelan, Portuguese explorer

April 27, 1822 - Ulysses S. Grant, 18th U.S. President, Civil War general (1869-1877)

April 27, 1896 - Rogers Hornsby, baseball player

April 27, 1922 - Jack Klugman, actor

April 27, 1927 - Coretta Scott King, civil rights leader, wife of Martin Luther King Jr.

April 27, 1932 - Casey Kasem, radio personality

April 27, 1937 - Sandy Dennis, actress

April 27, 1959 - Sheena Easton, singer

April 28, 1758 - James Monroe, 5th U.S. President (1817-1825)

April 28, 1878 - Lionel Barrymore, actor

April 28, 1937- Saddam Hussein, Iraqi president

April 28, 1941 - Ann-Margret, actress, singer

April 28, 1950 - Jay Leno, TV comedian, "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno"

April 28, 1974 - Penelope Cruz - Oscar winning actress

April 28, 1981 - Jessica Alba, actress, "Sin City".

April 29, 1727 -Jean-Georges Noverre, creator of the modern ballet.

April 29, 1863 - William Randolph Hearst, newspaper editor, publisher

April 29, 1899 - Duke Ellington, jazz musician, bandleader

April 29, 1901 - Emperor Hirohito, emperor of Japan during World War II

April 29, 1915 - Donald Mills, singer and member of the Mills Brothers

April 29, 1938 - Bernie Madoff, American businessman, investor, stock broker, convicted of major Ponzi scheme, bilking thousands of people.

April 29, 1951 - Dale Earnhardt, auto racer

April 29, 1954 - Jerry Seinfeld, actor, comedian

April 29, 1958- Michelle Pfeiffer, actress

April 29, 1970 - Andre Agassi, tennis champion

April 29, 1970 -Uma Thurman, actress, "Pulp Fiction"

April 30, 1933 - Willie Nelson, country singer

April 30, 1938 - Gary Collins, actor

April 30, 1945 - Michael J. Smith, astronaut, died in Challenger space shuttle explosion

April 30, 1948 - Perry King, actor

April 30, 1961 - Isaiah Thomas, NBA basketball player

April 30, 1975 - John Galecki, actor, played son Rusty in "Christmas Vacation" movie, Leonard on TV series "Big Bang Theory"

April 30, 1981 - Kunal Nayyar, Indian-English actor, played "Raj Koothrappali" on TV series "Big Bang Theory"

April 30, 1982 - Kirsten Dunst, actress

Ecards We've got you covered with free Ecards for Birthdays and just about any other holiday, occasion, event, or no event at all!

Holiday Insights , where every day is a holiday, a bizarre or wacky day, an observance, or a special event. Join us in the daily calendar fun each and every day of the year.

Did You Know? There are literally thousands of daily holidays, special events and observances, more than one for every day of the year. Many of these holidays are new. More holidays are being created on a regular basis. At Holiday Insights, we take great efforts to thoroughly research and document the details of each one, as completely and accurately as possible.

Invasion of Norway fails in April 1940-what next?

If you want to read a well written Invasion of Norway fails story I suggest this:

and all its parts, just do a search on Norway Fiasco. The author, HMS Pinafore is a superb writer and his stories are always a pleasure to read, even the one about the cuban missile crisis going hot.

Richter von Manthofen

The immediate lesson learned would be that naval invasions are destined to fail if you don't have naval superiotity.

Assume that the German LEARN the lesson.

This would butterfly away the BoB - as this was the preparation to "USM" aka sea lion.

This in return would leave the Luftwaffe with many more fighters and bombers and experienced air crews.

After the fall of France UK is not in shape to invade Germany - even with bases in Norway.

Sure Norway would be a great base for UK bombers, but that is actually a narrow corridor into Germany and easily covered by the Luftwaffe (BoB reversed).

A few breaches of Swedish airspace might push Sweden even more into (economic) support of Germany.

Finland might allow Germany to stage an attack on North Norway from land.

If the German Paras are not used in Crete but (mid-late) 1940 to make a large scale landing in southern Norway they even might suceed in keeping and holding key area (and Skagerak is smaller than the Channel and with Denmark captured (assume Weserübung Süd still suceeds) the Germans don't haveh water to cross.

So unless UK pours many troops into Norway (the might be pulled from Canada and use Free French) its only some time the Northern or Southern thrusts meet.




HMS Warspite

Richter von Manthofen


De la Tour

Arctic warrior


Uff Da the optimist

True, what I should have emphasized better was the point that now the MM doesn't have to travel in such dangerous water outside their own occupied country!

Also, Norway could mobilize over 200 000men in a period of 2 months, although of varying quality.
The thing is Norway is not a flat country easy to fight in, it has such a harsh nature that gives defenders golden opportunities for ambushes, entrapment and trading land for time.

Again, if the Norwegian government had not acted like un-decisive babies they could have mobilized some forces after Altmark to show that they intented to remain out of the war, and even this would be sufficient to make life hell for the 8000 men the Germans took the southern part of the country with!

Von Adler

First of all, lets clear up some misconceptions.

Narvik was destroyed as a port for shipping iron ore 1940. For the next four years, until Sweden shut down the ore shipments, the ore was railroaded from Kiruna over Luleå to Oxelösund (south of Stockholm) where it was reloaded on ships and transportet through the Baltic to German ports.

