Egypt and Syria Join to Form United Arab Republic - History

Egypt and Syria Join to Form United Arab Republic - History

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Nasser Voting

Nasser was the leading Arab proponent of Pan-Arab Nationalism. He proposed the merging of individual Arab states into one Arab entity. He successfully negotiated the merger of Egypt and Syria into the United Arab Republic. The merger lasted until 1961 when Syrian troops revolted, creating a Syrian Revolutionary Command that declared independence from Egypt.

Mythological Period (. )

Amun-Ra, sun god, rules as Pharaoh at Thebes, in Upper Egypt.

Thoth and Nut, offspring of Ra, conspire to have their own offspring succeed him as Pharaoh (establishing tradition that pharaohs marry own sisters). Their children Osiris and Isis rule as king and queen at Thebes.

War between Ra's successors: Osiris at Thebes vs. his jealous brother Set who rebels at Memphis, in the Nile Delta or Lower Egypt. War between rival cities was likely real.

Set vanquishes Osiris but is in turn overthrown by Horus, son of Osiris and last god to rule as Pharaoh. Subsequent mortal pharaohs held to be his descendants.


10-milliemes Map of Suez Canal and Ship single

A republic in northeast Africa. Egypt was one of the centers of the development of western civilization. The dominant power in the region for 3,500 years, Egypt passed through periods of strength and weakness until 330 B.C., after which it was ruled by foreign states and dynasties until modern times. After 1517, Egypt was under Turkish control. In 1882, Britain occupied Egypt, although a nominal Turkish suzerainty remained until 1914. Egypt was a British protectorate until 1922, after which time it was virtually independent. British troops remained until 1951, when Egypt became completely independent. The corruption and extravagance of the monarchy brought the overthrow of King Farouk in 1952 and the establishment of a republic in 1953. In 1954, Lt. Col. Gamel Abdel Nasser, one of the leaders in the 1952 coup, came to power and ruled until his death in 1970. Nasser pursued a pan-Arab policy and attempted to unite the Arab world under his leadership.

The United Arab Republic joined Egypt and Syria 1958-61, but attempts to maintain the union or to include Iraq and Yemen during this period failed. Nasser's foreign policy, technically neutral, was in most instances aligned with that of the Soviet Union, and by the time of his death, thousands of Soviet advisors were in Egypt. Nasser was succeeded by Anwar Sadat, who expelled Soviet advisers in 1971 and who pursued an increasingly pro-Western policy after 1974. Egypt fought wars with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973. In each instance, Israel won. In 1979, Egypt and Israel signed a formal peace treaty, establishing formal diplomatic relations, setting a timetable for Israeli withdrawal from Egyptian territory occupied since 1967, and providing for the establishment of a Palestinian state. In October 1981, Sadat was assassinated. He was quickly succeeded by his vice president, Hosni Mubarak. Mubarek has resisted the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt during the 1990s.

Source: The World Factbook

Stamps issued: 1915-1921

15m Statue of Ramses II single

Stamps issued: 1866-1914

10p Sphinx and Pyramid single


50p Carpet Industry single

A republic in western Asia, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. Under Turkish control after 1516, Syria was occupied by the Allies late in World War I. British and French forces occupied the coastal areas, while the interior was taken by an Arab army, led by T.E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") and Faisal, son of King Hussein of the Hejaz. Lawrence and Faisal established an independent government, which claimed authority over Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Iraq, as well as Syria. This regime was recognized by a Syrian congress, but France soon overthrew the government and occupied the country. During its brief existence in 1919-20, the Syrian Arab Government issued over 100 stamps, mostly overprints on Turkish issues. Faisal was compensated by being made king of Iraq, which his family ruled until 1958.

Learn More

In 1922, France assumed formal control of Syria under a League of Nations mandate. In 1941, a republican government was established, and the country became independent, although French troops remained until 1946. Syria was united with Egypt during 1958-61. Since 1963, it has been ruled by the Baathist party, a socialist, pan-Arab group. Hafez al-Hassad assumed power in a 1970 coup and has since ruthlessly repressed all political opposition. Syria has participated in each of the four Arab-Israeli wars since 1948. After the 1967 war, the Golan Heights, a strategic position commanding the plains of northern Israel, was lost to the Israelis. In 1973 additional territory was lost, but it was returned in a U.S.-brokered settlement in 1974. Syrian forces entered Lebanon in 1976 as part of an Arab peacekeeping force, and since the 1980s Syria has dominated that country. In 1991 Syria was the first Arab state to condemn the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and sent troops to help defend Saudi Arabia. Hopes for a permanent peace settlement between Syria and Israel rose in the general atmosphere of good feeling after Iraq's defeat the following year but soon foundered.


Early years: Syrian Airways 1946–1958 Edit

Syrian Airlines was established in 1946, with two propeller aircraft and started to fly between Damascus, Aleppo and Deir ez-Zour and Qamishli. Operations began in 1947. Financial difficulties caused the suspension of services in 1948, but after receiving government support operations were resumed in 1951. The airline expanded during the next years to include Beirut, Baghdad, and Jerusalem, then Cairo and Kuwait then Doha, in addition to flights during the hajj. The airline started its operations in June 1947 using two Beech D-18s and three Douglas DC-3 (C-47 Dakotas). The Dakotas had been acquired from Pan American World Airways (PAA), which provided technical assistance to Syrian Airways during the first years of operation. The airline's domestic network linked Damascus, Aleppo, Latakia, Kamishly and Palmyra. Syrian Airways also operated a regional network, with flights to Beirut, Baghdad, Jerusalem, Amman followed by Cairo, Kuwait, Doha and Jeddah. In May 1948, the war in Palestine and financial difficulties led to the withdrawal of PAA and to the suspension of service until mid-1952. On December 21, 1953, one of the airline's Douglas planes crashed near Damascus killing all nine aboard. The airline's operating permit was cancelled following the crash. The airline was allowed to fly again in 1954. The D-18s had been returned to the Syrian Air Force in 1949, while four additional Dakotas were acquired between 1952 and 1956.

In 1952, the airline was provided with three Douglas DC-3s and with four Douglas DC-4s in 1954, and in 1957 it received four Douglas DC-6s in the name of United Arab Airline.

One of the older Dakotas (YK-AAE) crashed during its climb out of Aleppo's Nejrab Airport on February 24, 1956, during a heavy storm. The 19 people on board died in the airline's worst accident to date. Newer and stronger planes were consequently added to the fleet in the mid-fifties: two Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymasters, followed by a Douglas DC-4-1009 acquired from Swissair in December 1958, complementing an active fleet of four Douglas C47 Dakotas. The network was expanded to Dhahran in the Persian Gulf while frequencies were reinforced elsewhere.

Merger with Misrair: United Arab Airlines 1958–1960 Edit

In February 1958, Syria and Egypt decided to unite under the leadership of president Gamal Abdel Nasser, and the two countries became provinces of the United Arab Republic (UAR). The merger between Syrian Airways and Misrair, the state-owned airlines of Syria and Egypt came as a consequence of this political union. The airlines merged on December 25, 1958, to form United Arab Airlines (UAA). At the time of the merger, Syrian Airways was still only a small regional airline while its Egyptian counterpart, Misrair, was the largest and oldest airline in the Arab world, operating an extensive network out of Cairo, the region's metropolis.

During the UAA interlude, only regional and domestic routes were operated in Syria, flights further afield connected at the Cairo hub. Two planes inherited from Syrian Airways were written off between 1959 and 1961: the Douglas DC-4-1009 which was ditched in the Congo River as it was carrying cargo from Accra to Leopoldville on September 1, 1960, and a Dakota which crashed on its final approach of Kamishly on a domestic flight from Aleppo on May 6, 1961. Fortunately, there were no fatalities in either accident. The union between Egypt and Syria ended on September 26, 1961, amidst tensions between the leaderships of the two provinces of the UAR. The Syrian Arab Republic was declared in Syria, while Egypt chose to continue to carry the title of UAR for a few more years. In parallel to that divorce, Syria withdrew from UAA. All the airliners previously owned by Syrian Airways, two Douglas DC-6Bs and one Douglas DC6B freighter were given up by UAA to the Syrian authorities.

Rebirth of a national flag carrier: Syrian Arab Airlines 1961–1969 Edit

Syrian Arab Airlines (S.A.A.L.) were founded in October 1961 in order to take over UAA's operations in Syria and to become the new national airline. The fleet initially consisted of three Douglas C47 Dakotas, two Douglas C54 Sky masters, two Douglas DC-6Bs and one Douglas DC-6B freighter (later sold to LAC-Colombia). Domestic and regional flights were promptly resumed and the fleet originally was painted in a green livery reminiscent of that of the Syrian Airways colors.

S.A.A.L. purchased a third DC-6B from SAS in November 1962. Flights to European destinations (Rome and Munich) were started in 1963, followed by flights to London and Paris (Le Bourget), Karachi and Delhi in 1964. A new livery was introduced then, with alternating dark blue and red stripes for the cheatline.

Syrian Arab Airlines became a founding member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) and entered the jet age in 1965, with the purchase of two Sud Aviation 210 Super-Caravelle 10B3s. These beautiful jets enabled the airline to expand and reinforce its network with the addition of flights to Luxembourg, Prague, Athens, Istanbul, Teheran and Bahrain. A slightly altered livery was introduced for the occasion, removing the parallel stripes from the fin and removing the red stripes from the cheatline. In 1966, a pool partnership with Middle East Airlines – Air Liban was signed and a twice daily rotation between Beirut and Damascus was launched. The summer 1966 timetable below clearly reflects the airline's growth and modernisation.

In 1966, Syrian Arab Airlines used the Caravelles on flights to Europe (London, Paris, Munich, Rome, Athens and Nicosia) as well as high density Middle Eastern routes (Baghdad, Teheran, Jeddah, Kuwait, Doha, Sharjah) and on flights to South Asia (Karachi and Delhi). Routings were as follows: Eastbound and Lebanon: Damascus-Aleppo-Beirut (DC3) 3 times a week, Aleppo-Beirut (by MEA/pool partnership Viscount) 2X, Damascus-Beirut (DC4 for RB and Viscount for ME) twice daily, Damascus-Jerusalem (DC3 and DC4) 2X, Damascus-Baghdad-Teheran (DC6 and Caravelle) 2X, Damascus-Jeddah (Caravelle) 1X, Damascus-Kuwait (2XCRV, 1XDC6) 3X, Damascus-Bahrain (DC6) 1X, Damascus-Doha-Sharjah (DC6) 1X, Damascus-Doha-Sharjah-Karachi-Delhi (Caravelle) 1X, Damascus-Dhahran-Sharjah-Karachi (Caravelle) 1X. Westbound: Damascus-Athens-Rome-Munich-London (Caravelle) 1X, Damascus-Istanbul-Prague-Luxembourg (DC6) 1X, Damascus-Nicosia (DC4) 1X, Damascus-Athens-Munich-Paris-London (Caravelle) 1X, Damascus-Aleppo-Istanbul-Luxembourg (DC6) 1X, Damascus-Nicosia-Rome-Paris-London (Caravelle) 1X. Domestic: Damascus-Latakia (DC3)X5, Damascus-Palmyra-Deirezzor (DC4)X3, Damascus-Deirezzor-Aleppo (DC3)2X, Damascus-Deirezzor (DC3) 1X, Damascus-Aleppo-Kamishlie (DC3X2, DC4X4) X6, Damascus-Aleppo (DC3)X5 (including the flights continuing to Beirut).

Luxembourg is a rare destination for Middle Eastern carriers, except for cargo, SAAL's flights may have been in connection with Loftleidir's budget flights to North America. The Dakotas and Skymasters were still used on domestic routes as well as for the short flights to Beirut and Jerusalem. [ when? ]

In 1967, S.A.A.L. joined IATA by which it was granted the serial number 70. The Dakotas and Skymasters were gradually withdrawn from the fleet, while the DC6-Bs were used for domestic and for a few short-haul regional flights. The Six-Day War disrupted S.A.A.L's operations for several weeks in 1967 and the airline had to suspend its flights to Jerusalem. Beyond these immediate consequences on the airline, Syria's military defeat in 1967 left the whole country in a state of shock and had a decisive impact on the evolution of its political system for years to come. Nevertheless, S.A.A.L's operations were gradually restored and a normal level of operation was recovered by 1968 as shown in the timetable below. The fleet consisted then of two Super Caravelles and three DC-6Bs.

Syrian Air takes off: 1970–1981 Edit

With the beginning of the seventies, S.A.A.L continued its steady development, introducing flights to Moscow in 1970 and purchasing another two Super Caravelles from Sterling Airways in June 1971. Frequencies were increased, flights to Jeddah were resumed the same year while new flights were launched to Abu Dhabi, Benghazi and Budapest. Flights were disrupted for several weeks during the 1973 Yom-Kippur war, following which Syrian sovereignty was restored in parts of the Golan Heights. A climate of confidence, pragmatism and political stability was nevertheless in sight in Syria after decades of volatile politics and coups d'état. Ambitious development programs were launched throughout the country. Syrian Arab Airlines was among the government's priorities as a new modernization and expansion program was launched. A new airport, the Damascus International Airport, was built 25 km south-east of the capital and was opened to traffic in 1973 to become S.A.A.L's modern hub, replacing the old Mezze structure inherited from the French mandate.

