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Douglas Dakota II
The Douglas Dakota II was the RAF designation for nine C-53 Skytroopers received under the lend lease scheme. Unlike the majority of RAF Dakotas these aircraft were therefore dedicated troop transports, lacking the wide cargo doors and reinforced floor of the C-47.
The nine Dakota IIs were used by No.216 Squadron, which operated all four versions of the aircraft in British service. This squadron was based in the Mediterranean, where it operated on a number of regular routes, as well as being used to drop airborne forces in the Aegean, and a large detachment was sent to Burma for two months from April 1944.
The first flight of the Douglas DC-3/Dakota was on December 17, 1935, and December 17, 2010 marked the 75 th anniversary of this flying legend. Born between the Great Depression and World War II, the Douglas DC-3 became the core of the American airline system. It became known as “The Plane that Changed the World,” because in1939, it was able to make a profit without the government mail subsidy, and 90 percent of the airlines in the U.S. were using DC-3 equipment. After World War II, military version of the DC-3, the C-47 was reconfigured to an airliner and used extensively by most of the world’s airlines.
There are an estimated 400 still registered in the United States, and perhaps 75 that are airworthy. One of those is the highest time DC-3 in the world, N18121. The World’s High Time Douglas DC-3 was flying for Provincetown Boston Airlines when she created the world record. (PBA)
More than 10,632 airframes were built in more than 53 variants with 10,291, or 96.79 percent of them coming off the line as variants of the C-47, and N18121 is one of those military airframes. It has flown the equivalent of 52 times to the Moon. Another way to look at it is it has been flying for over 3,805 days, the equivalent of 10 ½ years. years.
N136PB As it was transitioning from Naples Airlines to Provincetown Boston livery. (From the Ryan Thomsberry collection via C. Grady Cates)
N18121 c/n 1997 is a DC-3-201, and formerly Eastern Airlines ship ” is not the oldest but it does have more time in the air than any other DC-3, 91,400.2 hours. It was delivered 25 October 1937. On 8 June 1942, it went to the war Department, and became C-49G USAAF 42-56630. Eastern Airlines got the aircraft back on 24 June 1944, and continued to fly the aircraft until it was sold to Trans-Texas Airways, Inc.(TTA) , on 31 October 1968. TTA operated a fleet of 24 DC-3s. TTA sold c/n 1997 to Naples Airlines dba as Provincetown Boston Airlines (PBA), in 1974, and by 1976, it had logged 81,200 hours. In December 1978, it had accumulated 82,873 hours, and had flown the equivalent of 12,438,735 miles. It was one of 12 DC-3s PBA operated. On 27August 1981, N136PB broke the high-time record held by a museum piece, North Central Airlines N21728 of 84,875 hours.
N136PB as Eastern Air Express around 1988. (From the David Campbell collection via C. Grady Cates)
N136PB had racked up 84,876 hours on its flight from Hyannis to Boston, with 18 passengers. PBA went out of business in 1988, and N136PB briefly flew for Eastern Air Express before residing in a hangar until 1993, when Neil Rose and Bob Irvine, from Vancouver, Washington, bought the ship and flew it home to restore to its original Eastern Airlines livery. Over the next 19 years the ship went through a series of owners, and today Blue Skies LLC own and operate the ship. It had a second coming out party at the 2010 AirVenture show, in Oshkosh, WI.
How long will N18121 and the others continue to fly? Who expected the type to fly for 75 years? “Never in our wildest dreams did we imagine what the next half-century would bring,” Arthur Raymond, chief engineer of the DC-3 said to this author in 1988, “Ten thousand DC-3s? Are you crazy?” So we can justifiably say not in our wildest dreams can we imagine what the next half century will bring for the beloved Dakota!
©Copyright Henry M. Holden 2013
For the complete story on the Douglas DC-3 see “Legacy of the DC-3”
The 164th Infantry was operational from 1885-1955. During that time it's title was changed several times. It began in 1885 as the First Regiment, Dakota National Guard. It was redesignated the First Infantry Regiment, North Dakota National Guard on November 2, 1889, when North Dakota became a state. On May 20, 1898, it entered federal service as the First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry for the Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurrection. After being dismissed from federal service on September 25, 1899, it reverted to state control.
It was called into federal service on June 18, 1916, for the Mexican Border Conflict. On Saint Valentine's day, 1917, the regiment returned to state control. Later that year, the regiment entered federal service for World War I. It was redesignated on October 4, 1917, as the 164th Infantry Regiment and was assigned to the 41st Division. The regiment was demobilized on February 28, 1919.
