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British and German Battlecruisers - Their Development and Operations, Michele Cosentino and Ruggero Stanglini

British and German Battlecruisers - Their Development and Operations, Michele Cosentino and Ruggero Stanglini


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British and German Battlecruisers - Their Development and Operations, Michele Cosentino & Ruggero Stanglini

British and German Battlecruisers - Their Development and Operations, Michele Cosentino & Ruggero Stanglini

The battlecruiser was one of the most controversial warships of the First World War, at least on the British side, with their entire service overshadowed by the dramatic loss of three British battlecruisers at Jutland. Individual battlecruisers have been studied in some detail, but this is the first book that I've seen that focuses on the type as a whole.

The battlecruiser was a fairly short lived type of warship. It carried similar guns to the all big gun Dreadnought battleships, but was lighter armoured and faster than normal battleships. As a result they were often just as large as contemporary battleships, but they weren't originally designed (at least on the British side) to fight other capital ships. One of this books many strengths is the detailed examination of the original plans for the first British battlecruisers and what the Royal Navy expected to use them for (destroying commerce raiders, defeating less powerful cruisers and some scouting in major battles, where their speed would allow them to get out of trouble).

The big flaw with the original British concept for the battlecruiser was the failure to consider what might happen if opposing battlecruisers clashed. It was just that scenario that led to the loss of Invincible, Indefatigable and Queen Mary at Jutland, destroyed by the heavy shells of their German counterparts. However it is worth remembering that these were the only British battlecruisers to be lost during the First World War, despite their being heavily involved in all of the major naval clashes.

The authors have produced a wide ranging book. We begin with a look at the origins of the Anglo-German naval rivalry, Admiral Fisher's decision to build the all-big-gun HMS Dreadnought, and the impact this had on cruiser design. The battlecruiser is thus placed in context as a replacement for the Armoured Cruisers, which were themselves powerful, heavily armed warships. We then look at the design process in both countries, the political, financial, industrial and technological restrictions on the battlecruisers, and the different design philosophies. We then move onto their combat careers, looking at every significant use of the battlecruisers, not just those that saw the opposing battlecruisers clash (as a result we look at the battle of the Falklands, where the success of the British battlecruisers against German heavy cruisers proved that the original concept was valid and also unrealistically raised expectations of what the battlecruiser could achieve). Finally there is a comparative examination of the battlecruisers – were they a good investment, how did the resources committed on the two sides compare, how did the designs compare.

This is an excellent single volume history of an important but controversial category of warship, and suggests that despite the dramatic loss of three British battlecruisers at Jutland the type was actually a useful warship in the circumstances of the First World War.

Chapters
1 - Collision Courses: British and German Policy from 1870 to the First World War
2 - Birth of the Battlecruiser - Strategic, Economic and Technological Challenges
3 - The Battlecruisers of the Royal Navy
4 - The Battlecruisers of the Kaiserliche Marine
5 - Operational Use
6 - British and German Battlecruisers: A Technical and Operational Comparison
Appendix - Battlecruisers of Other Nations

Author: Michele Cosentino & Ruggero Stanglini
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 320
Publisher: Seaforth
Year: 2016



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BRITISH AND GERMAN BATTLECRUISERS Their Development and Operations

An excellent book looking at the wider forces and factors which led to the development of the Battlecruiser in both the Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy.The authors conclude that poor magazine protection procedures and the volatility of British cordite was the main cause of ship loss: German armour was often penetrated, despite the poor quality of British shells, but their ships did not blow up.