Control of Norway does not give the British access to the Baltic. The southern North Sea remained under German control until 1945, mostly because it is prime mine sea, as is most of the Baltic (there's still about 40-90 000 mines in the Baltic and southern North Sea from ww1 and ww2). The British used MTBs to move agents, evacuate key personell (downed fliers, Norwegian resistance fighters etc) and transport high-quality ball bearings from Sweden during the war, sailing by night at high speeds.

The Swedes and Finns negotiated a state alliance (close to a union, a military alliance and political confederacy) during Spring 1940, but German and Soviet resistance and Finnish revanchism put an end to it (Sweden wanted the alliance to be neutral and that stance to be accepted by both the Germans and the Soviets). With the allies in control in Norway, the German opinion matters far less, and they and the Soviets (who don't want war against the allies or Germany at this point, Stalin wanted the allies and the Germans to bleed each other dry before he intervened) might actually look favourable upon a Swedo-Finnish neutral alliance, as it would secure the northern flank for both of them.

Once the Germans had the control of the French and Belgian iron mines, they were not dependent on Swedish iron ore. Swedish ore was high-quality and was easy to use in the bessemer process to create high-quality steel, but the Germans CAN do without. Sweden needs about 5,5 million tons of coke and coal yearly, and Germany could deliver this 1940-1944, when the western allies could not. Unless the allies can replace this, Sweden will continue to ship iron ore to Germany. OTL, the western allies demanded a reduction in shipping, and Sweden complied, but gave the Germans priority in high grade ore, which made all parts happy.

Allied control of Norway might mean a Swedo-Finnish state alliance, no further Finnish participation in the war and perhaps a France that fights on from North Africa.


Thus, if the Allies are lucky, the only german surface warship worthy of mention which would survive the operation would be the light cruiser Emden. Hardly enough to pull of Sealion.

The British will also be far less scared about Sealion, given that the RN just prooved it can easily beat a German landing attempt, sinking most of the Kriegsmarine in the process.

If you count both sunk and damaged ships, the Kriegsmarine didn't have much in the way of surface ships left ready for action after Norway historically.

Finally, butterflies CAN affect the Battle of France. Lets say, for instance, the panzers that went to Norway are sent to the Ardennes, adding 1-2 days to the bottleneck, or that different decisions are taken with regards to Luftwaffe operations at Sedan, potentially leading to a failure of the initial crossing.

While there is a small chance this would butterfly into a German defeat, it can result in things like far, far greater German losses or a French government that decides to continue from North Africa. My personal favoritue though (on which I was once planning on doing a TL) is it delays a German brakethrough long enough for the Allies to launch Operation Pike.

It's certainly possible that Norwegian butterflies might affect the Battle of France, but to the best of my knowledge, no panzer divisions were sent to Norway in the initial invasion, or subsequently between that invasion and the invasion of France. The German troops were infantry (5 divisions) or mountain divisions (1 division). The only part of their order of battle that might have contained tanks was a motorized infantry brigade which historically just went to Denmark and then was sent to the Battle of France starting on May 13th. Even if that brigade got to France marginally earlier, it would be a trivial addition to the mass of 7 panzer divisions and numerous motorized divisions in the crucial area.

More likely sources of butterflies, which can cut both ways: (1) The Allies would be more confident and the Germans less so, both at the individual and command level. That could lead to Hitler putting more restraints on the Panzer rush to the sea. On the other hand, it could lead the Brits to delay starting the Dunkirk evacuation for a day or two in favor of continuing to support French attempts to organize a counter-offensive to cut the Panzer corridor. Hard to know how more confident Allies and less confident Germans would play out.

(2) At least some Allied warships would not be available. The Brits could possibly sink most of the German navy in the Norway operation, but sinking it without losing at least some additional capital ships and presumably accompanying destroyers gets us into Mary Sue territory. The Brits would probably have fewer ships available at Battle of France and Dunkirk evacuation. On the other hand, the British navy would have more freedom of action with no Kriegsmarine to speak of, at least until the Germans got Bismarck into service in August 1940, ran it through sea trials and scraped up some accompanying ships.

(3) Chamberlain would probably still be British PM during Battle of France, as noted earlier. That is a wild card. Would he have been able to provide the kind of inspirational leadership during and after Dunkirk that Churchill did? Would he give the order to attack the French fleet to keep it from falling into German hands? Would he stop sending British planes into the Battle of France when it became obvious that battle was lost? Would he resist the impulse to negotiate with Hitler after Fall of France?

Booker T. Washington Postage Stamp

--> 10c Booker T. Washington certified plate proof, approved January 25, 1940

On April 7, 1940, the Post Office Department (POD) issued a stamp honoring African-American educator Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) as part of its Famous Americans Series. The nation's first stamp to honor an African-American, it holds a unique place in American history. Social, economic, and legislative struggles since 1940 have produced deeper understanding and acceptance among racial groups. Today, the United States Postal Service (USPS) regularly honors African-Americans and their widely varied contributions to the nation and the world.

Born a slave in Hale's Ford, Virginia, Washington served as a role model for other struggling African-Americans, and, as founder of Alabama's Tuskegee Normal Industrial School (renamed Tuskegee Institute in 1937), he profoundly influenced the community's self-esteem and self-reliance. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, responding to numerous petitions from African-American supporters, recognized the timeliness of such a stamp and directed that Washington be considered for this important stamp series.