A new S.A.A.L. livery was introduced in 1973, featuring the airline's new logo, a mythical bird rising over a Mediterranean-blue disk. Closer economic and political ties with the Warsaw pact countries led to the progressive buildup of a comprehensive network in Eastern Europe, with the addition of Bucharest, Prague and Berlin-Schoenefeld. More flights to North Africa were added in 1974 with the introduction of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers and Casablanca. Sanaa was also added to the network in 1974. In parallel to that, S.A.A.L. was managing an increasing number of Soviet-built aircraft for the Syrian government and the Syrian Air Force. That fleet was gradually expanded to include two Antonov An-24s, six Antonov An-26s, six Yakovlev Yak-40s and four Ilyushin Il-76 freighters (2Il-76Ts, 2 Il76Ms), in addition to two French-built Dassault Mystere/Falcon 20Fs and one Dassault Falcon 900. These aircraft were not used by the airline for scheduled services except for some of the Yak-40s which replaced the Douglas DC-6B and the Caravelles on domestic routes by the early eighties. In 1974, two Boeing 707s were leased in from British Airtours in order to complement the Caravelle fleet. That year, the airline carried 279,866 passengers.

A fleet renewal program was launched in 1975 as S.A.A.L. ordered three brand-new Boeing 727-294s and two Boeing 747SPs. Awaiting the delivery of its new planes, the airline leased Boeing 707s in order to improve its service offer. In all, two Boeing 707-420s and six Boeing 707-320s were leased in (respectively from British Airtours and British Midland Airways) at various times between 1974 and 1976 and were used to reinforce frequencies and add new destinations to the network.

The "SyrianAir" acronym was officially adopted on November 11, 1975, in anticipation of the delivery of the new Boeing fleet and in order to generate a more modern and international image. However, SyrianAir's official and legal title continues to be "Syrian Arab Airlines" to this day. The Boeing 727s supplemented the Caravelles throughout the network, while the Boeing 747SPs were used on high load international routes (Munich, Paris, London, the Persian Gulf region, Karachi and Delhi). Demand was particularly high on these routes in 1976, especially following the repeated closures of the Beirut International Airport, and the increasing number of passengers using Damascus International Airport for travel to and from neighboring and war-stricken Lebanon. A record 480,000 passengers were carried by the airline in 1976. Given the predominantly medium-haul route network of the airline, the choice of the Boeing 747SP continues to this day to raise interrogations. The two jumbo jets were ordered in 1976 with the intention of operating transatlantic services to New York. SyrianAir and Alia-the Royal Jordanian Airline were to join forces in launching the first transatlantic route ever operated by an Arab Middle Eastern airline. The joint flight agreement never really materialized, and Alia launched independently its own Amman-New York flights in 1977. SyrianAir started its Boeing 747SP operations on June 1, 1976, using the jumbo jet on the Damascus-Munich-London sector. In 1980, SyrianAir sold two of its ageing Caravelles as plans were made for the acquisition of newer aircraft. In 1981, the airline carried 510,000 passengers, but these numbers declined to 462,000 in 1982 following the unrest caused by Israel's invasion of nearby Lebanon.

During the seventies, SyriaAair managed to acquire a modern fleet, revamp its image and operate a profitable passenger network on three continents largely satisfying the needs of the Syrian market. Its fares were accessible and attracted budget travellers flying between Europe and South Asia. The climate of stability and economic prosperity in Syria had a determining influence on the positive results of the airline. The eighties brought about new challenges to both, Syria and its airline.

Mixed fortunes, mixed-fleet carrier 1981–1993 Edit

SyrianAir welcomed the eighties with an active fleet of three Boeing 727s, two Boeing 747SPs, and two ageing Super Caravelles. The Yakovlev Yak 40s devoted to internal routes were mostly flown on behalf of the Syrian Air Force. While there was an obvious need to renew the fleet and to increase the airline's capacity, mounting tensions between Syria and the West hampered the airline's modernization plans. There was a growing rift between the U.S. administration in particular and Syria both parties found themselves often at odds regarding a variety of regional issues, from the Iranian revolution to the Palestinian cause, to the raging conflict in Lebanon. These tensions ultimately resulted in economic sanctions voted by the U.S. congress, which accused Syria of harbouring and embracing illegal opposition movements. The sanctions, which became effective in the early eighties, apart from harming Syria's economy in general, prevented SyrianAir from buying newer Western equipment. This climate of difficult economics also resulted in a relatively austere on-board service and in the persistence of tedious multiple-leg routings, while competing airlines were offering nonstop frequent flights. SyrianAir had ultimately to resort to Soviet-built aircraft in order to expand its fleet. The Tupolev Tu-134s were introduced in 1983. In all, six Tu-134s were bought by SyrianAir, including two devoted to governmental missions. The Tu-134s were used along with the Caravelles on low yield regional and medium-haul flights and some domestic routes, while most of the domestic flights continued to be operated using the Yakovlev Yak-40s. Three Tupolev Tu-154Ms were acquired by SyrianAir between 1985 and 1986, they provided a well-needed boost to the Boeing 727 operations in Europe and the Persian Gulf region. The same difficult summer of 1985, flights to Beirut were restarted using the Super Caravelles. In 1986, SyrianAir had to suspend flights to one of its long-standing and most important destinations, London, because of a diplomatic crisis between the UK and Syria following the Hindawi affair. The number of passengers carried by SyrianAir declined to 353,355 in 1988, the lowest since the mid-seventies, forcing the airline towards more reform. The workforce was reduced by 1.5% to 3,526 in 1989, the number of passengers carried that year increased to 509,659. The workforce was increased to 3,615 in 1990, and the number of passengers increased to 655,644, a record despite the war in Kuwait, and the airline was able to finish the year without losses.

While sanctions and harsh economics kept it lagging way behind its competitors, and while the demise of the Soviet Union cast doubts on the future of its Tupolev fleet, SyrianAir's fortunes changed following the second Gulf War in 1990. As Syria supported the U.S.-led coalition against the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, it regained some of its long lost sympathy in Western hearts. Flights to London were resumed in 1991, and passenger numbers continued to increase to 700,819. The long-standing U.S. sanctions were eased in 1993, allowing the acquisition of modern Western equipment.

Renewal and modernization 1994–present Edit

In 1994, Kuwait donated to Syria three Boeing 727-269s which enabled SyrianAir to finally phase out the two Caravelles in December of the following year. In 1995, a record 71 million dollars in operating profit was reported by the airline. The Tupolev operations were gradually scaled down, while new destinations (Madrid and Stockholm) were launched. In 1997, the airline took drastic measures in reducing its workforce to 2,331, as operating profits had declined to USD44 million during the previous year. By 1998, the Tupolev Tu-134 were restricted to the Budapest, Beirut, Kuwait, Deirezzor and Kamishly sectors while the Tu-154s were still flown to Bucharest, Moscow, Istanbul, Cairo and Aleppo. In October 1998, SyrianAir received its first Airbus A320-232, YK-AKA and a new livery was unveiled for the occasion. Six Airbus A320s were delivered to SyrianAir in all, allowing the withdrawal of the Tupolevs from regular service by 2000. The Tupolevs (except for YK-AYE, a Tu-134 maintained for government use) as well as the Caravelles were stored by the airline at Damascus International Airport. In 1999, flights between Aleppo and Beirut were inaugurated (no such flights had been carried out since the sixties) and service to Libya was resumed following the removal of the UN sanctions against that country.

In 2000, SyrianAir operated a fleet of 14 aircraft: six Airbus A320s, six Boeing 727s and two Boeing 747SPs, while it continued to use the Syrian Air Force Yakovlev Yak-40s for the domestic routes to Kamishly and Deirezzor. Flights to Vienna were inaugurated, while the resumption of Amman and Baghdad flights during that year would prove only temporary. According to the Syrian DGCA website, the airline carried 764,000 passengers that year. In 2003, the airline registered a 9 million dollar net profit thanks to its more economical fleet and carried 907,850 passengers. Unprofitable routes were either scrapped or downscaled for seasonal operations. Thus, flights to Teheran, Bahrain, Doha and Muscat were operated only during the summer season. New markets were sought with the addition of Milan, Barcelona, Manchester, Copenhagen and Benghazi in 2004.

Most of SyrianAir's flights are multiple-leg flights involving either a stop in Aleppo, a combination of international destinations with fifth freedom rights, or triangular routings. This route structure comes in sharp contrast to the current practices of modern airlines, which tend to focus on high-yield, high-frequency nonstop flights evolving around a strategic hub. The airline, which is just completing its fleet modernization, will also need to catch up with modern marketing methods, revamp its in-flight service and become more profit conscious. With a workforce exceeding 4,000 employees, SyrianAir, which revenues nevertheless exceeded 171 million dollars in 2003, remains over-staffed. In 2004, and despite a difficult regional situation and U.S. sanctions, the airline improved its performance, carrying 1.07 million passengers. Syrian air carried close to 1.4 million passengers by 2005, however, the number of passengers being carried declined to less than 740,000 passengers by 2009. Plans were made for the renewal of the fleet with the possible acquisition of several new Airbus aircraft in order to replace the ageing Boeing 727 and 747s. These plans were hampered by the reinforcement of a U.S.-led embargo against Syria, and fleet renewal using Russian equipment was being reconsidered. By 2012, Syrian Air had retired all its old Boeing 747, 727 and Tupolev aircraft, leaving SyrianAir with just 8 aircraft in its fleet - 2 ATRs and 6 Airbus A320s.

On 9 January 2020, Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad issued a legislative decree to change the name from Syrian Arab Airlines to Syrian Airlines. [3]

EU and US sanctions Edit

On 23 July 2012, as the Syrian Civil War continued, the European Union imposed a new wave of sanctions on Syria, which included sanctions on SyrianAir. The sanctions meant that the airline cannot conduct flights to the EU, or buy any new aircraft which contain European parts. As a result, Syrian Air was forced to suspend all its operations to the EU. The company is discussing a lawsuit against European Union countries since Syrian Airlines "did not violate any laws nor did it jeopardise safety". However EU ministers justified the sanctions on the airline because the company "provides financial and logistical support for the Syrian government" [4]

On 10 October 2012, a Syrian Air flight in Turkish airspace was flanked by two fighter jets and forced to land in the country. It was believed the plane was carrying a Russian shipment to the Syrian military. Turkey's then-Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu said that Turkey had "received information this plane was carrying cargo of a nature that could not possibly be in compliance with the rules of civil aviation." Russian news agency Interfax cited an unnamed source from a Russian arms exporting agency who stated that there were no weapons or military equipment on board the plane. [5]

Codeshare agreements Edit

Syrian Air had codeshare agreements with the following airlines (as of December 2012):

Egypt and Syria Join to Form United Arab Republic - History

Alright, this is my first guide for a game. I will tell about how to form United Arab Republic (and getting Pan Arabism in the process).

1, All you need is to make sure you support the intervention to Egypt (the one where you need 5 million budget).
2. Once the 1977 kicks in, and you get the event for Egypt, if you have enough agents and budget (I'll say 10 agents and about 4 to 5 million budget) you can do radical intervention by supporting with all your might. Alternatively you can pick the "help Libya and Syria overthrow Egypt"
3. You need to have enough agents to put pressure on Iraq's political parties when the Iraq event (party coalition broke up and communist repression) arrived.
4. After 1979, you can form UAR with Syria, Iraq, Libya (if you support Libya).
5. When Israel - Lebanon war arrived, supports Lebanon at all cost.
6. Negotiate with Israel once they lost and pick the lowest decision/decision number three.
7. When the game ended on 1985, click end the game and you will get it.

- It is also a good thing if you intervene in Iranian revolution and supports anyone that is not Islamist to ease things up in case UAR cannot be formed because Iran is in a war with Iraq.
- Support leftists or democrats for Iran.

Egypt and Syria Join to Form United Arab Republic - History

570Muhammad born in Mecca
Abbysinia, a Byzantine ally invades southern Arabia
6th-7th Century Byzantine Empire at war with Sassanian Persian Empire
610Muhammad's revelations begin.
622 Migration of Muslims to Medina.
632 Muhammad dies Abu Bakr becomes first Caliph.
634-644Umar reigns as 2nd Caliph
636Muslim armies defeat Byzantine and Persian armies.
644-656Uthman is Caliph. Qur'an is compiled and standardized
656Uthman murdered Ali becomes Caliph
661Ali is assassinated Mu'awiya rules from Syria and founds Umayyad Dynasty (661-750).
711 Muslims invade Spain.
732Charles Martel defeats Muslims in France.
747Abbasid revolt begins.
750Umayyads fall to Abbasid forces, remnant of family flees to Spain.
755-1031Umayyads rule Spain.
762Baghdad founded as Abbasid capital.
786-809Reign of Harun al-Rashid.
909-1171Shi'i dynasty rules Egypt & North Africa, Cairo founded.
945-1055Buyids (a Shi'i family) control Baghdad & Iraq.
1020Death of Firdawsi, Persian Epic poet, reviver of Persian Literature.
1063-1157Seljuk Turks control Iraq.
1171-1250Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt.
1250-1517Mamluk dynasty in Egypt.
1271Marco Polo reaches Persia en route to China.
1258Hulagu, Mongols sack Baghdad.
1324-1360Ottoman family establishes and expands rule in Anatolia (Asia Minor).
1369-1405Timur (Tamerlane) controls Persia and Mesopotamia.
1425-30 Ottoman-Venetian War
1453Ottomans take Constantinople.
1487Bartholomew Diaz rounds Cape of Good Hope.
1499 Isma'il establishes Safavid Dynasty in Iran declares Shi'i belief and practice of Islam as official religious form for the Empire.
1502 Tabriz in Azerbaijan is made capital of Safavid Empire.
1505Babur active in India establishing Moghul Dynasty.
1514Shah Isma'il defeated by Ottomans humiliated, he retires from public activity.
1516Portugese take Hormuz.
1517Ottomans defeat Mamluks, take Egypt and North Africa.
1520-1556Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent as Ottoman Sultan.
1600Shah Abbas makes Isfahan capital of Saffavid Empire.
1664First major Ottoman defeat in Europe.
1677-1681First Ottoman-Russian war.
1722Afghans destroy Safavid power in Iran.
1783Russia annexes Crimea, weakens Ottoman control of Black Sea.
1798Napoleon takes Cairo.
1805Muhammad Ali establishes rule in Egypt
1821-1830Greek war of independence.
1830French occupy Algeria
1834First Arabic printing press established in Beirut.
1844Sayyid Ali Muhammad declares himself to be The Bab.
1866Syrian Protestant College established in Beirut, later becomes American University.
1875British gain control of Egypt.
1881French occupy Tunisia.
First Zionist mission to Palestine. Theodor Herzl begins revival of Hebrew as spoken language in Palestine.
1882British quell Egyptian revolt. Lord Cromer installed as Consul General.
1897First World Zionist Congress held in Basil, Switzerland founds World Zionist Organization.
1900-1908Hijaz railway built for Muslim pilgrims.
1901Ibn Saud and the Wahhabis take Riyadh.
1905-1908Constitutional Revolution in Iran.
1912Agudat Yisrael founded as counterweight to World Zionist Organization
1913Young Turk revolution takes over Ottoman government.
1914 Formation of al-Ahd, Arab Nationalist secret society.
1914-1918World War I.
1915Husayn-MacMahon correspondence begins, soliciting Arab support for Allied effort and promises British support for Arab state in Greater Syria.
1916Sykes-Picot agreement between France and Great Britain for division of Ottoman lands.
1917Balfour Declaration of British favor for Jewish state in Palestine.
1919Turkish national congress meets.
1920 Faisal, son of Sherif Husayn of Mecca tries to establish Arab Rule in Damascus.
1921Reza leads successful coup in Iran, establishes Pahlavi dynasty.
1922League of Nations ratifies mandate system for European control of former Ottoman territories.
1924 Turkish republic established.
1926Ibn Saud proclaimed King of Hijaz.
1929Violent Arab resistance to British rule of Palestine Mandate.
1936-7Arab revolt in Palestine.
1938 (?)Muslim Brotherhood formed in Egypt.
1939Irgun members lead Jewish attacks on British holdings in Palestine.
1939-1945World War II.
1941 Reza Shah of Iran deposed for German collaboration, son Muhammad installed.
1945Arab League created.
1947U.N. partition plan for Palestine approved.
1948Isreal war of Independence.
1951Mosaddeq elected Prime Minister of Iran. Nationalizes British Petroleum.
1952Nasser leads Arab revolution in Egypt.
1953Shah restored to power in Iran, Mosaddeq arrested
1956Suez War. Egypt gains full control of canal and its revenues.
1958Egypt and Syria form United Arab Republic. Dissolved in 1961.
1963Ba'thist coup in Syria. Coup in Iraq.
1963P.L.O formed.
1967Arab-Israeli War.
1968Coup in Iraq, consolidation of Ba'thist power.
1969 Yasser Arafat becomes head of PLO.
Hafiz al-Asad takes control of Syrian government.
Qaddafi leads revolt in Libya.
1970Anwar Sadat succeedes Nasser as President of Egypt.
1973 Arab-Isaeli War.
1975Iran-Iraq treaty to end border dispute.
1978Camp David.
1979Sadat assassinated in Egypt. Hosni Mubarak replaces Sadat and Prime Minister.
1980Iran-Iraq war breaks out.
1982Israel invades Lebanon.
1987U.S. re-flags Kuwaiti oil tankers.
1988Palestinian Intifada breaks out in Israeli Occupied Territories.
1990(August) Iraq invades Kuwait and drives out ruling Sabah family.
1991(January) U.S. led multi-national force attacks Iraqi forces in Kuwait and Iraq. Sabah family is restored to power in Kuwait. Iraq accepts U.N. terms of surrender. Saddam Hussein retains power
1990-92Regional peace talks begin under U.S. and Soviet sponsorship to resolve disputes between Arab states, the Palestinians and Israel.

2. Commentary

During the Abbasid period (750-1258), the Muslims came closer to achieving the Islamic vision of a global community of faith governed by institutions based on spiritual principles and religious law as expressed in the Qur'an. One's status in the community was based more on achievement and less on lineage or family affiliations, though these influences persisted in their importance. Material wealth gave families power, influence and status. However they could be easily erased by circumstance and misfortune. More enduring and more precious was one's reputation. This was based on character and accomplishment, whether by wealth, education, governmental & military service, or personal and creative initiative. By the time of the Crusades, suspicion and distrust of the ruling elite--regional governors, military tyrants, the Abbasid family themselves--had become pervasive. More and more Muslims turned to local spiritual leaders or independent institutions such as Sufi orders, religious colleges, trade fraternities, clan leaders, and Shi'ite enclaves. Around the year 1000, Shi'ite affiliations were dominant among the ruling elite: The Fatimid Dynasty (909-1171) that controlled Egypt, North Africa, the Holy land, and the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, was an Isma'ili, or Sevener group. Another Isma'ili group controlled parts of Lebanon and Syria. They operated from their strongholds in the mountain ranges of that area. They were essentially rebel. They believed that all the ruling elite were corrupt, had rebelled against God and His religion, and that under the principles governing the use of Jihad, or holy war, could be killed with impunity. They were in reality a cult and their warriors used hashish to achieve the bold abandon necessary to carry out their vicious duties. The became known in European languages as the Assassins, based on the Arabic term Hashashin, or hashish users.

The Buyyid (932-1062) family controlled much of Iran and Iraq (945-1055), including the Abbasid Caliphate itself. The Zaydis (901-19th C.), or followers of a descendant of the third Imam, Husayn, controlled the south end of the Arabian peninsula and are still the dominant group in the Yemen. This period of Shi'i ascendancy faded with the collapse of the Fatimids in Egypt, the rise of new powers in Iraq and Egypt. The Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250) gained control of the lands formerly controlled by the Fatimids in Egypt and the Holy land. They succeeded in driving out the Crusaders. By the time the Mongol armies swept down out of central Asia, the Abbasid Empire had ceased to exist. It was the new power rising in North Africa and the Levant (the Holy Land or the regions of Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan). This reflects not only the power and potency of Shi'i influence but the waning of Abbasid power. Provincial governors and powerful families developed into regional powers who ruled in the name of the Abbasid caliph, but more often than not, he ruled by their leave as well, as in the case of the Buyids and later the Seljuks, a Turkic speaking people who preceded the Mongols in their migration from central Asia. By the end of the 12th century, the Fatimids in Egypt fell to another Turkic group known as the Mamluks. Their name means slaves, and in fact they had been the slave army used by the Ayyubid and Abbasid rulers. They became stronger than the ruling family and eventually overthrew them.

Changes brewing in Central Asia were soon to have an impact all over the world. A Turkic speak nomadic people came under the sway of a charismatic, bold and ruthless leader who took the title of Chingiz Khan. He and his armies lead by his sons spread out east to China, South across the Iranian plateau and west into Europe. Experts in the use horses and the techniques of terror, they took city after city, slaughtering as much as 25% of the population. They would pile the severed heads of their victims outside the city gates, which as they decomposed, would begin to glow at night. In 1256 they reached Baghdad, sacked the city and put an end to the Abbasid line. Hulagu, the son of Chingiz ruled the conquered Islamic lands. The Mongols were interested in conquest, not governance. They quickly employed native administrators to run their kingdoms. Fascinated with the culture of the region, the Mongols quickly assimilated and adopted the religion of Islam. They reinvigorated the central governing institutions and put an end to many of the petty regional rivalries. Yet other clans and peoples in Central Asia began to migrate to the Islamic lands. The Ottomans began to assert control in 1326 over portions of Asia Minor (Anatolia or today, Turkey today). Muslims themselves, they turned their interest toward the west and by 1361 took control of Adrianople. It would take nearly a century to conquer Constantinople. In the meantime, another Mongol conqueror would gain control of India, the Iranian plateau, Syria and part of Anatolia. He was known as Timur, or Tamerlane. The Ottomans finally captured Constantinople in 1453. By 1500, with the introduction and use of gunpowder technology, three new empires were established in the Islamic lands: The Ottoman in the west, ruling from Constantinople controlled Anatolia, the Balkans, Northern Iraq, Syria, Egypt and North Africa. The Safavids controlled the Iranian plateau, and the Moghuls controlled the Indian sub-continent. The next two hundred years witnessed a fresh flowering of Islamic culture and civilization. The Ottomans advanced nearly to Vienna in Europe. The Safavids controlled the regions around the Caspian Sea and Afghanistan. Trade, architecture, literature and mysticism flourished. The Safavids forced Iran to convert to Shi'ism, because their founder, Shah Isma'il venerated Ali and thought himself to be his spiritual return. He was something of a lunatic, but brought the best scholars and clergy he could persuade to settle in Iran and propagate their teachings. When the power of the Safavid dynasty began to decline, powerful clergy involved themselves more and more in matters of state and governance and arrogated to themselves more and more of the authority and functions rightly exercised by the Imams alone.

From the 17th century on, the Islamic regions began a slow economic decline, as European traders circumvented the trade routes and greedy tarifs of the Muslim rulers, though utilizing their navigational technology. By the 19th century, European diplomacy regarded the Ottoman empire as the "sick man of Europe. To avoid disastrous wars for hegemony, they propped up the Ottoman state and used their growing influence to manipulate the Ottoman rulers to suit European interest. Into this turbulent and decadent environment, the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh were born and began to spread their radical vision for a fundamentally different world order.

During the period some historians have called the "Gunpowder Empires," the Ottomans controlling what is today Turkey, The eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, Iraq and parts of Eastern Europe. The Safavids controlled the Iranian plateau and the Mogul controlled the Indian subcontinent. Islam itself as a religion and the spiritual foundation of a nearly global civilization, had spread much wider into sub-Saharan Africa, along the silk routes of trade through central Asia into China, and far into the Pacific. At one point China was 25% Muslim! Today, the largest Muslim country by population is Indonesia. Islam is growing in numbers and strength in the United States today, but it came to this country with the slaves in the 17th and 18th century.

Military and political control, however is an ever changing phenomena. The power of the Safavid and Ottoman states began to decline in the late 17th and 18th Centuries. The Ottomans frequently engage in war with the Austrians and the Russians during the 17th and 18th Centuries. In 1717 the Ottomans lose Belgrade after controlling it for almost 200 years. Yet the Ottomans remain a formidable power in Europe and Asian. The Safavid Empire declined more rapidly. As they did, the Shi'ite 'ulama' grow stronger in social and political power. They arrogate to themselves more and more of the functions in the religion that more properly belonged to the Imams, the last of whom disappeared 7 centuries before. In 1722 the Safavids are defeated by Afghani forces, who control Iran briefly. They are driven out by Nadir Shah in 1730. Nadir Shah also manages to drive back Russian forces in the North. He is assassinated in 1747 Another powerful military ruler, Karim Khan Zand gains power in Iran over the next ten years and rules until 1779. A measure of stability returns to Iran by the end of the century when a new dynasty is established, the Qajars, beginning with Agha Muhammad in 1796. They, like their predecessors depend on the support of the Shi'i ulama to rule effectively. The Shi'i leaders believe they have a rightful role in affairs of state because they are the experts in Islamic law and because the Imams, they believe should have been the rightful rulers of the Islamic world. This spawns the notion that ideally, religious and political authority should be linked as it was during the lifetime of the Prophet and during the brief rule of Ali, the first Imam. The 'ulama', or scholars and religious functionaries, exercise their authority in memory of the Imams and with the hope of Their blessings and inspired guidance, and through their understanding of the fundamentals of the teachings of Islam.