Description

The fast and formidably-armed battlecruisers of Great Britain and Germany that were developed before and during the First World War are, in this new book, compared and contrasted in a way, and at a level of detail that has never been attempted before. The authors begin by looking at the relationship and rivalry between Great Britain and Germany and at how foreign policy, strategic and tactical considerations, economic, industrial and technological developments, and naval policies led to the instigation of the battlecruiser programmes in both countries. Chapters are then devoted to the development of the type in each country, at their design and construction, protection, propulsion plants, weapons, fire control, and communication systems, focussing particularly on the innovative aspects of the designs and on their strengths and weaknesses. These ships eventually clashed in the North Sea at Dogger Bank, in January 1915, and while neither side suffered losses, the differences in their design and handling were apparent, differences that would be more starkly highlighted a year later at Jutland when three British ships were destroyed. These actions, and others they took part in, are described and assessed by the authors who then conclude by analysing their strengths and limitations.

Overseas clients please note: Due to excessively high wrapped weight shipping is weighted on this title.


ISBN 13: 9781682470114

Cosentino, Michele Stanglini, Ruggero

This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

The authors of British and German Battlecruisers have detailed the fast and formidably-armed battlecruisers developed before and during World War I in a way that has never been attempted before. They begin by looking at the relationship and rivalry between Great Britain and Germany and how foreign policy, strategic and tactical considerations, economic, industrial and technological developments, as well as naval policies led to the commencement of the battlecruiser programs in both countries. Chapters are then devoted to the development of the ships in each country, to design and construction, protection, propulsion plants, weapons, fire control, and communication systems. Particular focus is paid to the innovative aspects of the designs and their strengths and weaknesses. These ships eventually clashed in the North Sea at Dogger Bank, in January 1915, and while neither side suffered losses, the differences in their design and handling were apparent. These differences would be starkly highlighted a year later at Jutland when three British ships were destroyed. This is a major new work for naval enthusiasts everywhere.

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

Michele Cosentino is a retired commodore in the Italian Navy. He has written extensively on naval policy and technical issues.

Ruggero Stanglini contributes to Italian defense magazines and he has written several books on naval affairs.


British and German Battlecruisers

It is not something I have spent a lot of time on recently but I have had a soft spot for the Great War at Sea since the late 1970s. My fondness for General Quarters 2 and the Avalon Hill game Jutland are well known and games set in the North Sea have given me much pleasure over the years. Then of course there was my plan to tackle Jutland in time for the centenary in 2016 using 1:2400th scale models. It was a great idea at the time but sadly did not come to pass.

I was always fond of the battlecruisers for the period, particularly German ones, and I think it is fair to say that they would, under normal circumstances, be the first heavy units into action between opposing fleets. There is also the attraction of the ships involved being rather different in terms of design with the British ships being typically more lightly protected but with heavier artillery whilst the Germans were better protected but with lighter guns. In all the games I have fought between the two sides invariably the action gets fairly intense and fairly quickly at that.

I was not thinking about Jutland or the Great War at Sea when I popped into town this afternoon on a couple of errands. We have a small indoor market that boasts a remaindered magazine and book stall and I always make a point of paying it a visit when I go into town (which is not that often if truth be told). It was there that I came across the above book at a ridiculously low price and all thoughts of financial discretion and project focus went straight out of the window and I promptly purchased it!

British and German Battlecruisers - Their Development and Operations by Michele Cosentino & Ruggero Stanglini is published by Seaforth and is ISBN 978 1 84832 184 7.

The book has 272 pages features the following contents:

Abbreviations
Introduction
Chapter 1 - Collision Courses: British and German Policy From 1870 to the First World War
Chapter 2 - Birth of the Battlecruisers: Strategic, Economic and the Technical Challenges
Chapter 3 - The Battlecruisers of the Royal Navy
Chapter 4 - The Battlecruisers of the Kaiserliche Marine
Chapter 5 - Operational Use
Colour Plate Section
Chapter 6 - British and German Battlecruisers: A Technical and Operation Comparison
Appendix - Battlecruisers of Other Nations
Bibliography
Index

There are pictures, maps and technical details galore, all of which are grist to the naval wargaming mill. I can honestly say that this is one of the best books I have seen on the subject and I am absolutely delighted to have grabbed a copy - especially for less than half the price quoted by Amazon.