10c Booker T. Washington first day cover, 1940

Major Robert Richard Wright, Sr., among others, had aggressively lobbied for a stamp honoring Booker T. Washington since Roosevelt took office in 1933. When Wright read the POD's decision to feature Washington on the 10¢ stamp, announced in 1939, he reflected with gratification, [the stamp] "comes pretty nearly within the limit of seventy-five years of Negro Emancipation.”¹ He objected, however, to its high denomination, preferring to see it as one of the lower-priced, more affordable denominations used by the public daily. He worried that the cost of the 10¢ stamp "will not induce a large first day sale . . . among colored people.”² Echoing Wright's concerns, The Washington Tribune recommended that its readers buy the stamp for special delivery and parcel post mailings. "Let's overlook no chance to use these new stamps which honor our eminent educator,” urged the newspaper's editor in a special issue released on March 23, 1940.

10c Booker T. Washington first day cover mailed by Postmaster General James A. Farley, 1940

Numerous institutions, all important in the lives of African-Americans, clamored to host the stamp's first day of issue ceremony. The POD selected Tuskegee Institute, founded by Washington in 1881, for this watershed ceremony's location. Guests gathered in the Institute Chapel. Postmaster General James A. Farley attended the ceremony and afterwards, joined by the Tuskegee Club of Montgomery, Alabama, placed a wreath at Washington's tomb. George W. Peterson, an African-American Civil Service employee attached to the POD's Division of Stamps, attended and helped Tuskegee's postmaster, R. H. Harris, prepare the first day covers. Also an African-American, Harris attracted recognition in The Washington Tribune (March 23, 1940) as "one of the few colored postmasters in the United States.” All told, twenty-five extra clerks assisted Harris in preparing the first day covers.

First day enclosure from PMG Farley to his wife Bess, 1940

Enthusiasm for the Booker T. Washington stamp and its momentous significance for the African-American population prompted two official second day of issue ceremonies, events unprecedented in philatelic history—one in New York City and the other in Philadelphia. Unable to attend the ceremony at Tuskegee, Major Robert Richard Wright, Sr., attended Philadelphia's ceremony, where he purchased a batch of 1,000 stamps. The press focused attention not only on Washington but also on Major Wright, a prominent African-American man in his own right. Wright, like Washington, had been born a slave. He had carved-out a distinctive niche within the community as an educator and administrator, through military service during the Spanish-American War, and as a banker.

Tuskegee Institute owns the first sheet of Booker T. Washington stamps sold, but it passed through several hands before reaching its final destination. Captain Alvin J. Neely, Tuskegee General Alumni Association's executive secretary, purchased the sheet, autographed by James A. Farley. Neely presented the sheet to Washington's daughter, Portia Washington Pittman, who then gave it to Dr. William J. Schieffelin, Tuskegee's chairman of the board, for preservation. Adding to the memorable event, the Tuskegee Philatelic Club issued covers with a hand-stamped cachet showing a likeness of Washington's graveside monument.

3c Booker T. Washington log cabin die proof, 1956

The POD honored Booker T. Washington once again in 1956, the centennial of his birth. The stamp's vignette features an image of a cabin similar to the one in which Washington was born.


1) R.R. Wright, Sr., to Deputy Third Assistant Postmaster General Roy M. North, letter, July 20, 1939.

2) R.R. Wright to Postmaster General James A. Farley, letter, November 8, 1939.

References and Further Reading

George C. Hahn, United States Famous American Series of 1940 (State College: The American Philatelic Society, 1950).

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 18:34

I take it you missed the bit (again) about them being TOLD the Germans were going to attempt it?

What the British didn't consider was that the German actions represented more than a simple reaction to WILFRED. but in fact represented a fullblown invasion planned for some considerable time!

TOLD the Germans were going to attempt it

Post by Dave Bender » 03 Jan 2011, 21:07

Receiving an intelligence report and believing it are two different things.

During late 1939 / early 1940 there were numerous intelligence reports concerning Norway. Both Britain and Germany had to compare these reports and make an educated guess as to what the enemy was up to. Germany guessed right. Britain guessed wrong.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 21:46

Receiving an intelligence report and believing it are two different things.

During late 1939 / early 1940 there were numerous intelligence reports concerning Norway

. because. in the meantime. the RAF had made a much more "substantial" contact with the ships moving north! Twelve Blenheim bombers of No 107 Squadron found the enemy shortly before 1:30 PM, seventy-eight miles farther north on before. The attack, though followed up with the search by a second force of Wellingtons, had no success, but they had reported the Germans much more accurately as one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers . again - no transports or troopships!

YOU however want this fleet to comprise one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers and one or more large passenger liners. I.E. Confirmation that the word from Copenhagen was correct.

Thus it wasn't a matter of. just "guessing" it was a matter of receiving intelligence, and needing confirmation/ corroboration of it. Historically, the subsequent intelligence (SEVERAL instances of air recce) provided more accurate intel. but intel contradicting the Copenhagen report. Here you want that fleet to be accompanied by thousands of tons of floating confimation that the Danes were actually correct.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by John T » 03 Jan 2011, 22:08

IMHO using 2 cruise liners instead of 10 DD's would have been disasterous because:
- slower cruising speed
- bigger targets
- likely slower unloading speed
- lack of armament to defeat/ persuade Norwegian coastal defenses
- 2000 Gebirgsjäger were enough historically, don't need 2-3 times that amount
The two liners would not have made it to Narvik pier.