Economically, the Middle East was beginning to decline as well. European traders and European powers were able to establish trade routes that by-passed Muslim controlled lands as the Portuguese and British did, or by gaining concessions from the Ottoman through various treaties following Ottoman defeats. The British were able to obtain treaties in the Persian Gulf with the small, independent Sheikhs that controlled. In India and East Asia the British and the Portuguese conquered a number of important ports and competed for power and trade in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific.

In 1798, an astonishing event occurs. Napoleon Bonaparte took Cairo and conquered Egypt. This was the first time a European power had entered what was considered the heartland of the Islamic world since the Crusades. And even then, the Crusaders were only able to control small areas of Palestine for brief periods. The fall of Egypt to the French sent shock-waves through the Islamic world that would reverberate throughout the 19th Century. The French were driven out of Egypt very shortly and a new independent ruler by the name of Muhammad Ali took control of Egypt and began to extend his control into Syria, threatening Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Ottomans enlisted the aid of Britain and France to limit the power and influence of Muhammad Ali and the advance of his forces. The first Arabic printing press is established in Beirut in 1834. The first Arabs begin to travel to France and Britain to study in hopes that they might learn some of the secrets of their technology and rising power. Ideas of French nationalism begin to be introduced.

Oil Geopolitics: the Shale Saga and Shifting Sands (Part 2/4)

If you haven’t already, highly recommend reading Part 1 first:

1. Fundamentals: source, sink, and route of oil.
2. US and the Shale Revolution: US production history net exporter status withdrawal from Middle East.

3. Messy mosaic of the Middle East: complicated relations an over-simplified history of last 600 years lessons from history.

4. Saudi-Iran conflict: ideological divide oil production and sanctions proxy wars.

5. China and Belt and Road: big appetite Belt and Road Petrodollar and Petroyuan
6. More oil geopolitics
: other key players (inc. Russia, Turkey) non-state actors other ancillary factors (inc. natural gas, environmental sustainability).

3. The messy mosaic of the Middle East

Accounting for one third of global oil production, one cannot understand global oil geopolitics without understanding at least the basic power dynamics of the Middle East.

But grasping the geopolitical dynamics of the Middle East is rather tricky. It quickly gets mired in complexity. It’s divorced from the binary narratives we’re familiar with Team A against Team B. Frenemies abound.

A slightly neater version:

And to make matters worse, the above relations change rather quickly over time.

For instance, we hear about US sanctions on Iran for its nuclear program all the time (more on 2015 Obama Nuclear Deal and 2018 Trump withdrawal later). But those that have not studied history might not know that Iran was actually a US ally during the Cold War. And even fewer may knot that the US actually helped Iran developed nuclear capabilities in the 60s and 70s.

What’s driving these conflicts? The simple answer is power. Oil and resources being key factors. But there are indeed others at play: tribal and ethnic identities, ideology and legitimacy, as well as post-colonial legacies and foreign interventions.

So the problem with most headlines and political opinions about the region is over-simplification of the messy political mosaic.

But the other problem is the defeatist “it’s so complicated we’ll never be able to understand anyway.”

Perhaps a sensible approach to understanding the region is to look at raw events in history and drawing your own conclusions rather than simply relying on the reductive, and often misleading, narratives given to us by the media.

3.1. An over-simplified history

This section lists key events in Middle East and surrounds (western Asia, Balkan Europe, north Africa etc) from around 600 years ago, at a time when the Ottoman empire started to expand.

Events have been selected based on relevance, weighted by 3 factors:

  • Geography: Focus on events in the region. But major events outside region with significant spillover effects are also included.
  • Domain: Focus on political/military events. But some major economic/financial/business, social/cultural, and science/technology related events which inevitably influence political events are also included.
  • Time: More events are shown as we get closer to today.

1453: The Ottoman empire captures Constantinople and brings down the Roman Byzantine empire.

1455: Western Europe adopts newly invented Gutenberg printing press while the Ottomans suppress it.

1492: Columbus arrives in the Americas, kick-starting the rise of European colonial powers who will quickly challenge Ottoman dominance.

1494: Spain and Portugal divide New World along a vertical line at Treaty of Tordesillas.

1498: Portuguese find a sea route to India. Europeans no longer need to go through the Ottoman middle man to trade with Asia.

1501: Ismail I conquers Persia and establishes Safavid dynasty (1501-1736), begins forced conversion of Sunni majority population into Shia partly motivated to create more cohesive Persian identity against an ongoing Ottoman conflict.

1502: Spanish send African slaves to Caribbean, kick-starting the Atlantic slave trade.

1510: Safavid Persia defeats Shaybanids in Persian-Uzbek Wars (1502-1510).

1514: Ottomans win Battle of Chaldiran against Safavid Persia gains eastern Anatolia and Mesopotamia.

– Protestant Reformation in Europe.
– Ottomans conquer Egypt, ending Mamluk rule (1250-1517).

1521: Spanish conquer Aztec empire, setting up a new influx of silver and gold into Eurasia.

1522: Spanish circumnavigate globe (Magellan expedition), the next milestone in Europe’s rise.

1526: Mughal empire founded by Timurid (Central Asian heritage) prince Babur (r. 1526-1857).

1529: Siege of Vienna first attempt of Ottoman advance into Western Europe fails.

1534: Ottomans conquer Iraq from Safavid Persians.

1547: Ivan IV (the Terrible) becomes first Tsar of Russia (r. 1547-1584) terrorises nobility, centralizes administration and imposes military discipline.

1555: Ottomans win Ottoman-Safavid War 1532-1555 conquering Georgia and Dagestan from Persia.

1556: Mughal empire consolidates under Akbar (r. 1556-1605).

1559: Despite 20 years of Ottoman challenge, Portugal maintains status quo control over Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean.

1570: Russia wins First Russo-Turkish War 1568-1570 for Black Sea control.

– Holy League Catholic coalition defeats Ottomans at Battle of Lepanto in Greece last major Western world naval engagement between rowing vessels.
– Height of Safavid Persian empire under Shah Abbas (r. 1571-1629) reforms army and establishes diplomatic links with western Europe.

1581: Dutch overthrow Spanish after 80 year war, reflecting Spanish decline and the rising Dutch.

1588: England repels Spanish armada.

1590: Ottomans conquer Armenia and Shirvan (modern Azerbaijan) from Persia (Ottoman-Safavid War 1578-1590).

1595: First Dutch expedition to East Indies (Indonesia).

16th century: Spanish and Portuguese domination and Ottoman expansion

1600: British East India Company established in India.

– Dutch East India Company (VOC) chartered.
– Safavid Persians conquer Bahrain from Portuguese.

1607: British establish Jamestown in North America.

1609: Galileo invents the telescope, kick-starting European Renaissance and scientific revolution.

1613: Russian Romanov dynasty (1613-1917) established, ending long period of instability and foreign intervention.

1618: Persia wins Ottoman-Safavid War 1603-1618 re-conquers Caucasus, Mesopotamia and east Anatolia from Ottomans.

1622: British-Persian alliance takes control of the Hormuz strait from Portuguese, opening it up to everyone including Portuguese.

1623: Persia wins Mughal-Safavid War 1622-1623 conquers Kandahar from Mughals.

1639: Ottomans win Ottoman-Safavid War 1623-1639 Caucasus partitioned Ottomans gain Mesopotamia.

1644: End Ming dynasty (1368-1644), start Manchu Qing dynasty (1644-1912), putting end to Mongol threat and re-organising disparate Buddhist nomads and steppe Muslims into Xinjiang province.

1653: Safavid Persia wins First Russo-Persian War 1651-1653 defeating Russians in north Caucasus.

1663: Steam pump invented in England, laying foundation for Industrial Revolution.

1668: Glorious Revolution in England (Parliament power restored).

1674: Leeweunhoek sees microorganisms through microscope (Dutch).

1681: Second Russo-Turkish War 1676-1681, over Black Sea, indecisive.

1682: Tsar Peter I (the Great) (r. 1682-1721) reign expands Russia into Scandinavia and fights Ottomans for Black Sea control partly thanks to weakened Mongols on eastern front (thanks to Qing).

1683: Holy Roman Empire, Hapsburg Monarchy and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth defeat Ottomans at Vienna (second Ottoman attempt into Europe also fails).

1687: Newton.

17th century: Spanish decline Dutch domination

1700: Europe-backed Russia wins Third Russo-Turkish War (1686-1700) Russia gains Crimea and other Black Sea territories.

1707: Union of Scotland and England forms Great Britain.

1709: Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) established in Afghanistan.

1711: Ottoman-Sweden win Fourth Russo-Turkish War (1710-1711)/Pruth River Campaign Russia returns Crimea and other Black Sea territories.

1712: First practical stationary atmospheric steam engine (GB).

1717: Oman conquers Bahrain from Safavid Persians but later resell it to them.

1721: Russia establishes naval presence in Baltic Sea (in modern Estonia), a window on Europe, after decades of war with Swedish.

1722: Hotaki Afghans occupy most of Persia (1722-1729).

1723: Russia wins Second Russo-Persian War 1722-1723 gains more Caucasus territory.

1735: Afsharid Persians wins Ottoman-Persian War 1730-1735 reconquering Caucasus.

1736: End of Safavid dynasty Persia (1501-1736) Start of Afsharid dynasty Persia (1736-1796).

1738: Afsharid Persians plunder Mughal India (1738-1739).

1739: Ottomans win Fifth Russo-Turkish War (1735-1739), repelling Russian-Austrian attack on Moldavia.

1744: Swiss-national Bernoulli founds statistics.

1746: Afsharid Persia wins Ottoman-Persian War (1743-1746) no significant territorial changes.

1756: Al-Sabah family takes control of Kuwait semi-autonomous under Ottoman rule.

1758: British Raj established in India.

1763: Anglo-Prussian victory over France-Habsburg-Saxony-Russia-Spanish in Seven Years War (1756-1763) triggered by unresolved Austrian succession, but ultimately about Britain-France vying for global dominance.

1769: Watts patents more efficient steam engine (GB).

1773: Boston Tea Party (US).

1774: Russia wins major Sixth Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774) after Ottomans demanded Russia’s Catherine II the Great abstain from interfering with Poland Ottoman Crimean khanate becomes Russian client state.

– (Mar) Adam Smith Wealth of Nations
– (Jul) Declaration of Independence (US).

1781: American revolutionaries (with French support) defeat British at Battle of Yorktown last major battle in independence war Britain recognises US officially 2 years later.

– Official end of American Independence war against British.
– Khalifa family (who continues to rule Bahrain to this day) seizes control of Bahrain from Afsharid Persia.

1784: British win Fourth Anglo-Dutch war (1780-1784) fighting occurs globally (North Sea, India, Indonesia, Caribbean).

– (Jul) French Revolution, Bastille prison is stormed.
– End of Safavid dynasty in Persia (1501-1789) Start of Qajar dynasty (1789-1925) which will go on to the Muslim clergy (ulema) political power.
– First US president Washington elected.

– Napoleonic wars begin.
– Russia wins Seventh Russo-Turkish War (1787-1792) Ottomans lose more Black Sea coast.

– Vaccines discovered (GB).
– Third Russo-Persian war/Persian Expedition, again over Caucasus no lasting consequences.

18th century: Dutch and Ottoman decline Britain, France, and Russia rise.

1801: Napoleon campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798-1801) defeated by Anglo-Ottomans.

1803: US buys Lousiana from France, doubling its size.

1805: Ottoman Albanian commander Ali establishes dynasty (1805-1953) in Egypt nominally part of the Ottoman Empire.

1809: Ottomans allied with Napoleon France fend off British attack and win Anglo-Turkish War 1807-1809.

– (May) Russia wins Eighth Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812 gains Moldavia (Romania) from Ottomans.
– (Jun-Dec) Russia repels Napoleon invasion.

– Russia gains Georgia, Azerbaijan, northern Armenia from Qajar Persia (Fourth Russo-Persian War, 1804-1813).
– Start of ‘Great Game’ between Britain and Russia for influence over Central Asia and South Asia (1813-1907).

1815: British defeat Napoleon at Battle of Waterloo, paving way for British global dominance.

1818: Ottomans and Egypt defeat Saudi army (Wahhabi War 1811-1818).

1819: Latin American independence from Spain.

1821: Greek rebellion against Ottoman starts.

1822: Brazil independence from Portugal.

– Monroe Doctrine, US claims Americas as its sphere of influence.
– Qajar Persia wins Ottoman-Persian War 1821-1823 no territorial changes.

1827: British-French-Russian-Greek sinks main Ottoman-Egyptian fleet.

1828: Russia gains Armenia, Azerbaijan and northern modern Iran from Qajar Persia (Fifth Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828).

1829: Russia wins Ninth Russo-Turkish War 1828-1829 Ottomans retaliate to Russian intervention in Greek independence war Russia occupies more Balkan territory.

1832: Greece independence from Ottoman.

– British steamship crosses Atlantic (Quebec to London), drastically reducing global travel time.
– Egypt wins Egyptian-Ottoman War 1831-1833 sparked by Egypt demanding control over Syria as a reward for aiding Ottomans in Greek independence war.

1837: Commercial telegraphs and Morse Code (US).

1839: Aden in Yemen comes under British rule an important refuelling port after Suez Canal opens in 1869. Goodyear improves rubber production techniques (vulcanization) (US), crucial for increased automobile use.

1841: Egypt wins Second Egyptian-Ottoman War 1839-1841 gaining Syria and recognition from Britain.

– British defeat Qing in First Opium War (1839-1842) to grow its trade surplus, Hong Kong ceded to Britain.
– Afghanistan repels British invasion First Anglo-Afghan war (1838-1842).

– Mexico loses half its territory after losing US-Mexico war (1846-1848), on which the US would discover significant amounts of oil soon after.
– Marx publishes Communist Manifesto (although Russian translation not until 1882).

1856: British-French-Ottoman alliance defeat Russians in Crimean War (1853-1856) British and French refuse to let Russia grow too powerful as Ottoman declines.

1857: British defeat Qajar Persians in Anglo-Persian War (1856-1857) Persia withdraws from Herat, Afghanistan.

1859: Darwin publishes Origin of Species, further catalyzing the declining influence of religious institutions.

1860: Civil War in America (1860-1865).

1861: Bahrain becomes British protectorate.

– US Civil War ends slavery abolished under 13th Amendment Lincoln assassinated.
– Russia annexes Kazakh steppes and central Asian Muslim states.

1867: Dynamite patented by Swedish-born Nobel, paving way for ever more ambitious engineering projects. US buys Alaska from Russia.

1868: Meiji Restoration in Japan, ending the isolationist policy of the Tokugawa Shogunate rule (1600-1868), and starting Japan’s rapid industrialization.

1869: Suez Canal opens in Egypt, drastically reducing shipping time. US transcontinental railroad allows passengers and freight to cross country in 1 week (before it took several months).

1860s: Internal combustion engine developed, further increasing oil’s geopolitical importance.

1870s: Refrigerated ocean transport of meat phosphate fertilizer industry begins life expectancy starts to rise sharply in Europe and Americas mostly due to improved sanitation.

1871: Ottomans seize Qatar from Al-Thani dynasty (est. 1825).

1878: Last Tenth Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) Russia and Balkan allies liberates Balkans from Ottoman rule British and Austria-Hungary alarmed by Russian gains forces treaty to limit Russian military power.

1880: British win Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) Afghanistan becomes British protectorate.

1882: British occupy Egypt. Koch discovers bacteria (Germany).

1880s: European colonization of Africa, the height of European colonial empires. Crude oil discovered in Texas, making the US the leading global oil producer for decades to come.

1892: Trucial States (later UAE) become British protectorate.

1893: Britain and Russia agree to leave Afghanistan as buffer state in their ‘Great Game’. Roentengen discovers X-rays (Germany).

1895: Japan defeats Qing in first Sino-Japanese war (1894-1895).

1897: Braun invents cathode ray tube (Germany).

1898: McKinley US wins Spanish-American War (Apr98-Dec98) gains Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines. US also annexes Hawaii. The US is now on par with Britain as global power leader.

1899: Kuwait becomes a British protectorate. Radio signals transmitted across English channel.

1890s: Begin commercial electricity generation in US and Western Europe.

19th century: Continued Ottoman decline Britain dominates Germany and US rise.

1901: Radio transmitted across Atlantic. Anti-imperialist/foreign/Christian Boxer rebellion in Qing China suppressed (1899-1901) with Western power help.

– Ibn Saud takes control of Ridyah (to be capital of Saudi Arabia).
– British win Second Boer War (Oct1899 – May1902), triggered by diamond and gold.

1903: Wright brothers flight, warplanes need oil.

1905: Japan wins Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905). Einstein (quanta, special relativity, E=mc2).

1908: Ford Model T launched (US), first mass-produced affordable car, cars need oil.

1906: Revolution in Persia forces Qajars to accept a constituion and limit monarch power, but ultimately failed partly because clergy withdrew support and partly because Britain and Russia worked to keep Persia weak.

1909: Anglo-Persian Oil Company established, which would later become BP.

– (May) Standard Oil is broken up (US).
– (Sep-Nov) Italy annexes Ottoman Libya Mukhtar begins a 20-year resistance against Italian occupation.

– (Oct11-Feb12) Xinhai Revolution Chinese revolutionary army overthrows Qing dynasty Sun Yat-sen becomes first president of new republic but regional warlodism continues.

– (Jul) Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria) defeat Ottoman overlord in First Balkan War (Oct12 – Jul13).
– (Jun-Jul) Bulgaria disputes Balkan League over territory, attacks its former allies and is quickly defeated in Second Balkan War.
– Rebellion suppressed in Qajar Persia.
– Haber-Bosch process to produce synthetic fertilizer. High pressure crude oil cracking.

– (May) Recognizing its importance for fueling a mechanized army (war ships, planes, and tanks), British government buys 51% of Anglo-Persian Oil Company, effectively nationalizing it.
– (Jun-Aug) Austrian archduke Ferdinand assassinated Allies (Britain, France, Russia, Serbia) are at war with Central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary).
– (Aug-Dec) Battles erupt around the world from the trenches in Europe, to the mountains in the Caucasus, to the seas in South America and Pacific, as well on European colonial territories in Africa and Asia.
– (Aug) Panama Canal opens.
– (Sep) First submarine warfare Germans sink British cruiser.
– (Oct) Ottoman empire joins Central powers, mostly to fight Russia Arabs begin revolt against Ottomans (with British support).
– (Nov) British capture Ottoman port of Basra, securing access to vital Persian oil.

– (Jan-Dec) Bad year for Allies. High casualty stalemate in western and eastern front.
– (Apr) First chemical warfare German chlorine gas in western front trenches. Ottoman empire begins atrocities against Armenians.
– (May) Italy enters WW1 with Allies, and starts series of unsuccessful campaigns against Austria-Hungary.
– (Oct) Bulgaria enters WW1 with Central powers, and overwhelms Serbia.
– (Nov) Einstein publishes theory of general relativity.
– (Apr-Dec) Ottomans repel Allied (ANZAC) Gallipoli campaign.

– (Jan-Dec) War of attrition.
– (Apr) British at Kut (Iraq) surrender to Ottomans after 5-month siege
– (May) Britain and France sign the Sykes-Picot agreement, a secret plan to carve up the Ottoman Empire into their respective spheres of influence.

Remnants of Sykes-Picot lives on most visibly as the arbitrarily straight Syria-Iraq border.

But much like the colonially designed straight-line borders drawn over Africa by European powers in the 19th century, these newly imposed borders in the Middle East forced disparate ethnic and religious groups into nation states. More on this later.

1916 (continued):
– (May) Arabs capture Mecca after Allies convince the Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans in exchange for independence after the war.
– (Jun-Sep) Russian Brusilov Offensive pushes back Eastern front.
– (Jul-Nov) Allied Offensive, Battle of Somme, ends in mass casualties on both sides with limited gains.
– Qatar becomes British protectorate.

– (Feb-Aug) Unrestricted German U-boat attacks contribute to more nations joining Allies.
– (Mar) British capture Baghdad from Ottomans. Russian Tsar Nicholas II abdicates.
– (Apr) Wilson US enters WW1, joining Allies but takes months to deploy troops. French army starts to mutiny.
– (Jul) Arabs capture strategic Ottoman port of Aqaba (accompanied by Lawrence of Arabia).
– (Oct) British defeat Ottomans at Gaza. Central powers push into Italian front.
– (Nov) British Balfour declaration rallies for Jewish support with the promise of helping them establish an independent Jewish state in Palestine, contradicting existing pledges to Arab leaders. Bolshevik Revolution in Russia starts.
– (Dec) British capture Jerusalem, ending 400 year Ottoman rule. Russia signs armistice with Central powers.

– (Feb) Most Ottoman strength focused on crushing attempts by Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan to create their own nations as Russians withdraw.
– (Feb18-Apr20) Spanish Flu pandemic infects 500 million (1/3 of world) and kills 20-50 million.
– (Mar) Amidst a Civil War that would go on for 3 more years, Bolshevik Russia signs peace treaty with Central powers, giving up vast amounts of Eastern European territory.
– (Mar-Jul) Germany’s gamble on final offensive on Western front fails, partly due to US-boosted Allied strength.
– (Aug-Oct) Allies begin Hundred Days Offensive and push back Germans beyond Hindenburg line.
– (Oct) Allies capture Damascus and Aleppo. Ottoman empire signs armistice.
– (Nov) Austria-Hungary and Germany signs armistice End of WW1.
– North Yemen gains independence from Ottomans South Yemen continued to be ruled by British.

– (Jan) Paris Peace Conference. Several Eastern European nations emerge from remnants of Austro-Hungarian empire and Germany.
– (Jun) First non-stop transatlantic flight (Alcock and Brown). Treaty of Versailles places harsh war reparations on Germany.
– (Aug) Afghanistan gains independence from UK.

World War One reminds world how important oil is. It literally fuels war machines – tanks, planes, and ships. Government policies become more hands-on to ensure oil security.

– (Jan) League of Nations created.
– Alcohol prohibition in US (Jan20-Dec33) attempting to reduce crime and improve health experiment fails and bootleg mobs become established.
– (Mar) Emir Feisel, Sherif of Mecca, who led Arab troops against Ottomans, becomes king of Syria.
– (Jun) Syria-Lebanon put under French mandate and Palestine under British.
– (Jul) French defeat King Feisel and supporters in Franco-Syrian war Syria soon divided into 3 regions (coastal Alawis, southern Druze, and Lebanon.
– (Aug) Women given right to vote in US under 19th Amendment.

1921: British-supported Reza Shah coup in Qajar Persia.

– (Feb) Egypt granted independence from UK.
– (Oct) Turkey gains independence after fighting post-war Allied occupiers, mostly Greece (1918-1922).
– (Dec) Soviet Union established as Bolsheviks win civil war (Mar18 – Dec22) against Britain-France-Japan-US supported White Russians.
– (Dec) World’s first aircraft carrier, enters Japanese service.

1923: French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon as well as British Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan (1923-1946) come into effect.

– (Jan) Lenin dies from stroke Stalin rises.
– Ataturk Reforms (1922 – 1924) turns Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state.

– (Dec) Reza Shah crowned king, ending Qajar dynasty (1789-1925), starting Pahlavi dynasty (1926-1979) cancels Anglo-Iranian Oil Company’s exclusive concessions.
– Chiang Kai-shek succeeds Sun Yat-sen’s as leader of Nationalist Kuomintang party following his death.

1927: Oil discovered in Iraq (north of Kirkuk).

1928: Penicillin discovered.

1929: Great Depression (Aug29 – Mar33).

1930: Kurdish rebellions (1925 and 1927-1930) in Turkey suppressed

– (Sep) Libyan resistance leader Mukhtar captured and executed by Italians.
– US Standard Oil subsidiary Bahrain Petroleum Company discovers oil and begins production the following year.
– Japan invades Manchuria and gradually occupies more of China through to 1945.

– (Sep) Ibn Saud unites Najd and Hejaz to form kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
– (Oct) Iraq gains independence as British mandate ends Britain retains military bases.
– (Nov) Reza Shah cancels D’Arcy Concessions (exclusive rights given to Anglo-Persian Oil Company), straining British-Persian relations.

– Tribal revolts in Iraq (1933-1936) (Assyrians and Kurds in North, Shia population in South) suppressed.
– (Nov) Zahir Shah becomes Afghanistan king (r. Nov33 – Jul74).

– (Jan) Italy unites provinces in its colony Libya.
– (May) Saudi Arabia gains more territory after Saudi-Yemeni war.

– Persia is re-named Iran.
– (Oct34 – Oct35) Mao emerges as Communist party leader after Long March (series of Chinese Red Army retreats).

1936: Arab revolt in British-administered Palestine (1936-1939) is suppressed.

– Dersim rebellion, largest Kurd uprising in Turkey, is suppressed.
– Oil discovered in Kuwait.
– Kuomintang and Communists temporarily unite to fight off Japanese invasion.

– Oil discovered in Saudi Arabia production begins under US-controlled Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company, formed in 1933).

– (Jan) Hewlett-Packard founded birth of Silicon Valley.
– (Mar) Germany annexes Czechoslovakia. Spanish Civil War ends.
– (May) Hitler Germany pact with Mussolini Italy.
– (Aug) Germany-Soviet non-aggression pact.
– (Sep) Germany invades Poland, Britain and France declare war on Germany, WW2 starts few weeks later Soviets invade Poland.
– Radar invented in UK becomes vital to war.

1930s: Hitler rises Stalin rises

– (May) Nazi Blitzkrieg into France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands. British PM Chamberlain resigns, succeeded by Churchill.
– (Jun) British evacuate from Dunkirk Germany captures Paris France signs armistice with Germany. Germany captures Norway. Italy joins WW2 with Germany.
– (Jul) Soviets capture Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia).
– (Sep) Germany, Italy and Japan sign Tripartite (Axis) Pact.
– (Jul-Oct) Britain wins Battle of Britain repelling German air raids.
– (Nov) FDR re-elected US president. Romania joins Axis.
– (Dec) British begin North Africa campaign against Mussolini Italy.

– (Jan) Allies capture Tobruk, Libya.
– (Apr) Yugoslavia and Greece surrender to Germany.
– (May) British re-occupy Axis Iraq.
– (Jun) Germany invades Soviet Union (Aug) Siege of Leningrad begins Germans make rapid advances into Soviet territory through to rest of the year.
– (Jul) British capture Syria. British Turing cracks Nazi secret code Enigma.
– (Aug) British and Russia jointly invade Iran in fear of Nazi control over Iranian oil (Sep) Reza Shah abdicates throne to his son Mohammad Reza Shah.
– (Dec) Japanese attack Pearl Harbor US enters WW2.

– (Jun) Nazi general Rommel reaches El Alamein near Cairo. Mass murder of Jews at Auschwitz begins. US sinks 4 Japanese carriers at Battle of Midway, crippling Japanese naval capabilities in Pacific for rest of war.
– (Jul) Germans capture Crimea and begin push into Stalingrad.
– (Sep) Battle of Stalingrad begins.
– (Nov) US invades North Africa. Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad.
– (Dec) US Fermi successful in controlled chain reaction important progress on atomic bomb.

– (Jan) British Montgomery captures Tripoli, Libya.
– (Feb) Germans surrender to Soviets at Stalingrad, first major Hitler defeat. (Nov42-Feb43) Allies capture Italian Libya Allied occupation from May43 to Dec51.
– (Apr) Allies win Battle of Atlantic thanks to improved radar tech.
– (May) Allies capture Tunisia Germany-Italy surrenders in North Africa.
– (Jul) Allies land in Italy bring down Fascist Mussolini govt, and new govt in Oct declares war on Germany.
– (Nov) FDR, Churchill and Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran. Lebanon gains independence from France.
– US sends military supplies to Soviet Union via Persian Corridor (Lend Lease Act).

– (Jan) Soviets push into Poland, kick-starting steady push into central/eastern Europe.
– (May) Germans surrender Crimea to Soviets.
– (Jun) Allied D-Day landing in Normandy. First German V-1 rocket attack on Britain.
– (Jul) Bretton Woods system established, requiring a currency peg to USD which in turn was backed by gold.
– (Aug) Allies capture Paris. Soviets capture Romania.
– (Dec) Allies defeat Hitler’s last major western front force at Battle of Bulge in Ardennes.

– (Jan) Soviets capture Poland Soviets liberate Auschwitz.
– (Mar) Arab League formed by Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Last German offensive of war to defend oil fields in Hungary. Allies capture Cologne and establish bridge across Rhine into Germany.
– (Apr) Mussolini killed by Italian partisans Allies capture Venice. Soviets reach Berlin. Hitler commits suicide.
– (May) Germany surrenders unconditionally, Allied victory in Europe.
– (Aug) US drops first atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Soviets invade Japanese Manchuria. US drops second atomic bomb on Nagasaki Japanese unconditional surrender 5 days later End of WW2.
– (Oct) United Nations born.

– (Mar) UK leaves Iran.
– (Apr) Syria gains independence from France.
– (May) Jordan gains independence from UK. Soviet Union leaves Iran.
– (Dec) Mahabad Kurds in Iran suppressed.

– (Mar) Truman Doctrine US Cold War policy of aiding countries threatened by communism.
– (Jul) AK-47 goes into production.
– (Aug) India and Pakistan gain independence from UK.
– (Sep) CIA established (US military-industrial complex).
– (Nov) UN proposes to divide Palestine into Arab and Jewish states.
– (Dec) Transistor invented (US).

– (Feb) Communist coup in Czechoslovakia.
– (May) State of Israel is declared Israel repels attack by surrounding Arab countries (First Arab-Israeli War, May48-Mar49).
– World’s largest oil field discovered in Saudi Arabia (al-Ghawar).
– US Marshall Plan (1948-1951) to reconstruct Europe.

– (Aug) Soviet Union becomes nuclear armed.
– (Oct) Mao founds People’s Republic of China on mainland (Dec) Kuomintang founds Republic of China in Taiwan.

– WW2 rise of US and Soviet Union.

– (Jun) Korean War (Jun50-Jul53) commences proxy war between US and Soviet Union ends in stalemate.

– (Apr) From British allowing more public participation in government after WWII occupation, Iran elects PM Mosaddegh.
– (May) PM Mosaddegh-led Iran Parliament votes to nationalize oil industry Britain imposes embargo and blockade. First commercial computer UNIVAC (US).
– (Dec) Libya gains independence under king Idris.
– Saudi Arabia and US signs Mutual Defense Assistance Act beginning a long-lasting and ongoing Saudi-US alliance (even through 1973 oil embargo).

– Revolution in Egypt overthrows monarchy.
– Turkey joins NATO, where US would later place nuclear warheads.

– (Feb) Watson Crick discover DNA structure.
– British and US intelligence engineer coup in response to oil nationalization Shia clergy supports demonstrations against the Mossadegh-supporting Tudeh communist party power is restored to shah Reza Pahlavi ending the brief democratic experiment.
– (Nov) Founding Saudi king Abdulaziz dies and succeeded by Crown Prince Saud.

1954: Vietnam. Laos, and Cambodia gain independence from France.

– CENTO/MENTO/Baghdad Pact (Feb55 – Mar79) (Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, UK) to contain Soviet Union.
– Warsaw Pact (May55 – Jul91) between Soviet Union and Central Eastern Europe in reaction to West Germany joining NATO.

– (Jun) Nasser becomes Egyptian president drifts from West and buys arms from communist Czechoslovakia
– (Jul) Suez Crisis: Egyptian president Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal (Oct) UK-France-Israel invade Egypt US & Soviet pressure forces withdrawal Suez canal closed Nov56 to May57.
– First concessions to foreign companies on oil exploration in Libya drilling begins 1959.

– (Oct) Soviet Union launches first artificial satellite, Sputnik. First Toyota sold in US.
– US starts to help its Cold War ally Iran with its nuclear program via Atoms For Peace through to 1979.

– (Feb) Egypt and Syria unite to form United Arab Republic.
– (Jul) Qasim coup in Iraq overthrows king new government withdraws from pro-UK Baghdad Pact.
– (Jul-Oct) US backed Lebanese government hold on against Egypt-Syria backed communist party civil war.
– (Sep) Invention of microchip (US)
– Mao China launches “Great Leap Forward”, a 5-year plan to collectivize agriculture and industry but abandoned after 2 years 20m-40m die of starvation making it the largest famine in human history.

1959: Castro leads Cuban Revolution.

– TV ownership in US goes from 3% in 1948, 45% in 1952, and 90% by 1960, forever changing the main medium and nature of shaping public opinion.
– Rapidly growing oil consumption driven by post-war boom and vehicle usage.
– US-Soviet Union Cold War world lives in fear of nuclear mutually assured destruction.

– (May) Oral contraceptive approved by FDA (US), catalyzing social and cultural changes in the 60s.
– (Sep) Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Venezuela form OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries): a forum for oil producers to coordinate and align interests. 13 members, with the biggest producer, Saudi Arabia, being the de factor leader:

Today, OPEC accounts for almost half the global production, and about 80% of the reserves:

– (Jun) Kuwait gains independence from UK.
– (Sep) Coup in Syria secedes it from United Arab Republic.
– (Sep61-Mar70) First Iraq-Kurdish war begins.
– Egyptian Nasser adopts socialist policies (1961-1966).
– Largest oil field in Libya discovered pipeline to Mediterranean soon opened allowing export for first time.

– (Oct) Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy US and Khrushchev Soviet Union almost go to nuclear war.
– North Yemen ruler assassinated civil war between Saudi Arabia-backed royalists and Egypt-backed republicans that want to set up Yemen Arab Republic.
– Mao China cements de facto control over Tibet and Xinjiang after war with India.

– (Feb) Ba’ath coup overthrows Iraq PM Qasim.
– (Aug) Martin Luther King Jr “I have a dream”. Former British colonies (inc. Singapore) join Malaya (independent from Britain in 1957) to form Malaysia.
– (Nov) Arif coup overthrows Ba’ath in Iraq. President JFK assassination (US) .
– White Revolution in Iran (1963-1975), successful modernization program led by monarchy improves industry and education.

– (Jul) Civil Rights Act in US aims to end discrimination on grounds of ethnicity and religion.
– (Nov) Saudi king Saud deposed by his brother Faisal.

1965: LBJ US troops land in Danang (Vietnam). Indo-Pak war over Kashmir is stalemate India drifted closer to Soviet Union, Pakistan closer to China.

– Assad seizes power in Syria after coup.
– Mao launches “Cultural Revolution” (1966-1976) a sociopolitical movement aimed at purging traditional elements and intellectuals.

– (Mar) Kurdish rebellion in Iran suppressed.
– (Jun) Israel wins Six-Day War, taking Sinai from Egypt, Golan Heights from Syria, and West Bank from Jordan small scale fighting (War of Attrition) continues until 1970. Suez Canal closed until 1975, shocking global trade. At this point Soviet Union backs the Arab nations (inc. Saudi Arabia), while the US backs Israel.
– (Aug) Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand form ASEAN.
– (Nov) British withdraw from south Yemen (Aden Emergency, 1963-1967) People’s Republic of Yemen formed.

– (Jan) North Vietnamese Tet Offensive starts to make US public question whether they can win war.
– (Jul) Ba’athist coup under General al-Bakr regains power in Iraq Saddam Hussein is made VP.

– (Jul) US land manned mission (Apollo 11) on moon.
– (Sep) Gaddafi coup overthrows king Idris in Libya Gaddafi nationalizes most sectors inc. oil industry.
– China and Soviet Union relations become increasingly sour.

– Lots of coups in Middle East.

– (Oct) Sadat becomes president of Egypt following Nasser’s (r. 1956-1970) death.
– (Nov) Hafez al-Assad coup in Syria becomes president following year.
– First Iraq-Kurdish war (1961-1970) ends in stalemate Iraqi-Kurdish autonomy agreement.
– Republic forces win North Yemen civil war.
– Nixon US starts withdrawal from Vietnam.

– (Jan) Microprocessor invented (US).
– (Jul) Aswan High Dam in Egypt completed with Soviet funding boosts agriculture and industry.
– (Aug) Nixon US takes USD off gold standard. Bahrain gains independence from UK signs friendship treaty with UK signs agreement to let US rent naval and military facilities.
– (Sep) Qatar gains independence from UK.
– (Oct) Mainland China joins UN while Taiwan is expelled.
– (Dec) UAE gains independence from UK (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujayrah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Qaywayn are United Arab Emirates). Indo-Pak war East Pakistan rebels against Pakistan, India intervenes, East Pakistan becomes independent Bangladesh.

– (Feb) US President Nixon visits China, spooking Soviet Union and Vietnam.
– (Jun) Iraq nationalizes its oil industry.
– (Aug) Sadat expels Soviet advisers aligns Egypt closer to West.
– (Sep) Palestinian terrorists take Israeli team hostage at Munich Olympics. Marcos declares martial law in Philippines (1972-1981).
– First recombinant DNA.

– (Jan) Roe vs Wade, US Supreme Court ruling for pro-choice abortion.
– (Mar) Last US military unit leaves Vietnam.
– (Jul) Maud (r. Jul73 – Apr78) coup in Afghanistan overthrows Zahir Shah becomes Afghanistan king (r. Nov33 – Jul74).
– (Oct) Israel repels Egypt-Syria invasion (Yom Kippur War) Oil Crisis, Oct73 – Mar74, Arab nations impose embargo on Israel-supporting West, prices quadruple in last 6 months of 1973 from $3 to $12.
– Saudi Arabia buys 25% of US-controlled Aramco (ownership goes up to 60% in 1974, 100% by 1976), in response to US supporting Israel in war.

– (Aug) US president Nixon resigns after Watergate scandal.
– Saudi Arabia agrees to only accept oil sales in USD saving the USD from the post-Bretton Wood uncertainty and reinforcing the Petrodollar system (more on this in Part 4).

– (Mar) Saudi king Faisal is assassinated by his nephew and succeeded by his brother Khalid.
– (Apr) Pol Pot establishes communist Khmer Rouge in Cambodia (Apr75 – Jan79). Reunification of Vietnam/fall of Saigon.
– Lebanese Civil War starts (Apr75 – Oct90), Maronite Christians vs PLO Muslims.
– Iraq defeats Iran-supported Kurds in Second Iraqi-Kurdish War (Apr74 – mid75).
– Shah abolishes Iran’s two political parties replacing them with just one.

– (Jun) Syria intervenes in Lebanese civil war, with agenda of strengthening its Maroniate Christian allies, and maintaining status quo occupies Lebanon until 2005.
– (Aug) Bogle establishes index funds.
– (Sep) Mao dies.
– Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins.

– Deng Xiaoping (r. 1978-1991) emerges as China’s leader following Mao’s death in 1976 launches economic reforms (Open Door Policy), starting with agriculture.

– (Jan) Iranian Revolution protests begin, mostly out of frustration about corruption and economic inequality.
– (Apr) Soviet-backed communist coup in Afghanistan.
– (Sep) Camp David Accords: Israel returns Sinai to Egypt in exchange for mutual recognition.
– (Dec) Deng Xiaoping (r. 1978-1991) launches economic reforms (Open Door Policy), starting with agriculture.

– (Jan) Iranian monarchy collapses, ending Pahlavi dynasty.
– (Feb) Khomeini returns to Tehran after 14 years in exile.
– (Mar) Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty Egypt expelled from Arab League, but begin to receive US economic and military aid.
– (Apr) Iran becomes an Islamic Republic.
– (May) Margaret Thatcher becomes UK PM.
– (Jul) Saddam Hussein seizes power in Iraq from Ba’ath Party Purge after president al-Bakr made treaties with Syria to unify the two countries.
– (Nov) Ford US embassy staff taken hostage by protesters in Iran Carter US ends diplomatic relations and imposes first sanctions (Nov79-Jan81) Khomeini becomes Supreme Leader of Iran nationalizes petroleum industry and shuts down CIA facilities critical to monitoring Soviet nuclear monitoring.
– (Dec) Soviet Union and their newly established communist puppet Afghan government fight US-UK-Pakistan-Iran-SaudiArabia-China-backed mujahideen in guerilla war (Soviet-Afghan War, Dec79 – Feb89).
– One Child Policy in China (1979-2015).

– (Sep) Iraq invades Iran, Iran-Iraq War (Sep80 – Aug88), targeting territorially disputed Khuzestan US and Sunni Arab nations support Iraq while Iraqi Kurds, Syria (Ba’athist rival with Iraq), and surprisingly Israel (who wants Hussein stopped at all costs) support Iran warfare similar to WW1 (trench warfare, barbed wire, bayonet charges, chemical weapons) oil prices surge.
– (Nov) Reagan elected US president . Iran releases US embassy hostages.
– Shenzhen becomes first special economic zone (China).

– (May) Gulf Cooperation Council founded by all Gulf Arab states except Iraq: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and UAE.
– (Oct) Egyptian president Sadat (r. 1970-1981) assassinated by Egyptian Islamic Jihad his successor Mubarak (r. 1981-2011) continued much of his policies and declares state of emergency (which would last till 2012).

– (Jun) Saudi king Khalid dies from heart attack succeeded by his brother, Crown prince Fahd.
– (Jun-Sep) Israel invades Lebanon (First Israel-Lebanon War) to attack Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) hoping to install pro-Christian Gemayel government attacks Syrian army Beirut captured and Arafat moves PLO HQ to Tripoli but Gemayel is assassinated, and Israel ends up losing influence to Syria.
– Iranian troops not only forced Iraqis out of territory but penetrated border themselves.

– US takes more measures to support Iraq war against Iran helping boost oil exports, and even willing to downplay use of chemical weapons.
– (May) Israel and Lebanon announce end of hostilities.

– (Apr) UK breaks diplomatic relations with Libya after London Libyan embassy shoots protesters and British police officer..

– (Jun) Israel withdraws from most of Lebanon
– Hezbollah, Shia militant group in Lebanon, founded.

– (Apr) US bombs Libya alleging Libyan involvement in Berlin disco bombing frequented by US military personnel.
– (Nov) Iran-Contra Affair/Irangate: Reagan admits to selling arms to Iran despite US embargo, with some of the proceeds going to Contra rebels in Nicaragua. Betrayed Saddam Hussein is furious.
– (Dec) Doi Moi economic reforms in Vietnam.

– (Oct) Black Monday stock market crash.
– (Nov) Saudi Arabia resumes diplomatic relations with Egypt, severed since 1979.
– (Dec) Reagan US and Gorbachev Soviet Union sign Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
– Palestinian uprisings in Israel intensify but are all suppressed, First Intifada (Dec87 – Sep93), Second/Al-Aqsa Intifada (Sep00 – Feb05).
– Reagan US places second sanctions on Iran.

– (Feb) Roh Tae Woo democratically elected in South Korea, ending decades of dictatorship.
– (Jul) US shoots down Iranian passenger plane in Straight of Hormuz.
– Iran-Iraq War (Sep80 – Aug88) ends in stalemate.

– (Feb) End of Soviet-Afghan War (Dec79 – Feb89), Soviet Union fails to quell mujahideen insurgency.
– (Jun) President Khamenei becomes new Iran Supreme Leader (r.1989-present) after Khomeini death (heart failure).
– (Jul) Tienanmen Square protest massacre.
– (Nov) Fall of Berlin Wall.

– Reagan-Thatcher neoliberal economic reforms (privatization and de-regulation).
– IBM dominates S&P500.
– Iran re-starts nuclear program during war with Iraq, and acquires nuclear technology from Pakistani nuclear scientist

– (Feb) Mandela released after 27 years in prison.
– (May) After years of clashes North and South Yemen unite with North leader Saleh as president and South as vice president but this unity would only last 4 years.
– (Aug) Iraq invades Kuwait, over territorial disputes, accusations of slant oil drilling, and to alleviate fiscal pressure after war with Iran, leading to 7-month occupation/war many countries condemn Iraq including Soviet Union and China.
– (Oct) Germany reunified.
– (Oct) Lebanese Civil War (Apr75 – Oct90) ends with PLO expulsion.

– (Jan-Feb) Gulf War Iraq vs the world (US and usual allies, plus Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria and other Gulf states) Kuwait independence restored Iraqi Kurds gain autonomy H.W.Bush US sanctions against Iraq until 2003.
– (Mar-Apr) Iran-backed Shia rebellion in Iraq is suppressed.
– (Jul) UAE Bank of Credit and Commerce International which Abu Dhabi ruling family owns 77%, collapses.
– (Dec) Gorbachev resigns and announces dissolution of Soviet Union into 15 states.

– (Aug) No-fly zone, where Iraqi planes not allowed, set-up in southern Iraq.
– Mujahideen forces led by Massoud removes Soviet-backed government in Afghanistan and establish Islamic State government but instability ensues.
– (1992-1999) UN imposes sanctions on Libya after Dec88 Lockerbie bombing Libya hands over suspects in 1999 after which UN sanctions suspended and diplomatic relations with UK restored.

– (Feb) New York World Trade Center bombed by al-Qaida.
– (Apr) World Wide Web invented in 1989 is launched
– (Sep) Oslo Accords Israel recognizes Palestinian autonomy, but not state.

– (Jan) Yahoo founded.
– (Apr-Jul) Rwandan genocide.
– (May) Mandela elected, ending Apartheid in South Africa.
– (May-Jul) Pro-union North defeat socialist South in 1994 Yemeni Civil War Gulf states stop financial support as Yemen neutral in Gulf War against Iraq economy deteriorates 1991 North-South union under-promising South tries to break off but North prevails.
– (Oct) Israel-Jordan peace treaty 2 Arab nations now have normalized relations with Israel (Egypt and Jordan)
– China fixes RMB’s first floating rate since 1949, enabling free flow of money for imports/exports.

– (Jan) World Trade Organization created.
– (Mar) Clinton US reinforces 1987 second sanctions on Iran over alleged terrorism support, and nuclear weapons programs.
– (Aug) UN allows partial resumption of Iraq oil exports to buy food and medicine (oil-for-food program).
– (Aug) Netscape goes public. Microsoft Windows95 and Internet Explorer launched.
– (Nov) Balkan Peace Accord to end Bosnian War (Apr92-Dec95), one of the ongoing Yugoslav Wars (Mar91-Nov01).

– (Jul) Dolly the sheep is first successfully cloned mammal.
– (Sep) Taliban captures Kabul and now controls most of Afghanistan.

– (Apr) Bahrain buys full ownership of Bapco (Bahrain Petroleum Company).
– (Jul) China regains sovereignty over HK from UK One country two systems.
– (Jul) Asian Financial Crisis floating Thailand the baht triggerd capital flight causing a credit crunch hits Thailand Philippines Malaysia South Korea hard for 12 months crashes oil price.

– (Sep) Google founded.
– (Aug) al-Qaida attack US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam.
– (Dec) US president Clinton impeached after Lewinsky scandal (r. Jan93-Jan01).
– (Dec) US-UK operation bombs Iran’s nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs.

– (Jan) Euro introduced physical cash circulates Jan02.
– (Jun) NATO ends Kosovo War (Feb98 – Jun99) expelling Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) from occupied Kosovo but ongoing Yugoslav Wars (Mar91 – Nov01) in Balkans continue.
– (Aug) Yeltsin appoints ex-KGB Putin to become Russia PM to suppress Chechnyan uprising.

– GE dominates S&P500 in 90s and early 00s.

20th century: British decline Japan rises and falls Russia (Soviet Union) rises and falls US dominates China rises.

– (Mar) DotCom bubble bursts: Mar00 investors start to sell NASDAQ drops 52% by end of 2000 by Oct02 NASDAQ has dropped 78% since Mar00 peak.
– (May) Putin elected Russian president.
– (Jun) Syrian president Assad dies suceeded by his second son Bashar Assad.

– (Sep) 9/11 Attacks on World Trade Center twin towers and Pentagon by Sunni Muslim fundamentalists, Al-Qaida led by Bin Laden.
– (Oct) W.Bush US invades Afghanistan overthrows Taliban government and supports Afghan Northern Alliance fighting Taliban but Taliban insurgencies will continue for many more years.
– (Dec) Saudi government issues ID cards to women for first time.

– (Jun) Israel starts building controversial barriers in and around West Bank deviating from pre-167 ceasefire line.
– Erdogan elected Turkey PM, successfully boosts GDP sharply and drops inflation rate over the years.

– (Mar) H.W. Bush US invades Iraq to find “weapons of mass destruction” none found many years sectarian violence to come.
– (Mar) Last nationwide independent TV channel in Russia is axed.
– (Apr) US forces capture Baghdad topples Hussein government.
– (Oct) Russian oil oligarch Khordorkovsky arrested as Putin further consolidates power.
– (Nov) Saudi king grants wider powers to Consultative Council (inaugurated in 1993), enabling it to propose legislation without his permission.
– (Dec) US forces capture Saddam Hussein (executed in Dec06). Libya announces abandoning weapons of mass destruction program relations with West improve dramatically over next 5 years.

– Iraqi insurgency led by Sunni Ba’athists and al-Qaida erupts
– (May) US imposes economic sanctions on Syria, accusing it of supporting terrorism.
– (Jun-Aug) Anti-US, anti-Israel, Shia Houthi rebellion in northern Yemen suppressed but will continually re-surge in years to come.

– (Jan) Libya auctions oil and gas exploration licenses US oil companies return for first time in 20 years.
– (Jun) Hard-line fundamentalist Ahmadinejad elected president in Iran ramps up nuclear pursuit.
– (Aug) Saudi king Fahd dies, succeeded by Crown prince Abdullah.
– (Oct) Iraqi voters approve new constitution.

– Iraqi elections bring Shia political powers to power in Baghdad, backed by Iran. Shia-Sunni violence intensifies.
– (Jul-Aug) Israel-Hezbollah war ends in stalemate.
– (Nov) Iraq and Syria restore diplomatic relations after almost 25 years.

– (Jan) W. Bush US sends additional troops to Iraq.
– (Oct) US places third sanctions on Iran, toughest since it first imposed sanctions in 1979.

– (Jul) UAE forgives entire $7b Iraq debt owed.
– (Sep) US Secretary of State Rice makes highest-level US visit to Libya since 1953.
– (Sep) GFC: Lehman Brothers goes bankrupt, triggering wave of global panic. (Oct) US Congress passes $700b bailout Bill.
– (Oct) Syria and Lebanon establish diplomatic relations for first time since independence. Nakamoto Bitcoin white paper.
– (Nov) W. Bush US agrees with Iraq to withdraw troops US withdraws steadily over next 3 Obama early years.
– (Dec) Israel invades Gaza, responding to rocket attacks from Hamas and other groups fighting would go on for years.

– (Feb) $25b Russia-China deal Russia supplies oil for next 20 years China supplies loans.
– (Jun) Gaddafi first state visit to Italy Libya’s former colonial ruler, now its main trading partner.
– (Sep) Iran tests longer range missiles that can reach Israel and US bases in Gulf.
– (Dec) Obama US announces boosting US Afghanistan presence (30k to 100k).

– Rise of China
– Rise of Putin Russia
– Exxon dominates S&P in late 00s.

– (Jan) Russia agrees to sell Libya $1.8b of weapons. World’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa opens in Dubai, UAE.
– (May) First EU bailout for Greece approved (110b EUR) second in Feb12 third in Aug15.
– (Jun) UN Security Council places fourth sanctions on Iran over nuclear programme.
– (Aug) Last US combat units leave Iraq.
– (Sep) Deepwater Horizon oil spill in Gulf of Mexico largest marin oil spill in history.
– (Dec) Self-immolation of man in Tunisia sparks years of Arab Spring protests in region.

– (Jan) Tunisian president resigns first regional leader to succumb to Arab Spring protests.
– (Feb) Egyptian president Mubarak resigns hands power to an army council protests will to continue for years. Saudi king announces increased welfare spending. Violent anti-Gaddafi protests in Libya.
– (Mar-Oct) Obama US and NATO invades Libya supporting anti-Gaddafi rebels in civil war.
– (Mar-ongoing) Syrian civil war begins after Assad shoots protesters.
– (May) US forces kill Bin Laden in Pakistan.
– (Jul) Free Syrian Army formed by military defectors.
– (Sep) Saudi king announces women right to vote and run in municipal elections etc.
– (Oct) Gaddafi captured and killed by NATO-backed anti-Gaddafi rebels ending the 2011 civil war.
– (Nov) Obama US places sanctions on Iran. Yemen president Saleh resigns from Arab Spring protests successor Hadi forms unity government.
– (Dec) US completes withdrawal from Iraq. Sectarian violence intensifies in Iraq over next few years.

– (Mar) Putin re-elected president for third term first Mar00-Mar04, second Mar04-Mar08, Putin-loyal Medvedev in Mar08-Mar12 as constitution did not allow two consecutive terms.
– (May) Egypt state of emergency in place since 1981 ends.
– (Jun) Muslim Brotherhood Morsi narrowly wins presidential election in Egypt.
– (Jul) EU boycott of Iranian oil comes into effect. UAE starts operating pipeline that bypasses Iran-vulnerable Strait of Hormuz.
– (Sep) Islamist militants storm US consulate in Benghazi, Libya.

– (Mar) Xi Jinping becomes president of China launches anti-corruption drive and consolidates his power.
– (May) Snowden flees to Russia vs HK after leaking NSA information about illegal US surveillance on its citizens.
– (Jun) Rouhani (r. Aug13-current) with more moderate stance on US elected president of Iran.
– (Apr13-Sep14) Sunni-Shia violence intensifies in Iraq by July country is at full-blown civil war.
– (Jul) Egyptian army overthrows president Morsi sentenced to death in May15 Muslim Brotherhood declared a terrorist group in Dec13 after bomblast.

– (Feb-May) Russia annexes Crimea from Ukraine amidst protests sanctions imposed on Russia by West biggest Russia-West conflict since Cold War.
– (May) Former army chief al-Sisi wins Egyptian presidential election (r.2014-current).
– (May14 – ongoing) Civil war erupts again in Libya between new parliament Tobruk-based UAE-Sudan-Syria-supported Libyan National Army vs Tripoli-based Turkey-US/West-supported outgoing government General National Congress (transitional government since Aug12 refusing to disband after expired mandate).
– (Jun) Islamic State (ISIL/ISIS) captures Mosul (Iraq) and declares caliphate.
– (Jul) UN staff and foreigners withdraw from Libya as security situation deteriorates
– (Sep) US and allies launch air strikes against ISIS. Shia Iraq leadership forms broad-based government, inc Sunnis and Kurds, united against new common enemy: the Islamic State.
– Over next few years, Islamic State starts to increase presence in civil war torn Libya Islamic State ousted from Benghazi in Jul17.

– (Jan) Saudi king Abdullah dies, succeeded by Salman. Iran-supported Houthis unhappy with Hadi Yemen government capture Yemen capital Sanaa Gulf Cooperation Council condemns the coup and fears Shia rebel control of strategic Bab-el-Mandeb strait (Red sea and Suez canal entrance).
– (Jan) ECB announces 1.1 trillion EUR quantitative easing program.
– (Mar) Saudi Arabia and its Gulf allies impose blockade and launch airstrikes against Houthi in Yemen Islamic State carries out suicide bombings in power-vacuum Yemen. Obama US announces delaying US troop withdrawal from Afghanistan after recent Islamic State presence.
– (May) ISIS destroy heritage sites in central Syria.
– (Jul) Rouhani Iran agrees to Obama US’s Iran Nuclear Deal basically give up its nuclear weapons program in return for lifting sanctions.
– (Aug) Erdogan Turkey attacks ISIS-fighting Kurds in Iraq and Turkey, but does not bomb ISIS. Turkey and Russia allege each other to be buying black market oil from ISIS but no evidence produced.
– (Sep) Assad ally Russia carries out first airstrikes in Syria, claiming to target ISIS but West claim they’re targeting anti-Assad rebels. Syrian refugees top 1 million, photo of drowned toddler refugee provokes already increasing international concern.
– (Oct) West places sanctions on Russia over Aleppo bombings.
– (Dec) Paris Climate Agreement with big implications for oil use.

– (Jan) Sanctions on Iran lifted after passing UN nuclear inspection.
– (Apr) Turkey passes referendum giving Erdogan authoritarian power (control budget, military, appoint judges, extend term limit etc).
– (May) Obama visits Vietnam, lifting arms ban to contain China.
– (Jul) Erdogan suppresses coup and consolidates power in Turkey.
– (Nov) Trump elected.
– (Dec) Assad re-captures Syrian opposition strong-hold Aleppo.
– Over 7m, a quarter of Yemen’s population are risk of starvation.

– (Apr) Trump US conducts missile strike on Assad airbase after Assad uses chemical weapons.
– (May) Rouhani (r. Aug13-current) re-elected Iran president.
– (Jun) Saudi Arabia leads Arab blockade on Qatar over terrorism allegations. Crown prince bin Nayef (grandson of founding Saudi king, and nephew of current king Salman) relieved of all positions new crown prince is king Salman’s son Mohammed bin Salman (MBS).
– (Jun) New cybersecurity law in China gives government even more control over company data, domestic and foreign.
– (Jul) Iraqi Army drives ISIS out of Mosul.
– (Oct) US-backed anti-Assad Syrian Democratic Forces drive ISIS out of its self-proclaimed capital Raqqa.
– (Nov) Saudi crown prince MBS consolidates power purging potential challengers for ‘anti-corruption’.

– (Jan) While Yemen is torn by: Iran-backed Shia Houthis in North, Saudi Arabia and Sunni Gulf state backed Coalition in South, pockets of Al-Qaeda in middle, a fourth force UAE-backed Southern separatist Transitional Council capture Aden, main city of South.
– (Mar) Legislative meeting removes tenure limitations on Chinese presidency, allowing Xi to remain in power indefinitely.
– (Apr) Bahrain claims discovery of largest oilfield in over 80 years.
– (May) Trump US withdraws from Obama’s 2015 Iran Nuclear Deal.
– (Aug) Trump US enforces new sanctions on Iran.
– (Oct) Journalist Khashoggi assassinated in Saudi consulate in Istanbul international outcry.
– (Dec) Qatar announces withdrawal from OPEC, citing its greater reliance on gas exports and to distance itself from Saudi influence.
– US gives up on Syria and starts withdrawal.

– (Oct) US withdraws troops from northern Syria, Turkey moves in and attacks US Kurdish allies there.
– (Nov) UAE-backed Southern separatists and Saudi-backed Sadi government (kicked out of North by Houthis), both of whom are fighting Houthi in North, sign agreement to end conflict with each other Yemen civil war since 2014 is ongoing today.

– smartphones, social media Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon dominate S&P500, esp in second half of 10s.
– US Shale Revolution and US withdrawal from Middle East.
– Brexit Trump US.
– Continuing rise of China Belt and Road Initiative.

– COVID-19 pandemic first in China then Europe later US, India, and Latin America are hardest hit 30m cases, 1m deaths (as of Sep20).
– (Jan) US airstrikes kill top Iranian general Soleimani.
– (Feb-Mar) Pandemic crashes stock market, but rapid V-shaped ‘recovery’ sees new all-time highs a few months later.
– (Apr) Pandemic drives down oil price to lows putting even more fiscal pressure on oil-exporting states. (See part 1 Section 1.9 more commentary on COVID-19 oil crash)
– (Aug) UAE and Bahrain normalise relations with Israel 4 Arab nations now at peace with Israel (Egypt Mar79, Jordan Oct94, Bahrain Aug20, UAE Aug20). GPT-3 by OpenAI.

3.3. Lessons from history

This over-simplified history elucidates some key points.

    (i) Most of the Arabian peninsula for most of recent history were disparate tribes or vassal states of the Ottoman empire. The rural populations of Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia (Iraq), and Egypt were directly administered while other parts of the region were ruled with a comparatively light touch.

…a preservation of self-interest is actually the norm in history of pretty much all powers, rather than a recent phenomenon.

With this historical context in mind, we now turn our attention to the backbone of the regional geopolitical dynamic today: the Saudi-Iran conflict. This will be covered in the next post.

Found this helpful? You can return the love by either:

  • buying me a coffee
  • purchasing books via the links in my book list (or by clicking on the book cover images above)
  • signing up for a free Audible trial (great for walks and drives)
  • signing up for a free Kindle unlimited trial (recommend investing in a Kindle if physical books aren’t for you)
  • signing up for a free Amazon Prime trial to help reduce your book costs
  • sharing this post with your friends

Drop your email below for exclusive subscriber-only TLDR summaries of new posts and more.

If you found the regional snapshot maps helpful, you may also enjoy this video:

While I’ve endeavored to ensure historical accuracy, some dates may need corrections. Similarly, while I’ve tried to keep the summaries as opinion-neutral as possible, my biases will inevitably leak. Just remember that I’m just some guy on the internet so always do your own research.

Egypt and Syria Join to Form United Arab Republic - History

Gift of the Nile: Egypt, traditionally known as the Gift of the Nile River, occupies northeast Africa.

History: Egypt has one of the oldest civilizations in the world, its recorded history going back to more than 5000 B.C. In 1922 Egypt became an independent monarchy and in 1953 a republic. Egypt merged with Syria in 1958 to form United Arab Republic Syria broke away from the union in 1961..

The Suez Canal: The Suez Canal (173 km. long, connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea) was opened for navigation in 1869 nationalized in 1956, closed in 1967, reopened in 1975. The Aswan High Dam (1971) provides irrigation for more than a million acres of land.

Food & Crops: The main agricultural area is Lower Egypt, which covers the delta of the Nile. Crops are cotton, onions, wheat, maize, millet, rice, sugarcane and fruits of various kinds.

Industry: Textiles, chemicals, petrochemicals, food processing. Cement. Exports are cotton, rice, mineral products, textiles, refrigerators, tyres, cement and electrical instruments.

The Pyramids: The ever-standing monuments of its own, Egypt is well known for its Great Pyramids. One of the Seven Wonders of the World, the pyramids are the most focusing, visited by people at all times, tourist hunt and historical monuments.

The Great Pyramid, Giza: Three of the pyramids are the greatest and world famous manifestations in Egypt. Among them, the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the giant one and is 4,500 years old. Great Pyramid is the only one of the famous Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that still stands on earth and in the history. Upto 19th century, the Great Pyramid was the tallest building in the world.

Actually, the pyramids are tombs built with pyramid shape (cubic cone pointed to the top with number of cells inside) which are used to bury the famous kings (pharaohs) with all their properties. People believed that those who buried in the pyramids were directly go to the heaven with all of their properties. The building-technique of these pyramids are even a matter of confuse for today's civil-experts.

Pyramid of Egypt is the only man-made structure in the world that stands over 4500 years surpassing the natural collapses, climate and by anything else even today.

The population boom is causing concern. Islamic militancy is a new threat in Egypt.

Mission in India:
Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt,
1/50-M, Niti Marg, Chanakyapuri,
New Delhi - 110 021, India
Tel: +91 - 11 - 26114096/ 97
Fax: +91 - 11 - 26885355.

Famous Deaths In 1958

Famous People Died In This Year In History

Jan 01 David Broekman, musican (Think Fast), dies at 55 on this day in history.

Jan 04 On this day in history waverley John Anderson, Scot, viscount/governor of Bengal, dies at 75

Jan 06 In the year 1958 josephine CMA, princess of Belgium/nun, dies at 85

Jan 07 In the year 1958 petru Groza, premier/president (Romania, 1945-58), dies at 74

Jan 08 In the year 1958 death of paul Pilgrim, American athlete (b. 1883)

Jan 09 In the year 1958 paul Fechter, German writer/historian (God's Magician), dies

Jan 10 On this day in history charles de Trooz, Belgian writer, dies at 52

Jan 11 Alec Rowley, composer, dies at 65 on this day in history.

Watch the video: The United Arab Republic - Nasser Foreign Policy 1952-1970 (November 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos