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Cam Rea lives in Indiana. Mr. Rea has written numerous articles for Classical Wisdom Weekly and several books including: ‘Hebrew Wars: A Military History of Ancient Israel from Abraham to Judges’ (2015), ‘Leviathan vs. Behemoth: The Roman-Parthian Wars 66 BC-217 AD’ (2014), ‘The Rise of Parthia in the East’ (2013), and ‘March of the Scythians’ (2013).
Argus (camera company)
Argus was an American maker of cameras and photographic products, founded in 1936 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Argus originated as a subsidiary of the International Radio Corporation (IRC), founded by Charles Verschoor. Its best-known product was the C3 rangefinder camera, which enjoyed a 27-year production run and became one of the top-selling cameras in history. The company's Model A was the first low-cost 35 mm camera in the United States. Sylvania acquired Argus in 1959 and sold it in 1969, by which time it had ceased camera production (some rebadged cameras continued to be sold under the Argus name through the 1970s). More recently, the Argus brand has been reestablished and is used on a variety of inexpensive digital cameras made by Argus Camera Company, LLC., located in Inverness, Illinois. Argus had two cameras for children developed in partnership with TEAMS Design. The cameras, the Bean and Sprout, won a Bronze 2009 IDEA award  from Bloomberg BusinessWeek and the Industrial Designers Society of America in addition to an Appliance Design 2009 EID award. 
Upholding Oaths and Leading Men into Danger
Some of the Egyptian officials became concerned with this. The direct route to Megiddo was not the best plan of action and his officers and men grew so wary of the endeavor that Thutmose stated: "Your valiant lord will guide your steps on this road which becomes narrow." For his majesty had taken an oath, saying: "I shall not let my valiant army go before me from this place!" Afterwards, Thutmose, before his army, showed strength by leading the forces himself for every “man was informed of his order of march, horse following horse, with his majesty at the head of his army.”
Hunting the Lions: The Last King of Assyria, and the Death of the Empire – Part II
The Assyrian empire, with the death of King Ashurbanipal, was collapsing under the weight of politics and war. Kingdoms and leaders previously held in Assyria’s great grasp fell upon the vulnerable empire, retaking land and gaining power.
One can argue that Assyria set itself back during the last years of Ashurbanipal’s life, since much of that period remains silent. With his death, those that ascended the Assyrian throne fared no better and yet worse than Ashurbanipal. With ineffective kings sitting on the Assyrian throne taking turns just as quick as they were seated, once prized holding such as Babylonia quickly slipped away from Assyrian control. This shift in power was a sign to other nations that neighbored Assyria that the time to challenge the former power was now. To hesitate could be costly and problematic if not all was put forth in bringing down their demise. The first of these woes for Assyria started with Nabopolassar, king of Babylonia.
Cam Rea - History
If we take as our starting point the Ordnance Survey maps (Explorer 208-9) we see the tributary rising from springs at Ashwell in Herts, described as the ‘River Rhee’. When it crosses the county boundary it is called the ‘River Cam or Rhee’ repeatedly until after the Hauxton junction with the Granta, whereafter it is named the Cam.
In his earlier article on the name of the river (1 – see end notes) Cecil Chapman argued that there was little evidence for Rhee as a proper name for the Cam before 1800 and that he was not sure why it was used later by the Ordnance Survey. Chapman referred to the fact that the records of the original unpublished survey maps compiled between 1799-1811 by the military surveyors were destroyed by fire in the Second World War, leaving their sources undiscovered.
However there is a good deal of cartographic and topographical evidence for the use of Rhee as a name, which would have been available to the surveyors and would have informed the naming of the river in the first published OS map of 1836.
According to authorities on English place names the word Rhee derives from an old English word (ea, rea or rhee) meaning water course or river, which first came into use no later than the 13th cent. Ekwall gives examples of Ree or Rhee as alternative names for the Ashwell tributory of the Cam for the 16-17th centuries (2).
Chapman can find only one early map, that of Philip Lea in 1869 which refers to the Ashwell tributory of the Cam as the Rhee. However Sir Henry Chauncey in his topographical survey of ”The Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire’, first published in 1700, contains a map by H. Moll of the county naming the river at Ashwell the Rhee. Perhaps Lea is Moll’s source?
Chauncey describes the river rising at Ashwell thus: ‘The Rhee (a Saxon term that signifies a water course or river) comes from a source of springs, which spin from small veins out of rock or stone, joining together at a space of two furlongs, making a torrent that drives a mill, one for wheat the other for mault and on the sudden swells to a fair river falling away by Arrington bridge crosses the road called Ermine Street and overtaking the Cam (Granta?) leads to Cambridge’, (3rd edn.,vol.1, p.3a).
A set of ‘New and Corrected Maps of England and Wales’ published by Moll in 1724 shows the ‘Rhea River’ rising at Ashwell on the Herts. map and named the ‘Cam River’ from Shingay on the Cambs. map. J. Ellis’s ‘English Atlas’ of 1773, Laurie and Whittle’s ‘New and Improved English Atlas’ of 1808, John Cary’s ‘New and Correct English Atlas’, of 1807 and the ‘New British Atlas’ of 1832 all show the ‘Rhea’ or ‘Rhee’ river rising at Ashwell on the Herts. map and ‘Cam river’ on the Cambs. map, from Wendy or lower down at Barrington. (Map collection, Cambridge University Library).
It is also interesting to note that these later maps generally refer to the spring source of the river at Ashwell as Rhea or Rhee ‘Head’. The surveyor and map maker, John Oliver published a map of Herts. in 1695, based on his previous survey notes and sketches of twenty years before, which describes the ‘Rhee river’ flowing from Ashwell. John Warburton’s later map of 1749 shows Rhee ‘head’ as well as river. (Four County Maps of Herts., with an introduction by D. Hodson, 1985).
Salmon’s ‘History of Hertfordshire’ (1728) notes Ashwell as standing ‘upon the source of the River Rhee, which breaks out of the rock in this village to form many springs, with such force as to form a stream’. Again J.E. Cussans’ later ‘History of Hertfordshire’ (1869) describes ‘the river Rhee, a tributory of the Cam,’ (vol. 1, p. 23) taking its rise from the springs at Ashwell.
So there is much evidence from maps and other sources to show a stronger association beween the Rhee and its Hertfordshire origins. Across the county boundary the naming of the river is more closely associated with the city of Cambridge. The name being a ‘back formation’ from the town name. The OS maps merely reflect this distinction between the two counties. One can therefore imagine the surveyors looking at the available sources and hedging their bets.
The names of rivers often change over time and the Rhee or Cam is a case in point. It is interesting to note that current practice in the valley, for example in terms of the names of local business’s, is to use the appellation ‘Rhee’ rather than ‘Cam’ although geographical sources have generally referred to the ‘upper Cam valley’ when describing the area through which the Ashwell tributory runs.
An interesting postcript to this blog is provided by a piece in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society (PCAS, see note 3) by Stephen Yeates – ‘Senuna, Goddess of the River Rhee or Henney’. This concerns the 2002 discovery of a hoard of Romano British gold, jewellery and silver figurines dedicated to the Dea Senuna, located near the bank of the River Rhee about 1.5km from the spring at Ashwell. Yeates suggests that the Ashwell tributory would originally have born the name of this river goddess and discusses the linguistical route by which it ended up being called the Rhee. To summarise his article: Senuna was shortened to Senna, which in turn becomes Henna – Henney, ey, eg or ea being associated in Old English with water and then re, rea or rhee in Middle English. See also my later blogs: The River Rhee – an ancient sacred river and Romano-British villas/cemetaries and shrine complexes in the wider region.
1. C. Chapman, ‘The Name of the River’, chapter 1, ‘Cam or Rhee’, Barrington Local Conservation Society, 1973. (Available at Cambridge Central Library local history collection).
The company was founded on January 20, 1934 as Fuji Shashin Film K.K. (富士写真フィルム㈱, later translated as Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.) Ώ] , producing several sorts of film. ΐ] It was an offshoot of Dai-Nippon Celluloid K.K. (大日本セルロイド㈱), founded in 1919. Α] The company's first CEO was Asano Shūichi (浅野修一). Β] The plants were located in the village of Minami-Ashigara (南足柄村, now a city) in the prefecture of Kanagawa (神奈川県), at the foot of Mt. Hakone (箱根山). Γ] It is said that the name "Fuji" (富士) was chosen by Asano Shūichi because of Mt. Fuji (富士山), situated not far from Mt. Hakone, but was already registered by a third party, to which the rights were bought for ¥8,000, an important sum at the time. Δ]
The company started to produce optical glass during the early 1940s for military use. Ε] The dependent company Fuji Shashin Kōki K.K. (富士写真光機㈱, meaning "Fuji Photo Optical Co., Ltd.") was founded in 1944, from the assets of Enomoto Kōgaku Seiki Seisakusho (榎本光学精機製作所), but this was absorbed back into Fuji Shashin Film after 1945. Ζ] Many other Fuji companies were created after the war, all of them dependent of the main Fuji Shashin Film company and eventually of the Fujifilm Group (富士フィルムグループ).
Fuji began producing cameras in 1948 with the Fujica Six. Until the late 1970s, many cameras made by Fuji were called Fujica, a contraction of Fuji and camera (cf Leica, Yashica etc.). In the mid 1980's the Fujica name change to simply Fuji, in the mid 1990's this changed yet again to Fujifilm.
The company started producing digital cameras in 1988. Fujifilm was the most agile among film makers in adapting to digital imaging. For a while it offered leading technology concerning smaller digital consumer cameras with high-sensitivity CCDs (see Super CCD). It also sold expensive DSLRs and innovative camera concepts like the X100 with hybrid finder, a mixture of optical finder and EVF. Nowadays it is one of the big makers of sophisticated CSCs like the X-T3 with fast hi-res video capability. (see Fujifilm digital cameras).
The First Compact Cameras
It is true that the Kodak and Brownie were affordable, but they weren’t very compact. Comfortable handling and more portability would definitely be more attractive to more buyers who are interested in creating photographs of their own.
Oskar Barnack decided to experiment with 35-mm cine film while simultaneously trying to make a compact camera. His prototype camera was the 35-mm Ur-Leica which was developed in 1913. Its development was delayed because of the First World War though, but it was test-marketed from 1923 to 1924. It received positive feedback which resulted in commercial production of the “Leica 1” which got its name from the first two letters of “Leitz” where Barnack worked, and “camera”. Today, Leica cameras are sought after by most photographers as the pinnacle of photography equipment, but the price tag that comes with a Leica means that for some, it’s just something to lust over.
American Optical, a company that specialized in treating spectacles and lenses, decided to enter the camera manufacturing business and acquired the Scovill Company in 1867. Scovill functioned as the company's primary camera maker. The pieces offered by the two companies were very similar, although the Scovill cameras were less expensive and geared towards the amateur market. American Optical's cameras were more expensive and were constructed of finer woods and high quality finishes. Both companies offered cameras with front focusing, cone bellows design, hinges, and swing backs.
E. & H.T. Anthony & Company was known as an American manufacturer of large, professional cameras in the mid-1880s. However, they offered a smaller apparatus called the patent Bijou that featured 3 ¼ by 4 inch lantern slides, which were quickly becoming the preferred format. These plates were the same size as plates used for magic lanterns, and slides were made from the plates by contact printing using ordinary frames. Magic lanterns were early image projectors from the 17th century that used a concave mirror and light source to project an image through the lens on to the screen or wall opposite the mechanism.
Bausch and Lomb began to manufacture photographic lenses in 1883. This company had created eyeglasses and frames for several decades, but Edward Bausch, the son of the founder John Jacob, used knowledge of the human eyes workings to invent the diaphragm shutter. In 1888, the company began to produce diaphragm shutters and dominated the photography market by signing an exclusive agreement with Zeiss Company for their lenses. They were the only company allowed to use Zeiss lenses in the United States. During the same year, the first dry plate detective camera was patented by William Schmid.
George Eastman also introduced a camera, called the Kodak, in 1888 that included a roll of the flexible cellulose film. This first flexible base was not transparent, and the film needed to be stripped from the backing and transferred to a glass plate before development and printing. Since this was a difficult procedure, Eastman required his customers to return the entire box camera so the film could be removed, processed, and printed. The camera itself was a wooden box covered with grained leather and included a role holder and an exposure indicator. The camera would then be reloaded with fresh film and returned to the customer with their photographs. His motto was, “You push the button, we do the rest!” This was the beginning of popular photography.
A transparent film base made from nature cellulose was invented by Hannibal Goodwin, but he was not able to patent it before Eastman began to manufacture transparent films and Kodak cameras in 1898. The Eastman Company was later sued and lost a patent infringement case because of the use of the transparent film.
Transparent based films became popular because they were a convenient and easy way for all users to shoot pictures while giving them the opportunity to take many exposures with one roll of film, change film rolls when needed, and develop and print with only a few pieces of equipment and without the difficulties of the previous years' procedures. The public responded by making photography a popular hobby and profession.
The E.L. Horsmen Company in New York took advantage of this growing market to produce camera outfits suited for beginners and students in the late 1880's. Although they did not boast many features or refined construction, these were inexpensive, simple box plate cameras. The No. 2 Eclipse and No. 3 Eclipse were constructed of polished cherry wood and brass barrel, meniscus lenses. The cameras' bellows were made of a fragile leatherette that resembled paper, and the washer inserts were made from cardboard. As these seemed to be “beginner” cameras, they did not have movement and consisted of the most inexpensive materials.
In 1900, Eastman Kodak introduced a small camera called the Brownie, which was an inexpensive box camera that introduced snapshots. The original model was made of cardboard and contained a simple meniscus lands that shot a 2 ¼ inch square picture onto 117 roll film. It cost only $1.00 and had a very simple controls. The line of Brownie's cameras was very popular, and was sold for over 70 years.
Other companies, such as the Rochester Optical Company in New York, continued to produce more expensive models with varying features. The Rochester Optical Co. produced the beautifully wood-finished Commodore from 1891-1902, which featured a maroon cloth bellows and a solid wood bed. Less expensive models were offered that did not feature a swinging mechanism.
Flammang's Patent Revolving Back Camera
American Optical Co. introduced the Flammang's Patent Revolving Back Camera, which was manufactured from 1886 to 1898, and featured a mahogany body, cherry base, rotating ground glass assembly, black fabric balance, brass trim, a Morrison D lens, and the inter-lens drop shutter which was a popular feature of cameras in the 1880s was the drop shutter. The majority of these shutters are operated by gravity, although some modern view cameras use rubber bands for a faster speed. Drop shutters were actually invented in the 1850's, but were most commonly used in the 1880s. The inter-lens drop shutter was dropped through slots cut into the lens barrel and mounted with a pneumatic release underneath. An air-powered piston was attached to a curved brass rod, which fit into a notch in the brass guillotine blade to prevent it from dropping. With a squeeze of an air ball, the piston and brass rod were forced outwards from the lens, which allowed the blade to drop through the barrel. A collar was placed at the top of the blade so the shutter would not fall completely through its lens.
In 1882, E. & H. T. Anthony designed a camera that was light and reversible. This design held the rear of the camera in place by using key bolts. To reverse the camera, the user disengaged the key bolts, which revolved the bellows and camera back into a new position. Cameras such as the Novel, the Klauber, the Fairy, the Phantom Views, and some types of Novelettes used this new technology.
Seemingly in response, Skovill Manufacturing Company designed a camera that revolved along a circular brass track, yet the back stayed in place. Spring loaded stops were used to mark the horizontal and vertical. However, the rotating mechanism added considerable size, and the camera was very large.
Several American manufacturers began making the English-style compact cameras in the late 1880s. This style could sometimes fold to less than 3 inches deep. Many lenses could not fit into such a small camera, so many makers only created one model of compact styles for their brand. The Rochester Optical company, however, produced a series of these cameras, including the Monitor, Carlton, Universal, and Kentwood. These models had better features and finishes than those offered by other manufacturers.
The unstable, inflammable cellulose film base was replaced with long-lived, safe acetate by Eastman Kodak in 1885. Sensitive photographic papers allowed photographers to use enlargers, making it possible to use smaller camera formats while still printing large photographs. There were improvements in lens optics and the discovery of new glasses, designs, and grinding techniques. Cameras became smaller and more sophisticated.
Simon Wing took out a patent in 1887 for a “multiplying camera”, which allowed the photographer to produce many images on a single plate. This camera involved panels to shift the lens vertically and horizontally, as well as a ball and socket mount that allowed the lens tube to tilt universally. The camera also had the rigid back which allowed the camera to work as a multiplying apparatus. There were clusters of lenses to take the several pictures, and the plate's parts were required to be equidistant from the lens so they could properly focus. This model also had a fixed ground glass frame, ¼” thick plateholders, and a rail lock for mounting. The shifting option cost consumers an additional $2.
E. & H.T. Anthony Company of New York created the Anthony's Phantom camera in 1888. This model accepted lenses ranging from 3 inches to 23 inches for mounting onto its 8x10 model. It featured a reversible back and bellows that were rotated together for portrait and landscape formats. This allowed the photographer to rotate the bellows and rear of the camera up to 90° while the front lines remained fixed. The drawback of this type of camera was that the bellows were quickly worn due to the stress of bending the pleats.
Camera makers began to offer models with convertible formats in the 1890s. One example is the Blair reverse pullback camera, which featured the traditional rise/fall front stand, folding bellows, tilting rear standard, and reverse back for landscapes and portraits without the need to rotate the whole apparatus. This model also provided an extended grill system and extension back that allowed the user to upgrade the camera to a larger format when needed. Also during the 1890's, Hurter and Driffield devised an independent system to provide speed numbers for varying key motions, which led to the ISO numbers currently on film boxes.
Another invention of this decade was half-toned photographic reproductions, which were produced in daily papers. These are created with the use of a camera that contained a ground glass screen printed with a grid pattern so the image could be broken into different sized dots. This helped add clarity to the newspapers' images, which were using black and white printing with in-between tones before this time.
In 1892, a company owned by S.N. Turner introduced a bull's eye camera. Previous to this invention, photographers were required to load film into their cameras in the dark. However, Turner's invention introduced film that was backed with black paper so it could be safely loaded in daylight. The photographer could see the exposure number through a small red window on the back of the camera. The Eastman Kodak Company bought Turner's patents and company in 1895.
- American Optical Company
- E. & H.T. Anthony
- Blair Camera Company
- G. Gennert Company
- E. I. Horsmen
- Franklin Tourograph and Dry Plate
- E. Gordon
- Quta Camera and Plate Company
- Rochester Optical Company
- Skovill & Manufacturing Company
- Jas. H. Smith & Company
- Nathan Stockwell
- Bausch and Lomb
- The Monroe Camera Company
- Eastman Kodak Company
Another B&L employee, Andrew Wollensack, started at Bausch and Lomb just to leave and start Wollensack Company, which manufactured lenses, shutters, and more until 1958. Two more Bausch and Lomb employees named Klein and Brueck left their jobs as shutter designers to create the shutter delay mechanism, which involved a rocking plate and rotating gear. Their new company was called XL Manufacturing Company, and it manufactured their new shutter. They eventually changed their name to Ilex, and the company still exists today.
Field viewer cameras went through an astonishing evolutionary process throughout the 1800s. This may be partially because there were so many new inventions being created, then taken and used by new companies. Camera manufacturers were constantly competing against other companies who had inside knowledge of their own business, products, and inventions because of job-hopping employees. Cameras evolved from wooden boxes with a tiny hole to models that are very similar to view cameras used today. By the beginning of the 20th century, they were made of wood and featured rear and front standard monorail or sliding rails that were fixed to the flatbed, which attached to the camera support. When the bellows was folded, the flatbed could be folded to reduce the camera to a light, small, portable box. The experiments of the preceding century brought about exciting new changes as they led to handheld cameras. Before 1888, the glass plate cameras were very large and limited to the perspectives that could be shot from the tripod. Because they were able to pick up the cameras and shoot pictures in the early 20th century, practitioners of other disciplines and amateurs could experiment with photographic perspective to explore their own ideas and creativity. Modern photographers still work with perspective in order to give pictures a dynamic, unique appearance and attitude.
Glass plate view cameras' were quickly phased out during the early 1900s, and leather-covered cameras that could fold and use sheet film were manufactured by the score. Companies like the Rochester Optical Company and Century Camera Company created dozens of new models with slightly differing lenses and accoutrements. Amateurs started using the smaller models, and view cameras were once again used by the professional for panoramas, cityscapes, and events.
The Century camera company was founded in 1900, and their first camera model had many improvements to former models, such as utilizing the same rack and pinion gears for the back and front focus. The front and back standards were placed in their own respective grooves within the rails. This caused the extinction of many view camera designs that had been made previously. Older models like the Rochester View and Empire State were altered by the company to match the new Century's design.
Amusingly enough, the invention of air conditioning in 1902 was a big benefit to photography, as photographic materials could be better stored in a cool, dry environment during inclement weather, humidity, and heat.
The 20th century brought more improvements to the photographic processes with some revolutionary inventions. Films were created to work with increasing speed in a broad and color sensitivity. Although early photographic emulsions were sensitive to blue, Autochrome, Kodachrome, and other panchromatics for full color were gradually developed. Several color processes were invented during the 19th century, Autochrome was the first commercially available color process and was introduced in 1907 and eventually discontinued in 1932. These produced positive color transparencies with glass plates in gave fantastic results. Kodachrome was the first affordable and practical cellulose transparency process, and was introduced by Eastman Company in 1935.
A panoramic view camera called the Cirkut camera used a large format film and was patented in 1904. The film ranged from 5 inches to 16 inches and could produce a 360° photograph that potentially measured up to 20 feet in length. The film and camera were rotated on a specialized tripod during the exposure process in order to achieve an even, clear picture.
The Ernemann Ermanox-Camera, introduced in 1924, had a lens boasting an F/2.0 next on aperture, which was fast enough to allow photography without bright light. The first electric flashbulbs were introduced to the market in 1930, although electrically ignited magnesium had been used previously for artificial illumination. Photographic electronic light meters were brought to the market in 1931. Prior to this date, the exposures were determined by the experienced photographer or with crudely constructed comparison devices. This allowed the photographers to properly set their aperture and shutter speed with the light readings provided by the light meters.
A Brief History of CAMERA
The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America, or CAMERA, was founded in Washington, DC in 1982 by Winifred Meiselman, a teacher and social worker. Mrs. Meiselman formed CAMERA to respond to the Washington Post’s coverage of Israel’s Lebanon incursion, and to the paper’s general anti-Israel bias. Joining CAMERA’s Executive Board in the early days were such prominent Washington-area residents as Saul Stern and Bernard White. Win also recruited an Advisory Board which included Senators Rudy Boschwitz and Charles Grassley, Congressman Tom Lantos, journalist M. Stanton Evans, Ambassador Charles Lichenstein, Pastor Roy Stewart, and Rabbi David Yellin.
Under Win’s leadership CAMERA created chapters in major cities, including New York, Chicago, Fort Lauderdale, Los Angeles, Miami, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and in 1988 a Boston chapter and office, founded and led by Andrea Levin. Ms. Levin had taught English in inner-city Philadelphia, and later served as associate editor of the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.
CAMERA opens Boston chapter (click for full size).
In 1989, CAMERA took a large step forward with a highly successful conference organized by the Boston chapter: “The Media, The Message and The Middle East.” The event galvanized public interest concerning the media’s power to sway public opinion on Middle East policy – and the potential harm of distorted coverage. Held at Boston’s Park Plaza Hotel, the conference drew an overflow crowd of more than 1000 attendees, and featured such well-known speakers as Norman Podhoretz, editor of Commentary Magazine, Professors Alan Dershowitz of Harvard University, Ruth Wisse of McGill University, Jerrold Auerbach of Wellesley, and David Wyman of UMass Amherst. Joining these speakers were Ms. Levin, who documented the Boston Globe’s bias against Israel, and the Boston chapter’s Deputy Director, Charles Jacobs, who critiqued a biased teacher’s guide which accompanied a PBS documentary.
CAMERA’s 1989 Conference fills the Park Plaza Ballroom.
After the conference the Boston chapter continued to grow rapidly, as the Executive Board was joined by noted professionals in law and medicine, as well as a number of Boston’s top business leaders, including the co-founders of such major firms as Timberland and Staples.
CAMERA has long been active on college campuses. Here a circa 1990 letter to students signed by Charles Jacobs, the Boston Chapter’s Deputy Director (click for full size).
In 1991 Ms. Meiselman retired due to health problems, and leadership of the organization passed to Ms. Levin. The Boston chapter became the national – and eventually the only – office of CAMERA, as the local chapters were allowed to reincorporate separately or to close. (Notably, the San Francisco chapter, headed by entrepreneur Gerardo Joffe, became FLAME, Facts and Logic about the Middle East, and exists to this day.)
A 1991 letter to CAMERA members signed by Ms. Levin and by Win Meiselman, CAMERA’s Founder (click for full size).
Under Ms. Levin’s leadership CAMERA’s membership grew within a few years from 1000 to over 20,000, and now numbers over 65,000. In addition to the Boston headquarters the organization also has offices in Washington, DC, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and Israel.
Over the years CAMERA has focused major efforts on improving coverage of Israel and the Middle East by such major outlets as the New York Times, the Boston Globe, the Los Angeles Times, NPR, PBS, and ABC News.
While there have been major successes with most of these outlets, there is also a continuing need for monitoring and interaction.
New projects initiated by CAMERA:
CAMERA continues to expand its programming and reach. Increased challenges have been met with increased innovation and effectiveness.
Cam Rea - History
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