I think it would have been prudent to use two liners and three Destroyers. Or throw in a cruiser too.
The Liners as ships where more expendable than ten destroyers and could have refuelled their escorts too.
So in my opinion Km who had nothing really usefull for power projection as well could have used them to something.
(but IIRC the dream where to convert them to carriers ?)

And some other notes regarding the Liners-

If spotted by the British, they might very well be identified as Armed Merchant cruisers trying to break out.
And why not add a couple of 15 cm guns to them too, in addition to the AA envisioned earlier in the tread?

The Liners Lifeboats where at least a reasonable mean to quickly unload personnel at least as efficient as the destroyers, Bremen had a 50% redundancy of lifeboat seats to actual passeneger capacity so most lifeboats could been loaded with a few tonns of equipment already before entering the Harbour. And note that Lifeboats where pretty big, 99 passengers seems to been a de facto standard so if we do not have to fill the liners with soldiers.
This is actually close to the Early British AP's that initially replaced the lifeboats in the derricks with landing crafts.
(as the British had designed proper landing crafts of the same size and weight to be used from liners)

Remember that German forces that did invade Norway had no landing crafts of any kind.
A motorized life boot is better than nothing

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 22:34

John, there's a considerable difference between a merchant ship (even a period "merchant liner") and a true period passenger liner. Even if mistakenly indentified that first time by the RAF recce aircraft - then the second "contact", the attacking Blenheims, would most likely identify them correctly.

Secondly - even IF mis-identified as merchant raiders, this would make their interception even MORE vital anyway, for other reasons

Thirdly - their SECOND acquisition by the RAF would "prove" they weren't just armed merchantmen. Armed cruisers like the Pinguin were much slower than KM naval vessels or passenger liner the Pinguin for instance had a top speed of only 18-20mph. As noted by Dave, the liners were faster, more able to keep up with the KM's ships. if the flotilla spotted then due to be attacked wasn't where a simple time vs distance calculation SHOULD put them - then the British would KNOW there was something wrong with their initial identification.

John, I don't know if many captains would have wanted to try manouvering along a Norwegian fjord or into Narvik Basin around all those anchored ore ships with that much weight so far above the waterline! The word "untrimmed" comes to mind.

Which brings in other aspects I wonder what the turning circle of the putative liners at speed was, compared to a KM destroyer? Could they have maounvered up Ofotfjord? Or safely avoided the RN minefields?

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by John T » 03 Jan 2011, 22:58

. because. in the meantime. the RAF had made a much more "substantial" contact with the ships moving north! Twelve Blenheim bombers of No 107 Squadron found the enemy shortly before 1:30 PM, seventy-eight miles farther north on before. The attack, though followed up with the search by a second force of Wellingtons, had no success, but they had reported the Germans much more accurately as one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers . again - no transports or troopships!

YOU however want this fleet to comprise one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers and one or more large passenger liners. I.E. Confirmation that the word from Copenhagen was correct.

Thus it wasn't a matter of. just "guessing" it was a matter of receiving intelligence, and needing confirmation/ corroboration of it. Historically, the subsequent intelligence (SEVERAL instances of air recce) provided more accurate intel. but intel contradicting the Copenhagen report. Here you want that fleet to be accompanied by thousands of tons of floating confimation that the Danes were actually correct.

But on April 7:th
the Export column, 48 800 GRT,
of the Tanker column 24 000 GRT
And the First transport column 72 00 GRT
Where already underway towards Norway.

But RN did not spot them.
In the Evening both Oslo and Copenhagen had reports of troop transports moving North.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by John T » 03 Jan 2011, 23:43

Is it ?
I fail to follow you claim, I thought the problem where if bremen where spotted as a troop transport or as a Armed Merchant cruiser?

Could you explain the difference between an Armed Merchant cruiser like HMS Rawalpindi and a passenger liner?

I suppose most captains knows a bit about metacentric height, the basic theories are available here:

With a displacement of 55 kt how much is needed to make her "untrimmed" in a way that affects manoeuvrability ?
Me thinks the risk of explosion would be more relevant to bother about for the captain.

Does you seriously question if Bremen could manovre up the ofotfjord?
Avoided the minefield?
are you serious ?

Might needed tugs to get quaysides that's possible, but with four screws she might be surprisingly dexterious at low speed.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by phylo_roadking » 04 Jan 2011, 00:22

No. Why would I? Why would I explain the difference between a BRITISH armed merchant cruiser and a pasenger liner?

What I WILL do is illustrate the difference between what the GERMANS used as armed merchant cruisers and passenger liners.

The Pinguin.

The Bremen.

Do you think the huge superstructure, the lines of lifeboats, the one tiny deck cargo hatch compared to the Pinguin's two large ones would be the giveaway? Or would it perhaps be the two funnels? Or the fact that it's nearly twice the length of the Pinguin? (938 feet vs. 509 feet)

27 knots - that proves there's no german armed armed merchant cruisers in that convoy. The non-naval vessels would then have to be something big and capable of

1/ The RN laid their minefields in the Channel etc. so that their destroyers could manouver IN them safely they were to stop deeper-draught vessels and submarines. Do YOU think the Bremen had a deeper draught than British destroyers?