That very nice man at Tumbling Dice is planning to complete the fleets in his Age of Battleships range up to 1914 which means that in conjunction with Stonewall Miniatures there will be two UK based manufacturers of 1:2400th scale warships - which can only be a good thing in my opinion.

Destiny is prodding my conscience so I am thinking that sticking to the battlecruisers for WW1 would be a compact and historically viable set up and it would not be too difficult to raise.


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Download Now!

We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with British And German Battlecruisers Their Development And Operations. To get started finding British And German Battlecruisers Their Development And Operations, you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed.
Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented.

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these British And German Battlecruisers Their Development And Operations I can get now!

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

It's very easy to get quality ebooks )

so many fake sites. this is the first one which worked! Many thanks

wtffff i do not understand this!

Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you.


January 24, 1915: The Battle of Dogger Bank

On January 24, 1915, the British Royal Navy Grand Fleet fought a sizable naval engagement against elements of the German Imperial High Seas Fleet in the North Sea at an area called Dogger Bank. With all the attention the Battle of Jutland and the submarine war in the Atlantic get, it may be easy to forget there were other major naval engagements during World War I. Today we discuss one of those naval battles, a battle won by the British, although like Jutland, a not satisfying victory.

Digging Deeper

The battle area, Dogger Bank, is a 160 mile by 60 mile shallow area of the North Sea to the East of England where a landmass bridging Great Britain to mainland Europe once existed. The sandy bottom is only under 50 to 120 feet of water, and the area is known to fisherman as a productive fishing ground. Cod and herring are the predominant fish caught there, and the area is sometimes referred to as The Dogger Sea.

Map by Halava of the North Sea, showing shallows and banks

The Battle of Dogger Bank is notable for its origin, which is the interception and decoding of German radio transmissions between shore headquarters and its ships. Radio was fairly new to naval warfare and the business of signals intelligence was in its infancy. The stage for the radio intercepts was set by the British cutting of underwater telegraph cables forcing the Germans to communicate by radio between shore stations. In this case, such intelligence work paid off handsomely as the British were able to determine a powerful German task force was setting sail to conduct raiding on vital shipping to Britain as a sequel to a raid on British ports on the East coast of Great Britain conducted in December of 1914. The 1914 raid had also been detected by signals intelligence, but the information had been mishandled and the raid went off un-intercepted. A Royal Navy task force was sent to intercept the Germans on the January 1915 raid and foil the German plans for commerce raiding. A previous British naval victory at the Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1914 had left the German High Seas Fleet temporarily in the refuge of their home ports, leaving the Germans to plan such limited raids.

The German fleet consisted of 4 light cruisers, an armored cruiser, 3 battle cruisers, 18 destroyers and aerial support from a zeppelin. The British naval force sent to intercept the Germans consisted of 5 battle cruisers, 7 light cruisers and 35 destroyers which would seem to be a superior force. The German fleet was surprised when the British fleet showed up in force, spotting the telltale smoke of the British ships rapidly approaching the German fleet on the morning of January 24, 1915. Realizing surprise had been lost and that he was facing a larger force, the German commander, Admiral Franz Hipper, ordered his ships to flee to the Southeast at best speed. The Germans were hindered by their slowest ship, the armored cruiser Blücher, that could not possibly outrun the British force. Of course, not all the British ships shared equal speed, and some of the British ships had not caught up enough to engage in the opening of the battle.

Blücher during World War I

While still sailing at high speed and at maximum gun range (11 miles), the British opened fire on the fleeing German ships. The British managed to get 5 of their larger ships close enough to engage 4 of the German vessels. The winds favored the British, by blowing the smoke from the coal fired boilers and from the discharge of the ships’ guns away from the optical sights of the gunners, while those same winds put smoke in the way of the German gunners attempting to fire back at the pursuing British ships. The German battlecruiser Seydlitz and the German armored cruiser Blücher were both hit and heavily damaged, while the British flagship, the battlecruiser HMS Lion was also hit by 12 inch shells, with 14 of the big shells striking the ship and putting her out of action. A single British destroyer was also damaged heavily enough to be placed out of action.

While the British fleet concentrated on the stricken and slowing Blücher the rest of the German fleet made haste to return to home port. Blücher continued to fight on her own, disabling the unlucky British destroyer and also landing hits on British battlecruisers with her secondary 8 inch armament. The German armored cruiser was fighting a losing battle and was sunk by torpedoes from a British light cruiser, taking 792 of her crew to the bottom. As the British attempted to rescue German survivors, the zeppelin made its appearance along with a seaplane, with both German aircraft dropping small bombs on the British ships without scoring any hits but disrupting rescue operations. The rest of the German ships successfully returned to port, largely because of the British flagship being damaged and her signal flags being misunderstood when Lion signaled she was heading to the Northeast and the other British ships took the signal as meaning they should head Northeast to engage the damaged Blücher. When British commander Admiral David Beatty realized the misunderstanding, he attempted to signal his ships to continue pursuit, but his signal flags could not be seen. Too late, the British fleet realized their blunder but by that time the Germans could no longer be caught. British lack of enthusiasm for pursuit was also affected by the fear of being torpedoed by German submarines that were not actually on the scene. In spite of the mix up caused by the signal flags, British Navy ships were still ordered to communicate with each other via signal flag and radio communication was to be conducted by the Admiralty from shore to ships.

Painting of SMS V5 engaging HMS Lion

The Germans had suffered the loss of Blücher and heavy damage to Seydlitz, with 954 killed, 189 captured and 80 men wounded. The battlecruiser Derfflinger also suffered damage from a single British shell, causing the British to believe the ship was much more seriously damaged than she actually was. The British suffered far less, with the battlecruiser Lion out of action along with a single destroyer and only 15 killed and 32 wounded. The British battlecruiser Tiger was also damaged, and this time it was the Germans that erroneously thought that ship had been sunk.. Despite the apparent victory, British naval bosses were incensed at the lost opportunity to have inflicted much greater punishment on the German fleet and Beatty was duly blamed for his failure. Additionally, the Germans had scored 22 hits with major caliber gunfire to a paltry 7 hits by the British big guns, and in spite of the sinking of Blücher the British ships proved more susceptible to battle damage than the German ships. Admiral Hipper was fired and replaced by the German Navy, and the Germans were left believing that their foray had been revealed to the British by a spy, not realizing the part signals intelligence had played in the battle.

The interception of radio traffic between shore and ships was to become a major factor during World War II, with both the Germans and British using the techniques to great effect during the Battle of the Atlantic. In the Pacific, the United States used signals intelligence to enormous effect in defeating the Japanese Imperial Navy, especially at the Battle of Midway.

Hiryū, an aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy, shortly after sunrise on 5 June 1942 before sinking during the Battle of Midway. This photo was taken by Special Service Ensign Kiyoshi Ōniwa from a Yokosuka B4Y off the carrier Hōshō.

Question for students (and subscribers): Did you know radio intelligence played a part in World War I? Have you previously heard of the Battle of Dogger Bank? Do you believe Admiral Hipper deserved to be fired? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

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Historical Evidence

For more information, please see…

The featured image in this article, a map showing British and German ships and movements at the Battle of Dogger Bank, 24 January 1915, from William Oliver Stevens and Allan Westcott, A History of Sea Power (New York: George H Doran Company, 1920), downloaded from Project Gutenberg at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/24797, is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1924. See this page for further explanation.

About Author

Major Dan is a retired veteran of the United States Marine Corps. He served during the Cold War and has traveled to many countries around the world. Prior to his military service, he graduated from Cleveland State University, having majored in sociology. Following his military service, he worked as a police officer eventually earning the rank of captain prior to his retirement.


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