The regiment entered federal service on February 10, 1941, for World War II. It was sent to Camp Claiborne, Louisiana for training, where it took part in the "Louisiana Maneuvers", a major series of training exercises in August and September 1941 that evaluated the readiness of the Army for the coming war. The regiment was assigned to the Americal Division on May 24, 1942. It was given back to state control on June 10, 1946. The regiment was called into service on January 16, 1951, for the Korean War. The 164th Infantry Regiment was disbanded April 15, 1955, and converted into engineering battalions.
The 164th is most remembered for its service in World War II. At Guadalcanal in October 1942, it became the first U.S. Army unit to engage in offensive action against the enemy. It was involved in the heaviest fighting of this campaign and was congratulated by the Marine unit it reinforced. For its efforts, the Americal Division was awarded the Navy's Presidential Unit Citation.
After Guadalcanal, the Regiment participated in the Bougainville Campaign (December 1943-November 1944), the liberation of the Philippines (January-August 1945), and assisted with occupation duty in Japan (September 1945-June 1946). During its existence the unit and its members saw almost 600 days of combat, earned 199 Bronze Stars, 89 Silver Stars, six Legions of Merit, ten Soldiers Medals, six Distinguished Service Crosses, one Navy Cross and about 2,000 Purple Hearts.
The most popular pre-war plane
In its heyday, the Douglas Commercial 3 (DC-3) was flown by a range of interesting airlines. Air France, Swissair, and Aer Lingus were some major European customers, but the real home of the DC-3 was in the United States.
The aircraft was operated by all manner of US airlines, some of whom are still with us today, others who succumbed to consolidation following deregulation of the industry. Notable operators included Delta Air Lines, Braniff Airways, Hawaiian Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, Pan Am, and of course, United.
American Airlines was instrumental in the development of the DC-3, and along with TWA, Delta and United, it ordered an entire fleet of the type. The aircraft married reliability with comfort and performance, and quickly became the go-to model for long-distance flying.
It truly proved its worth during World War II, when it was the most widely used military transport, flying as the C-47 for the US Army Air Corps. It also found a place with the US Navy as the R4D, as well as the Marine Corps and Royal Air Force as the Dakota. So prevalent was the DC-3, President Dwight Ike Eisenhower named it one of the four most important things that won the war.
Last year, to celebrate the 75 th anniversary of D-Day, a mass take-off of 35 DC-3s was orchestrated from Duxford Aerodrome in the UK to Normandy. It was the largest assembly of the Douglas aircraft since WWII and something that must have been breathtaking to see.
Have you ever seen a DC-3 in action? Ever had the pleasure to fly in one? Let us know in the comments.
Douglas Dakota II - History
It's a late January afternoon at New Jersey's Newark Airport. The year is 1939, and Newark is the only major airline terminal for the entire New York metropolitan area. They had broken ground for another airport at North Beach, in Queens, New York, and it was due to open in a few months as LaGuardia Airport.
The 1939 World's Fair was soon to open and we were expecting a major influx of tourists to the metropolitan area. LaGuardia would make it convenient for tourists to see the Fair landing them about three miles from the airport.
The sky is cold and clear but there were war clouds on the horizon. Hitler had reoccupied the Rhineland in defiance of the Locarno Pact, and there were open hostilities between England and Germany. We knew it would not be long before we were involved. For Americans, life was getting better. We felt a gradual easing of the Depression, as more of us were working, albeit in defense related industries.
Rib roasts were selling for 31 cents a pound, the New York Times was still two cents if I remember correctly. The well- off could avoid an exhausting coast-to-coast rail trip by booking passage on one of American Airlines' new Douglas Sleeper Transports (DST), the first model in the rapidly-becoming-famous DC-3 series.American Airlines "Mercury Service" flight 401, Flagship California, would depart Newark at 5:10 p.m. and touch down at 8:50 a.m. the next morning in Los Angeles' Glendale Airport (baring disagreement from Mother Nature). It was fully booked with 14 passengers, myself being one of them.
That was a fourteen hour and 40 minute flight but when you subtracted the three hours time difference it wasn't a bad trip in those days. Coming east, however, seemed much longer when we had to push our watches ahead by three hours. The same trip by rail took several days, so if you were in a hurry to conduct business the plane made sense.
For the two movie stars on this flight who have paid an additional $160 over the standard round-trip fare of $264, they had the privilege of occupying a private compartment known as the "Sky room," where they are duly and regularly soothed by the ardent attentions of the flight stewardess.
In those days we called them stewardesses, and as part of their job, they were required to be registered nurses.The DC-3 was introduced into American Airlines service about six months after the Douglas company rolled it out in December 1935. It was the first airplane that could make money flying people and not depend on the mail subsidy.
It was an instant success pushing the noisy and dangerous Ford Tri-Motors quickly to the sidelines.Once in the air we were served cocktails, but then it was complements of the captain, who said so over the public address system. Drinks were followed by our choice of a sirloin steak or a Long Island duckling, with a choice of salads and dessert, all served on genuine Syracuse china with Reed Barton silverware.
During the meal service the captain would send back his written flying report to be passed among his guests, as he called us. Most of us did not understand the technical details of the report but we sure appreciated being informed of our progress and what was ahead of us. In those days flying was still pretty mysterious and for some scary.
One hour after takeoff, the DST was drumming sonorously westward in a valiant but futile attempt to catch the setting sun. Eight thousand feet below the land was already wrapped in the covers of darkness with only the electric fires of civilization maintaining the reality of motion.
Memphis, Tennessee, the first stop was just over the deepening purple horizon. Later the captain came out of his "office" as he called it, and walked the comfortably wide aisle of the passenger cabin pleased to answer any questions his visitors might have.
I liked the idea of being called a visitor and a guest. Later we would all retire to very comfortable berths, designed to the standards of the Pullman sleepers on the railroads. The captain would later walk the same now darkened aisle making sure everything was buttoned down properly.
By then we were all asleep, wrapped in warm cocoons of goose-down comforters nestled snugly on feather mattresses, behind individually curtained upper and lower sleeper berths.This night it was clear and the two pilots had easily followed the long winking airway lights into Memphis.
We stopped there for fuel and mail, and the captain made the landing, in the new style rather than the three-pointer which may awaken his sleeping passengers. Another crew would take the Flagship California, and its sleeping cargo on to Dallas, the next stop.
This flight is part of American Airlines "Flagship Fleet," named because each new DC-3 proudly carried the name of one of the 48 states in the union. Upon landing, the copilot would "strike the colors," as the aircraft taxied into the terminal. The flag, bearing the eagle insignia of American Airlines would always snap sharply in the wind above the copilot's window.We bumped along a bit after departing Dallas, in the wake of a passing thunder storm, but most passengers weren't bothered by the mild turbulence.
Oh, I have been on flights where everyone was so sick we thought we'd die, but this was not one of them.Once airborne out of Phoenix the stewardess would waken each of us, serve a hot breakfast, this trip it was fresh coffee, juice and a choice of wild rice pancakes with blueberry syrup or a Julienne of Ham Omelet. She would then tidy up the cabin for our on-time arrival in Glendale Airport.
When we deplaned we would be refreshed after a long night's sleep and ready for a new day, more than can be said for today's jet-lagged passengers who endure a flight over the same geography.
File:Douglas Dakota Mk III of No. 267 Squadron RAF based at Bari in Italy, 27 December 1944. CNA3328.jpg
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Pesawat Douglas DC-3 mulai diproduksi pabriknya Douglas Aircraft Company tahun 1935, dengan uji terbang akhir tahun itu dan mulai dioperasikan tahun 1936. DC-3 merupakan penyempurnaan pesawat pendahulunya DC-1 dan DC-2. Yang pertama mengoperasikan DC-3 adalah American Airlines juga sebagai pencetus ide. Pesawat pertama itu kemudian dioperasikan oleh militer, selanjutnya jatuh dan terbakar pada 15 Oktober 1942 di Knob Noster, Missouri, Amerika Serikat. Kecelakaan fatal terjadi pada Desember 1936, DC-3 United Airlines jatuh di San Francisco menewaskan 21 penumpangnya.
DC-3 memang populer sebagai angkutan udara komersial karena aman, ekonomis dan nyaman pada masa itu. Banyak maskapai AS mengoperasikannya, seperti United Airlines, Trans World Airlines, Eastern Airlines dan Delta Airlines.
Negara-negara Eropa juga meliriknya. Prancis memproduksi Bloch 220s pada 1938, pesawat 22 penumpang seperti DC-3. Italia mencoba, walau gagal. Douglas pun memberi lisensi pada tiga negara, Belanda, Rusia dan Jepang untuk memproduksinya. DC-3 milik Belanda pula yang pertama terbang ke Indonesia pada tahun 1940.
Populasinya sampai tahun 1946 saat produksi dihentikan 10.629 pesawat, tersebar di seluruh belahan dunia. Lebih 50 tahun DC-3 masih dioperasikan komersial oleh berbagai maskapai di dunia. Comair sampai 1989 masih mengoperasikan DC-3. Pada Juni 1989, Provincetown-Boston Airlines masih menerbangkan DC-3 yang airframe-nya memiliki 92.000 jam.
Di Indonesia ada DC-3 "Seulawah" yang memiliki panjang badan 19,66 meter dan rentang sayap 28.96 m, ditenagai dua mesin Pratt & Whitney berbobot 8.030 kg serta mampu terbang dengan kecepatan maksimum 346 km/jam. Dengan bahan bakar penuh, Dakota mampu terbang sejauh 2.430 km.
Yang unik dan menarik, Dakota memiliki banyak julukan. Paling banyak dibandingkan pesawat-pesawat jenis lain. Sebutan 'Dakota' sendiri karena penamaan dari Royal Air Force (angkatan udara Britania Raya). Julukan pertama The Flying Vagrant karena kedua sayapnya yang panjang itu tak mendukungnya sama sekali. Selain itu, ada pula yang menjulukinya Grand Old Lady, juga Skytrain. Dakota memang terkesan 'gemuk dan bodoh', tak heran julukan Gajah Terbang (The Flying Elephant) pun disandangnya, di samping julukan Gooney Bird, Dumbo atau Taby. Julukan Biscuit Bomber pernah melekat setelah si pesawat melakukan dropping ransum 5.000 karton biskuit.
Dakota adalah pesawat legendaris. Di berbagai museum di AS, pesawat DC-3 ini menjadi kenangan. Indonesia pun tak ketinggalan. Untuk mengenang perjuangan rakyat Aceh, replika "Seulawah" dibangun di Balai Kota Banda Aceh, juga satu DC-3 di anjungan Aceh Taman Mini Indonesia Indah di Jakarta.
Worldview and Apologetics
- Prepare to see your faith in a brand new light as you read I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist. In this exquisite book, authors Geisler and Turek carefully demonstrate how Christianity is not only more reasonable than other beliefs, but is indeed more rational than unbelief itself. They provide clear answers for those skeptical about Christianity, as well as for Christians seeking to articulate a solid defense of their faith. With conviction they share tested arguments for God’s existence, examine the reliability of New Testament accounts of Jesus, and investigate Christ’s claims.
- Tackle questions of absolute truth, postmodernism, moral relativism, and more with the I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist Workbook. This coordinating student workbook includes terms to define, profiles of well-known philosophers to read, discussion questions, exercises to encourage personal reflection, and research projects. As students complete this workbook, they will crystalize what they have learned, examine what they believe, and move logically toward the inescapable truths of the Christian faith.
- Keep a daily prayer journal based on the biblical model of prayer. Students will pray through all four parts of prayer using our “Prayer Journal Insert,” which shares names of adoration for God, ways to honor Him, differences between sins of commission and omission, suggested Psalms to pray in thanksgiving, and encouragement for laying requests before God. By organizing and noting each day’s prayers, students will get the opportunity to deepen their relationship with God.
DakotaSitting Bull, 1885, photo by William Notman (courtesy McCord Museum). This drawing shows how completely the Plains Indigenous People, such as the Siksika, Kainai, Dakota, Piikani and Tsuut'ina depended on the bison. A Siouix (Dakota) in a painting by artist Paul Kane (courtesy ROM/912.1.29). Watercolor of a Dakota warrior by Karl Bodmer from his travel to the United States 1832—1834. Painting of a Dakota woman by Harry C. Edwards, circa 1921.
Dakota Peoples: Territory and Languages
Archaeological evidence indicates that the Dakota (Sioux) occupied what is now western Ontario and eastern Manitoba prior to 1200 AD, and western Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan prior to 900 AD. These populations later withdrew to the drainage basins of the Red, Mississippi and Rainy rivers, where they were located when first contacted by Pierre Radisson in 1659. By then the Siouan-speaking Dakota population had divided into three groups:
Farthest east, along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, dwelt the Dakota (Santee Sioux), who practised horticulture, occupied semi-permanent villages, harvested wild rice as a food staple and hunted buffalo (see Buffalo Hunt). After acquiring horses in the early 1700s, the Dakota expanded their territory from the Mississippi River to the Yellowstone River, and from the Platte River to the Qu’Appelle River. Hudson’s Bay Company records from Fort Qu’Appelle to Rainy Lake House (Fort Frances, Ontario) commonly mention the Dakota occupying that territory from the late 1700s.
Between the Mississippi and the lower Missouri River were the Nakota (Yanktonai Sioux), speakers of a similar dialect to the Dakota as spoken by the Assiniboine and Stoney of Canada. This population wintered along the wooded tributaries of the Mississippi and summered on the plains, hunting big game.
Farthest west along the Missouri River lived the Lakota (Teton Sioux), who were wholly mobile and largely dependent upon the buffalo.
Dakota and Lakota are dialects of the Sioux languages spoken on the prairies. Even though different in many respects, all three groups were politically united and referred to themselves collectively as Dakota (Nakota, Lakota) or “the allies.”
During the War of 1812, the Dakota pledged their alliance to Britain, in return for oaths of perpetual obligation. This alliance was betrayed at the Treaty of Ghent (1814), when Britain abandoned its Indigenous allies as a term of peace. The Dakota then drew closer to their lands in the United States however, though land use in Canada decreased, the northern territory was never abandoned.
The western expansion of the Americans ended Dakota territorial sovereignty when, in 1862, the US military, after the Minnesota Uprising, drove some of the eastern population into Canada, where they took up reserve lands in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. A few Lakota, including Sitting Bull, moved into southern Saskatchewan following the Battle of the Little Big Horn (1876).
The Dakota have since been treated as political refugees by Canadian governments. They were not included in treaty negotiations, as were all other Plains Indigenous populations, and were expected to make their own future in Canada (see Treaties: Indigenous Peoples Numbered Treaties). The Dakota became commercial farmers, producers of specialty crops, woodworkers, cattle ranchers, small-scale resource exploiters and labourers, traditions that are carried on today.
The Dakota have long argued over their interests in Canada and the debt owed them for the War of 1812. Canada has consistently labelled the Dakota “American Indigenous peoples” or immigrants and, therefore, not owed the same level of obligation as the treaty people. Over the years this has meant less land for reserves, less support for economic development and less access to opportunities.
After years of struggle, the Sioux Valley Dakota Nation in Manitoba gained self-government on 1 July 2014. It was the first Indigenous nation in Manitoba and the Prairies to become self-governing. This agreement provides the Sioux Valley Dakota Nation with more control over its own affairs, including housing, education, public safety, financial administration and more.
Dakota Access Pipeline
In 2014, Texas-based company Energy Transfer Partners proposed to construct an oil and gas pipeline, known as the Dakota Access Pipeline, measuring approximately 1,900 km long, from the Bakken and Three Forks areas in North Dakota to Patoka, Illinois. The pipeline threatens to come within 800 m (half a mile) of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, whose ancestral lands stretch throughout parts of North Dakota and South Dakota. Claiming the pipe could pollute a major water source (the Missouri River) and disturb the surrounding environment, Standing Rock and its supporters — including Dakota peoples and other Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada — protested the pipeline’s construction. Although President Barack Obama made efforts to block the construction of the pipeline before the end of his term in office, his successor, President Donald Trump signed an executive order on 24 January 2017 to advance its approval.
North Dakota World War II veteran honored for 75 years with American Legion
MAYVILLE, N.D. — A 104-year-old veteran in Mayville recently had a surprise ceremony recognizing his many decades with the American Legion.
It's an award reserved for a select few, as many of the current American Legion members are Vietnam-era veterans.
"And to be able to give an award to somebody that was from World War II for 75 consecutive years," explained Keith Williams with American Legion Post 8 in Mayville. "There is just a handful of people that have ever gotten the award."
A group of friends and family came to Lutheran Memorial home in Mayville to honor Walter Rindy for being an American Legion member for 75 consecutive years
"That's a long time!" Rindy exclaimed after being surprised with the award.
Rindy said he was drafted into World War II at age 25. He spoke about his time in the army all those years ago, preparing to invade Japan — right up until they surrendered.
"I think it was 141 ships, and we landed in Yokohama," Rindy said. "The planes were flying around like a bunch of birds from the carriers. It was a sight you'll never forget."
Some of Rindy's fellow Legion members were at a loss for words. "I feel honored just to be here in your presence," Williams told Rindy.
Rindy's granddaughter called in other family members online. Rindy's son Duane was among the family members who arrived in person.
"You don't see very many World War II people anymore. He's a rock. Always has been," Duane Rindy said.
Having served in World War II, retired from the postal service in 1969, and lived through vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic, Walter Rindy was asked how he made it to age 104.
"Well, I don't know," he replied with a hearty laugh. "Fish oil?"
His friends in the Legion hope to someday come back and reward him for 80 years in the Legion.