2/ The KM occasionally seemed (as I noted in another recent thread) to have difficulties manouvering their more manouverable destroyers in Ofotjord/Narvik Basin without running aground.

3/ Narvik basin was already quite crowded when the Germans arrived, as I noted before.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by Dave Bender » 04 Jan 2011, 18:38

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by phylo_roadking » 04 Jan 2011, 19:16

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by kfbr392 » 05 Jan 2011, 10:37

Juha and Phylo,
how about you continue the discussion of a possible German glider landing in the Oslo fjord in a seperate thread, no?

This thread should remain reserved for discussions on composition and actions of the German Kriegsschiffgruppe 1, the one going to Narvik.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by Polar bear » 05 Jan 2011, 11:43

the consideration (from a german planner´s point of view) that the "alternate group 1" liners might be more prone to submarine attack in the North Sea and off Southern Norway hasn´t been mentioned, yet.

BREMEN had been close to being attacked on her return trip from Murmansk.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post by kfbr392 » 05 Jan 2011, 13:10

Any German ship/ convoy entering Narvik on April 9th, 1940:
- must be fast on the way up from Germany
- must be able to overcome Norwegian coastal gun and warship opposition
- has less than 24h of safe unloading the Gebirgsjäger
- will be bottled in by superior Royal Navy forces as early as 0410hrs on April 9th
- will be confronted by RN by the early hours of April 10th

With this benfit of hindsight, I propose the following scenarios:
Scenario I
as OTL, but Jan Wellem awaits in some desolate spot around 150nm north of Narvik 10DDs break out in the late evening of April 9th (visibility was very low) if engaged by RN, 2 DD's, lay fog, fire guns, and draw the RN upon them and go south, while the other 8 DD's proceed to Jan Wellem, refuel and either sneak south or go to "Basis Nord" in Murmansk

Scenario II
as OTL, but Gruppe 1 consists of 4 DD's (not carrying troops) and Liner BREMEN. 3 DD's speed ahead and defeat Norwegian resistance, then Bremen disembarks Gebirgsjäger 4 DD's refuel from Jan Wellem (which here is specifically equipped and trained for speedy refuelling) All ships break out in the late evening of April 9th The DD's carry a deck load of mines, which they drop on the way out of the fjord It boils down to this: are 10-6 DD's worth more than BREMEN?

A note on German Hilfskreuzer:
The KM converted the first wave of HSK's from merchant ships in secrect in the Winter of 1939/40.
The British converted liners to become auxillary cruisers. They did not know in April 1940, that german HSK's do outwardly appear to be merchants.
Thus, a liner going north in the North Sea with troops for Narvik, even one with a DD escort, might appear as a HSK to the RN, causing them not to suspect an invasion of Norway from this bit of intelligence.

Founding by Richard and Maurice McDonald Edit

The McDonald family moved from Manchester, New Hampshire to Hollywood, California in the late 1930s, where brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald ("Dick" and "Mac") began working as set movers and handymen at Motion-Picture studios. [1] In 1937, their father Patrick McDonald opened "The Airdrome", a food stand, on Huntington Drive (Route 66) near the Monrovia Airport in the Los Angeles County city of Monrovia, California [2]

In October 1948, after the McDonald brothers realized that most of their profits came from selling hamburgers, they closed down their successful carhop drive-in to establish a streamlined system with a simple menu which consisted of only hamburgers, cheeseburgers, potato chips, coffee, soft drinks, and apple pie. [3]

In April 1952, the brothers decided they needed an entirely new building in order to achieve two goals: further efficiency improvements, and a more eye-catching appearance. They collected recommendations for an architect and interviewed at least four, finally choosing Stanley Clark Meston, an architect practicing in nearby Fontana. [1] The brothers and Meston worked together closely in the design of their new building. They achieved the extra efficiencies they needed by, among other things, drawing the actual measurements of every piece of equipment in chalk on a tennis court behind the McDonald house (with Meston's assistant Charles Fish). [4] The new restaurant's design achieved a high level of notice thanks to gleaming surfaces of red and white ceramic tile, stainless steel, brightly colored sheet metal, and glass pulsing red, white, yellow, and green neon and two 25-foot yellow sheet-metal arches trimmed in neon, called "golden arches" even at the design stage. A third, smaller arch sign at the roadside hosted a pudgy character in a chef's hat, known as Speedee, striding across the top, trimmed in animated neon. Further marketing techniques were implemented to change McDonald's from a sit down restaurant to a fast food chain. They used such things as turning off the heating to prevent people wanting to stay so long, fixed and angled seating so the customer would sit over their food promoting them to eat faster, spreading the seats further apart so being less of a sociable place to dine in, and giving their customers branded cone shaped cups forcing them to hold their drink whilst eating which would speed up the eating process. [1]

In late 1953, with only a rendering of Meston's design in hand, the brothers began seeking franchisees. [1] Their first franchisee was Neil Fox, a distributor for General Petroleum Corporation. Fox's stand, the first with Meston's golden arches design, opened in May 1953 at Central Avenue and Indian School Road in Phoenix, Arizona. Their second franchisee was the team of Fox's brother-in-law Roger Williams and Burdette "Bud" Landon, both of whom also worked for General Petroleum. Williams and Landon opened their stand on August 18, 1953 at 10207 Lakewood Boulevard in Downey, California. The Downey stand has the distinction of being the oldest surviving McDonald's restaurant. [5] [6] [7]

Ray Kroc joins the company and expands its franchise operation Edit

In 1954, Ray Kroc, a seller of Prince Castle brand Multimixer milkshake machines, learned that the McDonald brothers were using eight of his machines in their San Bernardino restaurant. His curiosity was piqued, and he went to take a look at the restaurant. He was joined by good friend Charles Lewis who had suggested to Kroc several improvements to the McDonald's burger recipe. At this point, the McDonald brothers had six franchise locations in operation. [8]

Believing the McDonald's formula was a ticket to success, Kroc suggested they franchise their restaurants throughout the country. The brothers were skeptical, however, that the self-service approach could succeed in colder, rainier climates furthermore, their thriving business in San Bernardino, and franchises already operating or planned, made them reluctant to risk a national venture. [1] Kroc offered to take the major responsibility for setting up the new franchises elsewhere. He returned to his home outside of Chicago with rights to set up McDonald's restaurants throughout the country, except in a handful of territories in California and Arizona already licensed by the McDonald brothers. The brothers were to receive one-half of one percent of gross sales. [1]

Sonneborn model and shift to real estate holdings Edit

In 1956, Ray Kroc met Harry J. Sonneborn, a former VP of finance for Tastee-Freez, who offered an idea to accelerate the growth and investment grade of Kroc's planned McDonald's operation: Own the real estate that future franchises would be built on. Kroc hired Sonneborn and his plan was executed through forming a separate company called Franchise Realty Corp. which was solely designed to hold McDonald's real estate. The new company signed leases and took out mortgages for both lands and buildings, in turn then passing these costs on to the franchisee with a 20-40% markup and a reduced initial deposit of $950. [9] [10] The "Sonneborn model" of real estate ownership within the franchise persists to this day, possibly being the most important financial decision in the company's history. McDonald's present-day real estate holdings represent $37.7Bn on its balance sheet, about 99% of the company's assets and 35% of its annual gross revenue. [11]

British Expeditionary Force

With the outbreak of the Second World War, the planning assumption was a German invasion through the Low Countries and into France, the same scenario as occurred in 1914. As the likelihood of war grew in 1938, plans were formulated for the creation of another expeditionary force to be sent to France as soon as war was declared. These plans were activated on 3 September 1939, with the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, General The Viscount GORT assuming command of the new field formation. The formations deployed to France increased steadily throughout late 1939 and into 1940. I Corps with the 1 Infantry Division and 2 Infantry Division arrived first in September 1939. II Corps with the 3 Infantry Division and 4 Infantry Division became operational in France in October 1939. The 5 Infantry Division arrived on 19 December 1939.


Higher Formations History and Personnel
» B.E.F. History & Personnel (Personnel)
» B.E.F. Campaign Overview (BEING UPDATED)
» B.E.F. Divisional and Brigade Commanders (IN PREPARTION)

The winter of 1939 was very cold, which limited the activity of the B.E.F.. Training continued into 1940, boosted with the arrival in France of the first Territorial Army formations. Five first-line divisions arrived before the German invasion, these being:

5 January 1940 – 48 (South Midland) Infantry Division
20 January 1940 – 50 (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
4 January 1940 – 51 (Highland) Infantry Division
1 April 1940 – 44 (Home Counties) Infantry Division
12 April 1940 – 42 (East Lancashire) Infantry Division.

In addition to the five first line Territorial Army divisions deployed to France, three second line divisions were also sent to join the British Expeditionary Force. These were:

12 April 1940 – 12 (Eastern) Infantry Division
22 April 1940 – 23 (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
24 April 1940 – 46 Infantry Division.

Swedish military strength in April 1940

Post by historygeek2021 » 19 Feb 2021, 06:55

Does anyone have information on Swedish military strength in April 1940? It is possible that Sweden could have become entangled in Operation Weserübung, for example, if the Allies landed in Norway first. Was Sweden fully mobilized?

If Churchill had decided to stay in Narvik in June 1940, the Germans would have had no way to retake the port other than through Sweden. How much resistance could Sweden have put up against Germany?

Re: Swedish military strength in April 1940

Post by Ro/Lt » 20 Feb 2021, 19:15

Re: Swedish military strength in April 1940

Post by John T » 20 Feb 2021, 23:16

Does anyone have information on Swedish military strength in April 1940? It is possible that Sweden could have become entangled in Operation Weserübung, for example, if the Allies landed in Norway first. Was Sweden fully mobilized?

If Churchill had decided to stay in Narvik in June 1940, the Germans would have had no way to retake the port other than through Sweden. How much resistance could Sweden have put up against Germany?

I have done that scenario in a game - "The Operation art of War IV"
You can find the scenario here:

In the scenario briefing I wrote:

The history of the Swedish armed forces during ww2 has mostly been written in a context to explain Swedish actions during the war and preserve a high defense expenditure after the war.
After WW2, Norway and Denmark became members of NATO while Sweden maintained its neutrality. Sweden had managed to stay out of military actions and the government's neutrality policy had overwhelming public support. The only problem was how to explain the concessions given to Germany. The simplest explanation was that the concessions were forced upon Sweden and there where no way to stand up against Germany since Sweden was so military weak. This explanation found consensus, mostly because it was in most respects true but also as it made the situation to look unique and something that could have been avoided if only Sweden had been better military prepared. And at the same time, it made it clear that Sweden had no alternatives to act as she did.
As the war progressed the Swedes built confidence in her own military capacity. But to what extent this was due to Swedish propaganda, own rearmament, and to what extent Germany waned is seldom elaborated on in Swedish military history.

This history writing had many benefits
· “small state realism” was a fairly truthful representation that most Swedes could subscribe to
· Those who had been under Nazi influence simply could claim that they only had “adjusted” themselves out of necessity
· It suited those who wanted to continue the path of neutrality as it basically ignored the problems of neutrality
· It was a good argument for the armed forces to maintain large defense expenditures

As this way of explaining history was uncontroversial between the political and the military leadership the history of Swedish military inability in the earlier parts of ww2 where perpetuated.
That six million Swedes could not stand up alone against seventy million Germans or hundred and seventy million Soviets is clear but very few Swedes today know that Swedish defense expenditure during the thirties was twice the Finnish and three to four times the Norwegian. But that’s enough on how the history has been told.

In 1925 army funding was reduced by 25%, Six infantry divisions became four, cutting the number of cavalry regiments in half, and closed or combined a large number of other regiments. Conscript training reduced to basic training of 140 days and two refresher trainings at 30 days each. The number of officers also reduced by 25%. The territorial army, of conscripts aged 32 to 42 were abolished in peacetime. The most important thing was that the Liberals and Social Democrats accepted that the goal of the armed forces was to defend the country’s existence, not only be a “Neutrality guard”. Since they still did not want to waste money on the armed forces they created a theory of “Elasticity”, In calm and peaceful times, like the twenties as little as possible should be spent on arms, but if international tension rose spending would increase.

In 1936 Defense expenditure were increased by 30%. a ten-year plan would bring back the number of Infantry divisions to six, extend basic training to 170 days, doubled the air force expenditure and train and equip local defenses with the older conscripts. The Austrian Anschluss triggered an extra allotment of 70 MSEK in June 1938 and the same amount once more when Germany invaded Slovakia in March 1939. With other funds for specific investments. Swedish Defense expenditure almost doubled between 1936/37 and 1938/39.

After a brief partial mobilization in September 1939, Neutrality watch were upheld by air defenses, naval and coastal artillery units. To man the growing local defenses, enlisted ranks were trained in some School units with a secondary combat role.
All conscripts of the field army with the earlier 140 days of basic training had “extra training “ during six weeks. This refresher training was spread out between October 1939 and March 1940 to keep three reduced infantry regiment available.

During the Finnish-Russian winter war Sweden mobilized two divisions and grouped them at the Swedish-Finnish border. In the last days of March The VI. Infantry division was ordered to continue training until May 15 and the V. Infantry division to return to barracks and demobilize at the latest the 15:th April.

Swedish intelligence started to receive rumors of German preparation to attack north during the winter war. Even though the winter war ended on the 13 of March, information kept arriving about German preparations. One such source was the Swedish consulate in Stettin, located in the harbor just around the corner from the “Haken Terasse” where German troops trained to embark transport ships.

The first Swedish action to improve readiness in southern Sweden was to keep the reserve NCO school companies in service after their graduation on March 30.
• April 2 Swedish Air force started to patrol southern Baltic up to the German territorial border.
• April 4 Swedish C ask the minister of defense permission to mobilize all of the field army. The C in C was told to wait until more solid information available.
• April 6 The 1. Army corps HQ, the Cavalry brigade, air defenses etcetera ordered to call up reserve officers and enlisted ranks to prepare mobilization.
• April 8 The 1. Army corps HQ and the Cavalry brigade mobilize from the 10:th,
I and III Infantry divisions, local defenses of L7 and some other units ordered to call up reserve officers and enlisted ranks to prepare mobilization. Air force and Navy to be combat-ready as soon as possible.

On the morning of April 9 Sweden had 87 000 men in uniform.

A few hours after German Diplomats delivered their ultimatums to the Danish and Norwegian Governments, Germany demanded that Sweden
• Would remain neutral and not mobilize
• For their own safety, Swedish Navy vessels would remain within territorial waters
• Iron ore trade with Germany should continue
• Allow German signal traffic from Norway to Germany on Swedish cables.

And that Sweden would not, for the time being, be affected as long Sweden kept calm and did not incite the Danish or Norwegian Governments to refuse the German demands.

Sweden declared neutrality in the conflict.

So Swedish Field army was on war footing by the 15:th of April, but large parts still at their barracks.

In 1971, five high school students in San Rafael, California, [5] [6] used the term "4:20" in connection with a plan to search for an abandoned cannabis crop, based on a treasure map made by the grower. [7] [8] Calling themselves the Waldos, [9] [10] because their typical hang-out spot "was a wall outside the school", [11] the five students—Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, and Mark Gravich [12] —designated the Louis Pasteur statue [13] on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, and 4:20 pm as their meeting time. [11] The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". After several failed attempts to find the crop, the group eventually shortened their phrase to "4:20", which ultimately evolved into a code-word the teens used to refer to consuming cannabis. [7]

Steven Hager of High Times popularized the story of the Waldos. [14] The first High Times mention of 4:20 smoking and a 4/20 holiday appeared in May 1991, [15] and the connection to the Waldos appeared in December 1998. Hager attributed the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers [16] —after "Waldo" Reddix became a roadie for the Grateful Dead's bassist, Phil Lesh [12] —and called for 4:20 pm to be the socially accepted time of the day to consume cannabis. [16]

April 20 has become an international counterculture holiday, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. [3] [17] [18] Many such events have a political nature to them, advocating the liberalization and legalization of cannabis. Vivian McPeak, a founder of Seattle's Hempfest states that 4/20 is "half celebration and half call to action". [19] Paul Birch calls it a global movement and suggests that one cannot stop events like these. [20]

On that day many marijuana users protest in civil disobedience by gathering in public to smoke at 4:20 pm. [21]

As marijuana continues to be decriminalized and legalized around the world, Steve DeAngelo, cannabis activist and founder of California's Harborside Health Center, notes that "even if our activist work were complete, 420 morphs from a statement of conscience to a celebration of acceptance, a celebration of victory, a celebration of our amazing connection with this plant" and that he thinks that "it will always be worthy of celebration". [22] [23]

In North America Edit

North American observances have been held at many locations, including:

    : Washington Square Park in Manhattan[24] : Boston Common[25] : "Hippie Hill" in Golden Gate Park near the Haight-Ashbury[26] : Porter College meadows at the University of California, Santa Cruz[27][28] : The Vancouver Art Gallery[29][30] and Sunset Beach between 2016 and 2019. [31] : the Mount Royal monument [32][33] : Civic Center Park[34] : Parliament Hill and Major's Hill Park[35][36] : The Alberta Legislature Building[37] : campus of the University of Colorado Boulder[6][38][39][40][41] : Nathan Phillips Square[42] and Yonge-Dundas Square[43] : campus of the University of California, Berkeley on the Memorial Glade north of the Doe Memorial Library. [44] : Mexican Senate under the slogan Planton 420. [45]

In Australia Edit

Australian observances have been held at many locations, over many years, including:

  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney City: Martin Place, NSW (2019) [46]
  • 420 Picnic 2019 – Melbourne, VIC[47]
  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney, NSW (2018) [48][49][50][51]
  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney City: Kings Cross, NSW (2017) [52][53]

Elsewhere Edit

In Ljubljana, Slovenia, the University of Ljubljana's student organization has carried out several annual cannabis-themed protests that have contributed to the debate on cannabis status in Slovenia and the subsequent legislation proposals in 2018 by gathering responses from various political parties in Slovenia and ranking them accordingly. [61] [62]

In Northern Cyprus, known for strict drug laws and intolerance to cannabis consumption, [63] the first 420 event was held in the capital city Lefkoşa in 2015. On April 20, 2017 a small group of protesters carried out an event near the parliament building and made a public statement, demanding the legalization of cannabis sale, consumption, and production with state regulations. [64]

Traffic safety Edit

Despite two studies reporting a supposed increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes on April 20, [65] [66] further investigation and analysis found the evidence did not support such claims. [67] [68] [69] [70]

Stolen signs Edit

Signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery [71] however, the folklore of the 419.99 sign has caused it to be stolen, too, as well as becoming a tourist destination. As of August 2018, the sign was missing, presumed stolen. [72] The Colorado DOT usually will not replace signs that are repeatedly taken, but began the practice of replacing further down the road after "69" mile marker signs were frequently stolen—these were replaced with "68.5 mile" ones. [73] The Idaho Department of Transportation (ITD) replaced the mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur d'Alene, with mile marker 419.9. [74] The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) implemented similar measures, [75] but only replaced one of the two 420 signs in the state, with the remaining one being subsequently stolen. [73] According to The Washington Post, there are eleven 420 mile markers in the US, after three replacements and one stolen and not replaced. [76] In Goodhue County, Minnesota, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St". [77] The mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Route 89, the only 420 marker in the state of Utah, is frequently stolen. [78]

Legislation and other government recognition Edit

In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference [ citation needed ] to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420. [79] A North Dakota bill to legalize cannabis was HB 1420, introduced in January 2021. [80]

The Marijuana Freedom and Opportunity Act (which if enacted would decriminalize and deschedule cannabis in the United States) was announced by Senator and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-New York) on April 20, 2018. [81] [82] On January 9, 2019, H.R. 420 was introduced into the 116th Congress by Representative Earl Blumenauer (D-Oregon), named the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act, which is designed to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and return regulation to the states. [83]

The State of Colorado auctioned off several cannabis-themed personalized license plates in 2021, with the bidding to be closed on April 20 (4/20). The highest bid shortly before the auction closed was over $6,500 for "ISIT420". [84]

Following the success of Washington, D.C.'s Initiative 71 to legalize cannabis in 2014, Mayor Muriel Bowser granted license plate number 420 to the campaign's leader, Adam Eidinger. [85]

Literature Edit

Several books about cannabis have "420" in the title, including the cannabis cookbooks The 420 Cannabis Cookbook, published by Simon & Schuster, [86] and The 420 Gourmet published in 2016 by HarperCollins. [87] [88]

Watch the video: April 9th 2015 SUBTITULADA (October 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos