We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
USS Anthony (DD-172/ DM-12)
USS Anthony (DD-172/ DM-12) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a light minelayer from 1920 to 1922, before being decommissioned.
The Anthony was named after William Anthony, a US Marine who was on the battleship USS Maine when she exploded in Havana Harbour on 15 February 1898 and was promoted for his service on that day.
The Anthony was laid down on 18 April 1918, without a name. On 1 August the Clemson class destroyer USS Anthony (DD-266) was renamed the Greene and the unnamed Destroyer No.172 became USS Anthony. She was launched on 10 August 1918 and commissioned on 19 June 1919.
On 7 August 1919 the Anthony took part in a naval review to celebrate the establishment of the United States Pacific Fleet. Between then and 23 November 1919 she operated along the west coast, taking part in a series of further reviews and even briefly carrying secretary of the Navy Daniels. On 23 November 1919 she was placed into the reserve at San Diego, where she remained for the next year and a half.
On 18 March 1920 the Anthony was one of six destroyers to be designated as light minelayers. When the new alphanumeric hull numbers were issued on 17 July 1920 she became DM-12. In June 1921 she moved to Pearl Habor, where she was finally converted into a minelayer. This involved removing her torpedo tubes and installing mine racks that could carry 64-80 mines. She then spent the next year training in her new role. On 1 February 1922 she struck a reef while searching for a mine that she had lost during one of her own exercises, and needed repairs to both screws.
On 30 June 1922 the Anthony was decommissioned at Pearl Harbor. She was never recommissioned, and was struck off on 1 December 1936. She was soon reduced to a hulk, and in April 1937 she was towed back to San Diego. She was then used as a target for fleet gunnery exercises and was sunk by gunfire from the cruiser USS Portland (CA-33) on 22 July 1937.
2 shaft Parsons turbines
2,500nm at 20kts (design)
Armour - belt
Four 4in/ 50 guns
18 April 1918
10 August 1918
19 June 1919
30 June 1922
1 December 1936
Sunk as target
22 July 1937
1812 - Frigate USS Constitution, under the command of Capt. Isaac Hull, escapes a British squadron on a three-day chase off the coast of New Jersey.
1863 - American Civil War, Union blockade: The crew of British 159-register ton sidewheel paddle steamer Raccoon ran her aground on Drunken Dick Shoal near Moultrie House on the coast of South Carolina, after screw sloop-of-war USS Canandaigua intercepted her as she tried to run the Union blockade from Nassau in the Bahamas into Charleston, South Carolina, with a cargo of lead. Broadside ironclad USS New Ironsides shelled her. Raccoon′s crew burned her on 20 July to prevent capture by Union forces.
1915 - The future USS Oklahoma (BB-37), still under construction, was severely damaged by fire at Camden, New Jersey. She was subsequently repaired, completed and commissioned, 2 May 1916.
1918 - While serving with the Sixth Regiment Marines in the vicinity of Vierzy, France, Medical Corps officer Lt. Joel T. Boone twice leaves the shelter of a ravine. Despite extreme enemy fire and heavy gas mist, he applies dressings and first aid to wounded Marines. For his actions on this occasion, he is awarded the Medal of Honor. Boone later attains the rank of vice admiral.
1918 - World War I - USS San Diego (redesignated CA-6 from ACR-6 on 1 Sep 1914) sinks about 8 nm (14 km) SE by S of Fire Island, N.Y., by a mine placed by German submarine (U-156). The cruiser sinks in 28 minutes with the loss of six lives and is the only major warship lost by the U.S. in World War I.
1921 - USAAS pilot 1st Lt. Willard S. Clark is killed at Ellington Field, Texas, when his Orenco D enters a spin at low altitude and plunges to the ground. All aircraft manufactured in this batch are grounded.
1943 - In November 1942, U. S. merchantman Samuel Parker sailed from Puget Sound to Sydney, Australia, via San Pedro. Beginning in March, she had shuttled between ports in the Mediterranean carrying troops and cargo. She previously had been damaged in Tripoli Harbor in April. Parker joined the invasion forces off Sicily and anchored off the Avola beachhead for ten days. During her stay, German aircraft attacked the anchorage nightly. On the night of 19 July, two planes attacked the freighter, straddling her with twelve bombs. One struck the port bow hawsehole and ripped the bulwark. After passing through the bulwark, it exploded. The others fell on either side of the ship and punctured the hull with shrapnel. On 22 July, several more near misses damaged the ship again. In this attack strafing runs by aircraft killed two of the armed guards on board. At least six others in the crew reported injuries. After the attacks the Parker sailed back to Tripoli in Convoy MKS-198 with over 180 holes in the shell plating.
1944 - Boeing B-17G-60-BO Flying Fortress, 42-102937, "Ready Freddie", of the 412th Bomb Squadron, 95th Bomb Group, crashed at RAF Duxford, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, when attempting to buzz the airfield at too low an altitude. The aircraft clipped a hangar and crashed into a barracks block killing all thirteen on board and one person on the ground.
1962 – Test pilot John McKay flew X-15 #2 to test the heating rates, aerodynamic drag and handling qualities of the aircraft, reaching 26,000 meters (85,300 feet) and Mach 5.18. Flight time was 8’23”.
1963 – Test pilot Joe Walker flew X-15 #3 to evaluate a high-angle of attack, ventral off entry and conduct several "piggy-back" experiments using a towed balloon, a horizon scanner, a photometer, an infrared sensor and an ultraviolet sensor. Walker reached 105,760 meters (347,000 feet) and Mach 5.50. Flight time was 11’24”.
1963 - A Mirage IIICJ of the Israel Air Force 101 Squadron, piloted by Joe Aloni (Placek), forced a USAF RB-57 overflying Israel to land at Lod Airport. The RB-57 was released after the US government apologized for a "navigational error".
1979 – Former USS Tiru (SS-416) was sunk as a target 130 nm (240 km) due East of Kill Devil Hills, NC., by USS Silversides (SSN-679).
1981 - Aboard the USS Guam (LPH-9), while operating 50 km SE of Morehead City, North Carolina, a Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter crashes into another CH-53 and a Bell UH-1N Twin Huey upon landing. Four crewmen die and 10 are injured.
Fighting the Fire
1989 - A U.S. Navy McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet from Cecil Field, NAS Jacksonville (now Jacksonville JetPort at Cecil Airport), Florida, loses a 950-pound training bomb over Waldo, Florida. The ordnance narrowly misses home with four inside, bounces off tree, skips over a second home, and impacts in a field where the spotting charge explodes. No one is injured in the incident. Navy spokesman Bert Byers states that the pilot lost track of the bomb after it fell off the jet.
2001 – Former USS Andrew J. Weber (YFP-14A) was sunk as a target some 240 nm (444 km) SE of Guam.
2018 – Former USS McClusky (FFG-41) was sunk during a sinking exercise as part of RIMPAC 201S in waters 15,000 feet deep 55 nautical miles north of Kauai, HI.
Jul 20, 2019 #1462 2019-07-20T00:27
1846 - In the effort to negotiate a treaty with Japan, Commodore James Biddle arrives with ship-of-the-line, USS Columbus, and sloop-of-war, USS Vincennes, at Edo (Yedo), Japan. These are the first U.S. warships to visit Japan.
1861 - American Civil War: Wooden screw gunboat USS Albatross, commanded by Cmdr. G.A. Prentiss, recaptures civilian schooner Enchantress, off Hatteras Inlet. She is previously captured by Confederate privateer, CSS Jefferson Davis, on July 6. Wooden screw steamship USS Mount Vernon, commanded by Oliver S. Glisson, seizes sloop Wild Pigeon, on the Rappahannock River.
1863 - American Civil War: Confederate steamer Colonel Hill (General Hill) was boarded and burned on the Tar River near Tarboro, North Carolina, by men of the 12th New York Cavalry Regiment.
1863 - American Civil War: Confederate sternwheel paddle steamer Governor Morehead was destroyed by Union Army forces in North Carolina in the vicinity of the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers or on the Tar River at Tarboro (sources disagree).
1863 - American Civil War: An incomplete Confederate ironclad, (similar in design to CSS Virginia II) known informally as the "Tar River Ironclad," was captured and destroyed by the 3rd New York Cavalry Regiment while still on the building ways at Tarboro, North Carolina.
1937 – Former USS Sproston (DM-13) was sunk as a target with gunfire off California.
1942 - Adm. William D. Leahy becomes Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Army and the Navy, the precursor to the post of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In Dec. 1944, Leahy is promoted to Fleet Admiral. Fleet Adm. Leahy also dies on this date in 1959.
1943 – Liberty Ship William T. Coleman sailed from Alexandria, Egypt, to Syracuse, Sicily. While anchored in Syracuse Harbor, German aircraft kept the anchorage under continuous attack, and the crew answered about seventy-five air raid alarms. On the 16th, a bomb fell nearby, causing slight structural damage. Four days later in another air raid, a ship tied to the same buoy as Coleman was set on fire by enemy bombs. When the blazing ship began to explode, Coleman's master ordered that the mooring lines be cut. As the ship got under way, she went aground.
Meanwhile, the flaming cargo of a nearby blazing tanker had poured into the water and lay burning for 250 yards around the ship. As the blazing oil approached William T. Coleman, three American Liberty ships swung their sterns toward the burning oil and pushed it back with the wash of their propellers. The blazing ship eventually exploded, lifting Coleman from the water, knocking the crew down, and sending up a great deal of debris. A large piece of a 50-ton lighter landed on Coleman's afterdeck and tore up the deck and steam lines. Thinking the ship had been hit by a bomb, the master ordered the eight officers, thirty-fire men, seven passengers, and twenty-five armed guards on board to abandon the ship. With two boats in the water, the mate realized what had happened and called the boats back. Two men in the crew suffered injuries during the attacks.
1944 - Two North American P-51C Mustangs of Pinellas RTU, III Fighter Command, depart Pinellas Army Air Field (now St. Petersburg–Clearwater International Airport), Florida, at 0700 hrs. EWT on a local gunnery training mission, but instead of flying the briefed mission, the pilots flew to Jacksonville, 180 miles distant, where 2d Lt. John Keane "Jack" Egar, in P-51C-5-NT, 42-103655, descended at
75 feet altitude to buzz his childhood home at 2749 Post Street. He struck two trees and the plane skidded across the street, hit a third tree, several houses and a line of garages.
"The engine went through an apartment building, where, according to the July 21, 1944, edition of The Florida Times-Union, it narrowly missed a married couple and their 9-year-old daughter, before coming to a stop in the middle of Willow Branch Avenue."
Egar's body was found in the wreckage. His wingman, 2d Lt. James R. Cope, apparently jerked on his controls in P-51C-5-NT, 42-103728, to avoid Egar's fighter, the Army report said, and he then hit a different cluster of trees.
"His plane followed a course behind the homes on Post Street before hitting 2865 Post St. That house was demolished by fire and the house next door was gutted by the flames, the report said." Cope was killed, as was Millard E. McGhee, "a 27-year-old shoe store manager, who was in his bathroom shaving when the engine of Cope's plane came through the wall and hit him. According to the report, 18 houses and four apartment buildings sustained some level of damage. So did a dozen garages and eight vehicles. Remarkably, only one civilian was killed. Three others were injured, one seriously." The cause was found to be pilot error and negligence. A commemoration of the accident was held at the crash site on 21 July 2012.
1953 – Former USS PC-463 was sunk as a target some 58 nm (108 km) W by S of Naples, Florida by USS Trutta (SS-421) using an experimental Mk 28 torpedo.
1960 - In the first launch of the Polaris missile, USS George Washington (SSBN-598) successfully fires two operational Polaris missiles while submerged off Florida.
1965 – Test pilot Robert Rushworth flew X-15 #3 on a flight to investigate “boundary layer noise, reaching 32,124 meters (105,400 feet) and Mach 5.40. Flight time is 9’34”.
1967 – Test pilot Bill Dana flew X-15 #3 to investigate “Cold-Wall Heat Transfer, Surface roughness Heat Transfer (Wavey Panel), Boost Guidance Checkout, Horizontal Stabilizer Loads and Upper Vertical Stabilizer Hinge Moment Measurement.” He reached 25,693 meters (84,300 feet) and Mach 5.44. Flight time was 7’37”.
1969 – Apollo 11 lands on the Sea of Tranquility.
1970 – Former USS J. Douglas Blackwood (DE-219) was sunk as a target.
1972 - Lockheed SR-71A, 61-7978, Article 2029, is lost in a landing accident at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa. Pilot Capt. Dennis K. Bush and RSO Jimmy Fagg are unhurt.
1992 - A Bell-Boeing MV-22 Osprey prototype, BuNo 163914, arriving from Eglin AFB, Florida, catches fire and falls into the Potomac River at MCAS Quantico, Virginia, USA, killing 5 crew members in front of an audience of high-ranking US government officials this is the first of a series of fatal accidents involving the controversial tiltrotor aircraft.
1993 - Attempting a night landing aboard USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), operating in the Eastern Indian Ocean, Grumman F-14A-90-GR Tomcat, BuNo 159843, 'NH 111', of VF-213, piloted by Lt. Matthew T. Claar "Planet", first bird in the recovery cycle, drops below approach slope just before reaching fantail, suffers massive ramp strike at 2104:33 hrs. with rear fuselage striking deck and completely disintegrating aft of the wing in huge fireball and pitching airframe up on its nose and skidding along port edge of the angle leaving trail of burning fuel in its wake. Both crew eject in Martin-Baker seats, but only RIO Lt. Dean A. Fuller survives, trajectory into the water off the angle, with minor injuries, recovered by SAR helicopter.
Pilot, who sequenced out first, did so while the airframe was extremely nose-low, landed on deck and died on impact, immediate attempts to resuscitate him were unsuccessful. LSO had repeatedly tried to wave him off, according to CPL Kevin R. Fox, Powerline, VMFA-314 Black Knights, whom the pilot landed right in front of. Through diligent efforts of crew, all fires were extinguished and a ready deck was available for further recoveries in 33 minutes.
2004 - YD-121 was a US Navy 150-foot long crane barge that overturned while under tow in heavy seas in the vicinity of a wildlife refuge in the northwest Hawaiian Islands. The vessel was considered a hazard to navigation and had a substantial prospect of environmental damage to nearby reef structures. She was towed some 350 miles northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, and scuttled at a distance greater than 12 miles offshore, at depths in excess of 12,000 feet.
2012 – Former USNS Kilauea (T-AE-26) was sunk as a target by HMAS Farncomb (SSG-74) about 51 nm (94 km) NNW of Kauai, Hawaii.
Jul 21, 2019 #1463 2019-07-21T01:29
1861 – American Civil War: Gen. Irvin McDowell requests that a balloon be brought to the front at the Battle of First Manassas, Centreville, Virginia. Author Mary Hoehling tells of the sudden appearance of Pennsylvania aeronaut John Wise who demanded that Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe stop his inflating of his balloon "Enterprise" and let him inflate his balloon instead. Wise had legal papers upholding his purported authority.
Although Wise's arrival on the scene was tardy, he did inflate his balloon and proceeded toward the battlefield. On the way the balloon became caught in the brush and was permanently disabled. His balloon became lodged in trees, which eventually tore the fabric. This ended Wise's bid for the position, and Lowe was at last unencumbered from taking up the task as Chief Aeronaut of the U.S. Army. "Lowe helped avoid panic after the First Battle of Manassas by ascending to a height of 3 miles and reporting that no Confederate forces were advancing on Washington."
1862 - Union 393-ton sidewheel paddle steamer Southener was sunk in a collision on the Mississippi River at College Point in St. James Parish, Louisiana.
1862 - American Civil War: Disabled by Confederate artillery fire from Argyle Landing, Mississippi, and Island No. 82 in the Mississippi River, Union troop transport USS Sallie Wood ran aground on Island No. 82 and was abandoned by her passengers and crew under Confederate shelling. Confederate forces then stripped and burned her.
1863 - American Civil War, Union blockade: Confederate 20-ton schooner Revenge, carrying a cargo of sugar, hides, and mineral salts, was captured and destroyed at Sabine Pass in Louisiana several miles above the Calcasieu Pass Bar by boat crews from gunboats USS Cayuga and USS Owasco.
1864 – American Civil War: Union Army 443-ton sidewheel transport B. M. Runyon struck a snag and sank in the Mississippi River at the foot of Island No 84 near Skipwith's Landing, Mississippi, and Gaines Landing, Arkansas, with the loss of about 70 to 150 men.
1905 - USS Bennington (Gunboat No. 4) is wrecked by a boiler explosion at San Diego, Calif. One officer and 65 enlisted men die in the explosion, along with numerous crew injuries.
USS Bennington Gunboat No. 4)
1917 - World War I: U. S. four-masted schooner Augustus Welt was sunk in the Atlantic, 130 nm (240 km) south west of Ouessant, Finistère, France by SM UC-17. Her crew survived.
1917 - World War I: American four-masted schooner John Twohy was sunk in the Atlantic, 120 nm (220 km) south of the Azores by SM U-155. Her crew survived.
1918 - World War I: SM U-156 surfaces and fires on U.S. tugboat Perth Amboy and barges 703 (ex-schooner Bellewood), 740 (ex-schooner), 766 and Landsford, three miles off Nauset Beach, Cape Cod, Mass.
1936 - Northrop XFT-2, BuNo 9400, c/n 43, (XFT-1 modified with engine change and smaller fuel capacity), to NAS Anacostia (now Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling), Washington, D.C. in April 1936 for tests. Finding the design to be non-airworthy, the Navy orders that it be returned to Northrop.
Ignoring instructions to ship it to Northrop's El Segundo factory, a test pilot attempts to fly the XFT-2 back to California, the aircraft entering a spin and crashing while crossing the Allegheny Mountains this date. "Northrop's test pilot arrived at Anacostia to retrieve the XFT-2 and was told of the grounding order. This applied also to any ferry flights – the plane was simply too unstable to be safely flown – and arrangements were to be made for other means of transport back to the factory. However, the pilot had been sent to fly the plane back and it was his intent to do so. Somehow, he succeeded in gaining access to the fighter one July morning in 1936 and took off into the predawn darkness. The XFT project was terminated a couple of hours later when a combination of turbulence over the Alleghenies and the little fighter's propensity to spin planted the aircraft in a Pennsylvania farmyard. The daring test pilot recovered from his injuries, and Northrop squared with the Navy by reimbursing them for the entire expense of the XFT program." Contract closed out in November 1936. Joe Baugher cites crash date of July 1937.
1942 – U. S. merchantman Coast Farmer was torpedoed by I-11 while en route from Sydney to Melbourne, Australia. As the ship maintained a non-evasive course some 79 nm (146 km) S by W of Sydney, lookouts spotted the track of a torpedo on the port beam. The torpedo struck amidships and sent a sheet of water over the bridge, blew off the #3 hatch cover, and shattered steam lines. The explosion was so severe that the port side of the vessel amidships disappeared. The blast also disabled the radio equipment, preventing the radio operator from sending a distress signal. The master ordered the survivors among the nine officers, twenty-seven men, and five armed guards to abandon ship ten minutes after the explosion. Thirty-eight men escaped in a lifeboat, and two others dove overboard and climbed onto a raft. One man perished in the fireroom. A Royal Australian Air Force crash boat picked up the survivors ten hours later and landed them at Jarvis Bay.
1942 - Liberty ship William Cullen Bryant sailed from Hilo, Hawaii, to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a convoy. On 17 July, she departed Guantanamo, Cuba, in Convoy TAW-4J. When some 36 nm (68 km) SW of Key West, FL., lookouts spotted the track of a torpedo fired by U-84 pass across the ship's bow. Moments later a second torpedo struck the #1 hold nineteen feet below the waterline on the starboard side. The explosion opened a hole about eight feet in diameter, and the plates beneath the midships house buckled upwards. The ten officers, thirty men, twelve armed guards, and two Navy signalmen on board abandoned ship and then returned an hour and forty-five minutes later. Salvage tugs Moran and USS Willet (ARS-12) towed the freighter to Key West. She arrived at Key West on the 23rd, and tugs later towed her to Tampa. She returned to service in 1944. All hands survived the attack.
1944 - Three US Army Air Force Douglas C-47s (42-100712, 42-92115, and 43-30664) disappear while flying at 500 feet over the Atlantic Ocean. The three aircraft lost radio contact with the squadron leader and flew into a storm.
Lost aboard 42-100712 were: 1Lt. William E. Bechelm, Jr., of Illinois, 2Lt. Oakes M. Colwell of New Jersey, 2Lt. Donald W. Copeland of Iowa, Sergeant Leo C. Fair of Louisiana, and Sergeant Edward G. Hillman of Pennsylvania.
Lost aboard 42-92115 were: 1Lt. Chris C. Nicorvo of New Jersey, 2Lt. Junior R. Davidson of Oklahoma, Flight Officer James M. Crew of Alabama, Staff Sergeant Fred J. Carini of Pennsylvania, and Sergeant Frank E. Sherwood of New York.
Lost aboard 43-30664 were: Captain Robert J. Miskell of Ohio, 2Lt. Milton J. Verberg of Michigan, 2Lt. Walter H. Zuidema (origin unknown), Corporal Roger O. Weston of Massachusetts, and Sergeant Ben L. Dean of Texas.
1944 - Following landing on Guam’s Asan-Adelup Beachhead, Pfc. Luther Skaggs, Jr., takes command of his squad, leading his men to a position to provide fire support for the Marine assault. Severely wounded that night when Japanese forces counter-attack, he fights on for many hours, until enemy opposition was suppressed. For his "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity" on this occasion, Skaggs was awarded the Medal of Honor.
1946 - In the first U.S. test of jet aircraft to shipboard operations, an XFD-1 Phantom piloted by Lt. Cmdr. James Davidson makes landings and takeoffs without catapults from USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVB-42).
1948 - A United States Air Force Boeing B-29-100-BW Superfortress, 45-21847, modified into a Boeing F-13 Superfortress reconnaissance platform, crashes into Lake Mead, Nevada, during a classified cosmic ray research mission out of Armitage Field, Naval Air Facility, Naval Ordnance Test Station (now Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake), Inyokern, California. Five crew escape unharmed before bomber sinks.
B-29 crash, Lake Mead
1953 - Two Chinese MiGs damaged a US Navy PBM-5 Mariner in an attack that took place over the Yellow Sea.
1958 - 1st Lt. Charles "Bud" Rogers has to eject from his North American F-86L Sabre, 52-10134, after it catches on fire during an engineering test flight near Walsh, Illinois. He is uninjured.
1966 – Test pilot Pete Knight flew the X-15A-2 on a pilot familiarization flight and to check out a star tracker, window fogging, and the ablative coatings. He reached 58,610 meters (192,300 feet) and Mach 5.12. Flight time was 8’51”.
1976 – Former USS Chopper (IXSS-342) was being used off Cape Hatteras, NC., as a tethered, submerged torpedo target for USS Spadefish (SSN-668). While Spadefish was on her final approach, Chopper began to take on water, broke her tethers and sank.
1998 – Former USS Somers (DDG-34) was used as a target and fired on by B-52s launching AGM-142 missiles. She was finally sunk 71 nm (133 km) W by N of Kauai, Hawaii by charges placed by an EOD team.
2003 – Former USS Dixon (AS-37) was sunk as a target some 317 nm (588 km) E by S of Charleston, SC.
2003 – Former USS Samuel Gompers (AD-37) and former USS Seneca (ATF-91) were sunk as targets about 322 nm (596 km) E by S of Charleston, SC.
2004 - Two US Marine Corps McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornets of VMFA-134, 3rd Marine Air Wing, based at MCAS Miramar, California, suffer mid-air collision over the Columbia River, 120 miles (190 km) E of Portland, Oregon, shortly after 1430 hrs., killing Marine Reservists Maj. Gary R. Fullerton, 36, of Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Capt. Jeffrey L. Ross, 36, of Old Hickory, Tennessee in F/A-18B, BuNo 162870, 'MF-00', coming down in the river. Maj. Craig Barden, 38, ejects from F/A-18A, BuNo 163097, 'MF-04', landing nearby on a hillside W of Arlington, Oregon, and is taken to Mid-Columbia Medical Center in The Dalles, suffering minor injuries. All three crew eject but only two parachutes open. The fighters were on their way to the Boardman Air Force Range (also known as Naval Weapons Systems Training Facility Boardman), where the Oregon Air National Guard trains, when they collided, said one spokesman. Another spokesman told the Associated Press that the aircraft were on a low-altitude training exercise.
2004 – Former USS Decatur (DDG-31) was sunk as a target in RimPac 2004, 47 nm (87 km) NNW of Kauai, Hawaii.
2008 - U.S. Air Force Boeing B-52H Stratofortress, 60-0053, "Louisiana Fire", crashed into the Pacific Ocean approximately 25 nautical miles (46 km) northwest of Apra Harbor, Guam, after taking off from Andersen Air Force Base. The aircraft was about to participate in a flyover for the Liberation Day parade in Hagåtña when it crashed at 9:45 AM ChST (2345 UTC), 15 minutes before the parade was scheduled to start. There were no survivors.
2009 - A United States Navy Sikorsky HH-60H 163790 crashed on a training flight at Fort Pickett, Blackstone, Virginia, United States minor injuries only.
Jul 21, 2019 #1464 2019-07-21T22:35
1802 - During the First Barbary War, frigate USS Constellation, commanded by Capt. Alexander Murray, defeats nine Corsair gunboats off Tripoli and sinks two.
1861 – American Civil War: An unknown Union vessel was captured by merchant raider CSS Florida. Ran it aground at Nag's Head, NC., to prevent its recapture by a Union ship.
1937 – Former USS Anthony (DM-12) was sunk as a target off California by gunfire from USS Portland (CA-33).
1942 – Liberty Ship William Dawes departed on a coastwise trip from Adelaide to Brisbane, Australia. When some 9 nm (16 km) ESE of Tathra, New South Wales, about halfway through the journey, lookouts spotted the I-24 surface 200 yards from the ship. Seconds later a torpedo struck the after magazine, and the resulting explosion tore the whole stem off the ship and instantly flooded the engine room. The armed guard contingent could not fire on the submarine because the after gun had disappeared and the forward gun would not bear on I-24.
At 0602 the ship's complement of eight officers, thirty-two men, and fifteen armed guards, as well as five Army passengers, abandoned ship in four lifeboats and two rafts. Four of the armed guards and one of the Army detail died in the initial explosion. Two hours after the first torpedo struck, I-24 placed another torpedo into the ship just aft of the amidships. William Dawes began to burn fiercely and sank the next day. The survivors had remained near Dawes until the second torpedo hit the ship. Realizing the vessel could not be saved, they rowed to land, and local fishing vessels towed the boats the final few miles.
1942- American merchantman Honolulan sailed from Cape Town, South Africa, to Baltimore, Maryland, via Trinidad. In the mid-Pacific, some 773 nm (1,430 km) W by S of Clipperton Island, U-582 sighted the ship on a non-evasive course and fired a torpedo that struck the starboard side at the #5 hatch and fatally wounded the ship. With the steam whistle jammed, the radio operator sent distress signals as the ship rapidly sank. Most of the crew of eleven officers and twenty-eight men abandoned ship in three lifeboats. The master, the first mate, and the radio operator stayed behind until a second torpedo struck the ship between the #2 and #3 hatch at 1628. With the decks awash, these men jumped into the water to be picked up by one of the boats. With the whistle still blowing, the freighter slipped beneath the water at 1830. The crew of U-582 offered the men cigarettes and asked about the ship and her cargo before the U-boat disappeared southward over the horizon. British MY Winchester Castle rescued the entire complement six days later and landed them in New York. This included an extra man found by the crew floating on a hatch board on the second day out.
1943 - On 19 July, U. S. tanker Cherry Valley sailed on independent routing from New York to Aruba, NWI. The ship constantly steered a zigzagging course during the trip. When some 264 nm (489 km) NE by E of Grand Turk Island, U-66 fired two torpedoes that struck the starboard side in the #6 and #7 tanks. The explosions ripped open the #5, #6, #7, and #8 starboard and center tanks. The engines and steering gear escaped serious damage, so the ship reduced speed to thirteen knots and tried to escape. U-66 fired another spread of three torpedoes that all missed. The U-boat then surfaced to stop the vessel with its deck guns. The tanker's gun crew began firing the three-inch, five-inch, and smaller guns at U-66. The master adjusted the tanker's trim by emptying the # 1 starboard tank of ballast. The vessel successfully escaped the U-boat and arrived at San Juan, Puerto Rico, under her own power, escorted into harbor by Dutch corvette Jan Van Brakel. None of the complement of eleven officers, forty men, and twenty-eight armed guards were killed or injured in the attack.
1951 - During the Korean War, USS Valley Forge (CV-45) air strikes hit a fuel or an ammunition train near Kumchon, North Korea.
1964 - Four Navy divers (Lt. Cmdr. Robert Thompson, Gunners Mate First Class Lester Anderson, Chief Quartermaster Robert A. Barth, and Chief Hospital Corpsman Sanders Manning) submerge in Sealab I at a depth of 192 feet, 39 miles off Hamilton, Bermuda for an intended three weeks. The crew surfaces early on July 31 due to an oncoming tropical storm.
1992 - Two soldiers from Fort Carson, Colorado, manage to avoid being killed when their U.S. Army McDonnell-Douglas AH-64 Apache crashes into the side of the north peak of 12,300 foot Almagre Mountain, known as "Mount Baldy", S of Pikes Peak. Chief Warrant Officers Douglas Mohr and David Reaves are on a routine training mission when their attack helicopter impacts several hundred feet below the crest in steep, rocky terrain. Fuel on the Apache ignited shortly after impact, burning a 30-square yard area but didn't spread because the area was mostly rock. How the crew escaped before the fire was unknown.
1997 – Former USS Stoddard (DD-566) was sunk as a target by charges placed by Seal Team One, some 64 nm (119 km) NNW of Kauai, Hawaii.
1998 – Former USS Badger (FF-1071) was sunk as a target 63 nm (117 km) NW of Kauai, Hawaii.
2006 – Former USS Thorn (DD-988) was sunk as a target some 245 nm (454 km) E by N of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, NC.
Jul 23, 2019 #1465 2019-07-23T00:29
1864 - American Civil War: Union Army transport B. M. Runyan, carrying about 500 Army and civilian personnel, sank after striking a snag in the Mississippi River near Skipwith's Landing, Mississippi, about 12 mi (19 km) upstream from Lake Providence, LA. Sternwheel paddle steamer USS Prairie Bird rescued about 350 survivors.
1864 - American Civil War: Union-chartered 200-ton sidewheel steamer Kingston, out of Philadelphia, carrying twelve men and two women, was captured and burned by forty Confederates after grounding near Smith's Point on the Virginia shore of Chesapeake Bay on the Diamond Marshes.
1941 - While deployed to Alpena, Michigan, for a gunnery exercise, Lt. James R. Taylor of the 71st Pursuit Squadron, flying Lockheed YP-38 Lightning, 39-695, of the 27th Pursuit Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, suffers a port engine fire on takeoff from Selfridge Field (now Selfridge Air National Guard Base, Harrison Township, Michigan) which causes his fighter to strike pine trees. The pilot dies of his injuries a few days later. 71st FS history incorrectly lists accident date as 11 May 1941.
1942 – American cargo ship Onondaga was torpedoed five miles north of Cayo Guillermo while en route from Nuevitas, Cuba, to Havana. The ship proceeded along a non-evasive course, until a torpedo fired by U-129 struck the port side amidships. The ship sank in one minute, forcing the eight officers, twenty-five crewmen, and the one passenger to abandon the ship by jumping overboard. The survivors swam to two rafts that had floated free of the ship. Six officers and thirteen men perished. The passenger, the master of the torpedoed Thomas McKean, also died. Cuban fishing boat Laventina, picked up the fourteen survivors the next morning and took them to Punta San Juan, Cuba.
1944 – On 19 July, Liberty Ship William Gaston sailed independently from Buenos Aires for Baltimore, Maryland. In heavy seas, 150 nm (279 km) ENE of Florianopolis, Brazil, U-861 fired a torpedo that struck the starboard side between the #4 and #5 holds. The explosion blew through the port side, knocked off the #5 hatch cover, ruptured steam lines and blasted corn all over the deck. About fifteen minutes later, a second torpedo hit just forward of the stern post. This caused the ship to roll over and sink stern first about three minutes later. The complement of eight officers, thirty-three men, and twenty-six armed guards had begun to abandon ship when the second torpedo struck. Heavy seas destroyed the #1 boat as it went into the water. The crew successfully launched the other three boats and a raft.
A plane later spotted some wreckage and the boats, and at 2000 on 25 July, USS Matagorda (AVP-22) rescued the survivors, saving all hands. They landed in Florianopolis the same day.
1944 - Two Curtiss RA-25A Shrikes, of the 4134th Base Unit, Spokane Army Airfield (now Fairchild AFB), collide in flight while participating in a flypast for an air show near Spokane, Washington. Part of a three-plane formation, the left-hand aircraft collided with the middle plane during a turn, both crashing into a valley. Pilot 2nd Lt. George E. Chrep and engineer-rated passenger Sgt. Joseph M. Revinskas were killed in the crash of 42-79804, while pilot 2nd Lt. William R. Scott and passenger Captain Ford K. Sayre, a noted snow skier on the east coast, were killed in the crash of 42-79826. A Paramount Pictures newsreel crew caught the accident on film, which was examined by the crash investigation board for clues to the accident. This footage was later incorporated into the 1956 film Earth vs. the Flying Saucers.
1950 - USS Boxer (CV-21) sets the record of crossing the Pacific, bringing aircraft, troops and supplies for the Korean War, arriving at Yokosuka, Japan. She carries a load of 145 P-51 and six L-5 Air Force aircraft, 19 Navy aircraft, 1,012 passengers and 2,000 tons of additional cargo, all urgently needed for operations in Korea. In making this delivery, Boxer breaks all existing records for a Pacific crossing, steaming from Alameda, Calif., to Yokosuka in 8 days and 16 hours. On her return trip to the U.S. on July 27, she cuts the time down to seven days, ten hours and 36 minutes.
1956 – Test pilot Frank Everest reached 20,802 meters (68,251 feet) and Mach 2.87 in the ninth powered flight of the X-2.
1968 – Former USCG Mackinac (WHEC-371) was sunk as a target under fire from four ships –
USS Newport News (CA-148),
USS Springfield (CLG-7),
USS King (DLG-10), and
USS New (DD-818) – and despite King 's first Terrier missile scoring a direct hit, Mackinac proved hard to sink, and her hull remained largely intact as she slipped beneath the waves 139 nm (258 km) E by S of Virginia Beach, VA.
1988 – Former USS Jonas Ingram (DD-938) was sunk as a target in the first live fire test of the Mark 48 ADCAP torpedo.
1994 - A U.S. Navy North American T-2C Buckeye, BuNo 157051, '0601', of VT-19, based at NAS Meridian, Mississippi, crashed at 1355 hrs. shortly after take-off from NAS Oceana, Virginia, impacting in a wooded area several hundred yards past the runway, with both crew ejecting before the crash. The student was injured but the instructor pilot died.
2017 - After a two-year restoration at historic Dry Dock 1 at Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston National Historical Park, America's oldest commissioned warship, USS Constitution is refloated. Since entering dry dock on May 18, 2015, ship restorers from the Naval History and Heritage Command Detachment Boston, and teams of Constitution Sailors have worked to bring Old Ironsides back to her glory.
Jul 24, 2019 #1466 2019-07-24T03:17
1861 - American Civil War, Union blockade: An expedition consisting of sailors in five launches from steam frigate USS Minnesota and armed tug USS Resolute and 300 Union Army soldiers aboard vessel Fanny, burned nine or ten schooners and sloops in the Back River in Virginia.
1864 - American Civil War, Union blockade: After her capture by Confederate privateer York in the North Atlantic, 110 nm (200 km) east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, during a voyage from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Havana, Cuba, with a cargo of potatoes, a complete sugar mill, and three large iron tanks, Union brig B. T. Martin was beached by her Confederate prize crew on the coast of North Carolina near Chicamacomico (now Rodanthe). The Confederates were still stripping the ship and removing her cargo when armed screw steamer USS Union approached on 28 July, prompting them to burn their prize to prevent Union from recapturing her.
1864 - American Civil War: Union 200-ton sidewheel paddle steamer Clara Bell (or Clarabell) was damaged by Confederate States Army artillery fire on the White River, then was run onto the riverbank at Caroline Landing, Mississippi (near Vicksburg?), and finally burned after being set afire by more artillery fire when Confederate forces pursued her to Louisiana Bend on the Mississippi River.
1864 - American Civil War: Union 200-ton sidewheel paddle steamer Kingston ran aground on the Virginia shore of the Chesapeake Bay in the Diamond Marshes between Smith Point and Windmill Point, VA., and was captured and burned by Confederate guerrillas.
1894 - A party of 50 Marines and Sailors under Marine Corps Capt. George Fielding Elliott, is sent from the cruiser, USS Baltimore (C 3), to guard the American delegation at Seoul, Korea, during the Sino-Japanese War.
1945 - Major Paul A. Conger bails out of Bell TP-63A Kingcobra, 42-69054, built as a P-63A-6-BE, of the 234th CCTS, Clovis AAF (now Cannon Air Force Base), New Mexico, after wing failure, craft impacting 3 miles W of Clovis.
"Major Paul Conger, 27-year-old Army pilot and grandson of Joe Majors, retired Santa Fe employee in San Bernardino, miraculously escaped death last week in New Mexico when his plane crashed after a wing ripped off during a flight. The young flyer, veteran of 160 missions during 28 months service in the European theater, parachuted to safety, although he was seriously injured, according to word received by Mr. Majors from Major Conger's wife. Major Conger has been serving as an instructor at Clovis Army Airfield, N. M. The son of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Conger, former San Bernardino residents and now of Piedmont, the young major was credited with destroying 186 enemy planes during his service in the European theater. [Conger is credited with 11.5 kills with the 56th Fighter Group. - Ed.] His wife reported that the accident which resulted in serious burns and bruises for Major Conger occurred last week when he was diving his plane from an altitude of 10,000 feet. At 1,500 feet, a wing came off and tore through the canopy. Despite his serious injuries, Major Conger somehow got his parachute open and landed safely. He was rushed to a hospital where he is believed recovering."
1970 - U.S. Air Force McDonnell Douglas F-4C-20-MC Phantom II, 63-7609, crashes SE of McNeal, Arizona.
1988 – Former USS Rankin (AKA-103) was sunk as an artificial fishing and diving reef, six miles off the coast of Stuart, Florida.
1997 – Former USS Arcturus (AF-52) was sunk as a target by gunfire from USS Cole (DDG-67), 151 nm (281 km) ESE of Virginia Beach, VA.
Jul 25, 2019 #1467 2019-07-25T01:14
1863 - American Civil War: Confederate 338-ton sidewheel paddle steamer H. D. Mears (or Meares) was scuttled by Confederate forces in the Sunflower River near Yazoo City, Mississippi, to prevent capture by United States Navy forces.
1864 - Carrying a cargo of corn for the Northwestern Indian Expedition, Union 139-ton sternwheel paddle steamer Island City struck a snag and sank in the Missouri River across from Fort Buford in Dakota Territory.
(Poster’s Note: While this isn’t associated with the Civil War, I just found this entry interesting that a paddle steamer of that era could make it that far up the Missouri. Island City sank either two or five miles downstream from the modern-day Montana/North Dakota state line, depending on exactly where she went down. From what I’ve read, later paddle steamers were built special with shallow draft for the rivers out west.)
1864 - American Civil War: Tinclad sternwheel paddle steamer USS Undine struck a snag and sank in the Tennessee River near Clifton, Tennessee. She was refloated on 31 July, repaired and returned to service.
1898 - During the Spanish-American War, a landing party from the armed yacht, USS Gloucester, single-handedly captures Guanica, Puerto Rico.
1915 - World War I: American cargo ship Leelanaw was sunk in the North Sea, 60 nm (110 km) north west of the Orkney Islands by SM U-41. After allowing her 29-man crew to disembark, the ship was sunk and her crew taken close to shore off the Orkneys, where they made shore in their ship's lifeboats.
1917 - World War I: U. S. cargo ship Tippecanoe was sunk in the Atlantic Ocean 550 nm (1,020 km) off Brest, France by SM U-91 with the loss of one of her crew.
1933 - March Field (now March Air Reserve Base), California, suffers its worst accident to date when Sikorsky C-6A amphibian, 30-399, of the 64th Service Squadron, en route from Riverside to Rockwell Field (now NAS North Island), San Diego, sheds the starboard wing in flight when a wing strut fails and crashes in a hollow on the edge of the city limits of Oceanside, killing all seven aboard. Although the wreckage and mangled bodies are drenched in gasoline after the crash, the pilot apparently shut off the switches before impact and there is no fire.
Dead are pilot Lt. Carl H. Murray, 29, of Filer, Idaho, attached to the 17th Pursuit Group headquarters at March Field Sgts. Archie W. Snodgrass, San Antonio, Texas, and Bonnell L. Herrick, Warsaw, Indiana Cpl. Walter T. Taylor, Los Angeles Pvts. Stanley Book, Detroit, Michigan, Albert Overend, Coronado, California, and Vincent J. Galdin, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
The flight departed March at 1140 hrs. and was sighted over Oceanside a half hour later at an altitude of 3,000 feet when the wing tore loose. The separated wing floated down a half mile from the main wreck which impacted in the pasture of the N. W. Glasco property. March Field investigators "said that they believed the wing had broken off in such a manner that it blocked the hatchway and imprisoned the passengers within. Apparently, none of them had attempted to use their parachutes." As a result of this accident, all remaining USAAC C-6s and C-6As are withdrawn from use and scrapped.
1936 - USS Smith Thompson (DD-212) was scuttled off Subic Bay, Philippines after colliding with USS Whipple (DD-217) 14 April. There were no fatalities in the collision.
1944 - On 16 July, U. S. merchantman Robin Goodfellow sailed from Cape Town, South Africa, to New York. In the mid-Atlantic, some 540 nm (1,000 km) WSW of St. Helena Island, U-862 torpedoed the ship. Steamer Priam received the distress signal, but none of the crew of eight officers, thirty-three men, and twenty-seven armed guards survived the attack.
1944 – Liberty Ship David Starr Jordan sailed from Southampton, England, to Utah Beach, France. In overcast skies, while the vessel was anchored off the beach, high level enemy bombers attacked the anchorage. The vessel was bombed and strafed and suffered damage from several near misses. Numerous hits over the length of the ship, however, left her only slightly damaged. The ship's complement was nine officers, thirty-four men, and twenty-six armed guards. In addition, the ship had on board 500 U.S. troops. The bombs killed two soldiers and wounded thirteen other men.
1946 – Former USS Saratoga (CV-3) was sunk at Bikini Atoll during Shot Baker of Operation Crossroads. The bomb exploded 450 yards distant, abeam on the ship’s starboard side.
1946 – Former USS Arkansas (BB-33) the bomb exploded 170 yards distant, abeam on the ship’s starboard side.
1946 – Former USS Apogon (SS-308) the bomb exploded 850 yards distant, broad on the port bow.
1946 – Former USS Skipjack (SS-184) the bomb exploded 800 yards distant, one point forward of the port beam. Skipjack was later raised and sunk again as a target 11 August 1948.
1946 – Former USS Pilotfish (SS-386) the bomb exploded 363 yards distant, one point on the port quarter. Some sources say Pilotfish was later raised and sunk at Eniwetok on 16 October 1948, while others say she sank at Bikini because of the test.
1946 – Former YON-160 the bomb exploded 520 yards distant, two points on the port quarter.
1946 – Former LSM-60 the 23kt Mk III device was suspended 90 feet directly below the landing craft. No trace of her was ever found.
1946 – The following decommissioned landing craft were also sunk at Shot Baker: LCM-4, LCT-1114, LCT-1175, LCVP-10.
1947 - First (of two) North American XP-82 Twin Mustangs, 44-83886, c/n 120-43742, of the 611 AAF Base Unit, crash lands at Eglin Field (now Eglin Air Force Base), Florida.
1948 - A Douglas C-47B-15-DK Skytrain, 43-49534, c/n 15350/26795, participating in the Berlin Airlift, departs Wiesbaden Air Base, Germany, strikes apartment building on approach to Berlin and crashes in the street, killing both crew, 1 st Lt. Charles H. King, and 1 st Lt. Robert W. Stuber.
1949 – Test pilot Frank Everest reached 20,388 meters (66,893 feet) in Bell X-1 #1.
1956 - USS Edward H. Allen (DE-531) and USNS Private H. Thomas (AP-185) rescue more than 200 passengers from Andrea Doria and transport them to New York after the Italian liner collides with Swedish cruiser Stockholm off Nantucket on the New England coast. Forty-six people died from the collision, but 1,600 passengers and crew are saved.
1962 - The third launch attempt of a nuclear warhead in Operation Fishbowl, as part of Operation Dominic, aboard an Douglas SM-75 Thor IRBM, 58-2291, vehicle number 180, from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, named Bluegill Prime, after the 2 June 1962 failure of the first attempt, Bluegill, also fails when, due to a sticking valve, the Thor missile malfunctions after ignition of the rocket engine, but before leaving the launch pad. The range safety officer destroys the nuclear warhead by radio command with the missile still on the launch pad.
The vehicle then explodes, causing extensive damage in the area of the launch pad. Although there was no danger of an accidental nuclear explosion, the destruction of the nuclear warhead on the pad causes extensive contamination of the area by alpha-emitting radioactive materials. Burning rocket fuel, flowing through the cable trenches, causes extensive chemical contamination of the trenches and the equipment associated with the cabling in the trenches. The radiation contamination on Johnston Island is determined to be a major problem, and it is necessary to decontaminate the entire area before the badly damaged launch pad can be rebuilt. Further launch operations will not resume until 15 October 1962. Although, by definition, this qualifies as a Broken Arrow incident, this test is rarely included in lists of such mishaps.
1990 - USS Cimarron (AO-177) rescues 25 refugees adrift southeast of Subic Bay, Philippines.
Jul 25, 2019 #1468 2019-07-25T23:16
1812 - Sailing frigate USS Essex captures brig HMS Leander, off Newfoundland. Engaging British vessels the following week, USS Essex burns the brig, HMS Hero, and captures the ship, Nancy, also off Newfoundland on August 2.
1862 - American Civil War: Confederate forces boarded and burned Union schooner Louisa Reed either on the James River in Virginia or on the lower Potomac River. Sloop-of-war USS Wachusett discovered her wreck on 26 July, and her boarding and burning may have occurred earlier.
1912 - The first tests of an airborne wireless are conducted near Annapolis, Md. using the Wright (B-1) piloted by Lt. John Rodgers. On one flight, Ensign Charles H. Maddox, who is giving technical assistance to the aviators, sends messages to USS Stringham (TB-19), one and a half miles distant.
1946 - The crash of a Stinson L-5E Sentinel, 44-17844, during a routine flight out of Eglin Field (now Eglin AFB), Florida, kills Capt. Russell H. Rothman, originally of Chicago, Illinois, when the liaison aircraft crashes 17 miles NW of Valparaiso, Florida. Rothman, who entered the service 16 September 1941 and had flown 800 hours in C-46 Commando and C-47 Skytrain transports in the European Theatre of Operations, had only recently been appointed to a regular commission in the Regular Army. He held the Unit Citation, the Air Medal with three clusters, the European and Middle East Theatre of Operations Ribbon, the American Defense Ribbon and the World War II Victory Medal.
1947 - USMC 1st Lt. Leonard Smith, 25, of South Gate, California, is killed in the crash of a U.S. Navy Corsair while landing at the Seal Beach ammunition depot (now Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach), officers at NAS Los Alamitos (now Joint Forces Training Base - Los Alamitos) reported. There was no explosion.
1948 - President Harry S. Truman signs Executive Order 9981, desegregating the Armed Services.
1954 - Lieutenant Floyd C. Nugent suffers landing gear problem in Vought F7U-3 Cutlass, BuNo 129552, of FASRON-2, aims jet out to sea and ejects, "only to watch the Cutlass, loaded with 2.75-inch rockets, fly serenely on, orbiting San Diego’s North Island and the Hotel Del Coronado for almost 30 minutes before ditching near the shore."
1954 - Two US Navy AD-4 Skyraiders from VF-54, piloted by William Alexander and John Zarious, were launched from USS Philippine Sea (CVA-47) to look for survivors from the Cathay Pacific DC-4 shot down four days previously. They were attacked by two Chinese La-7 Fins. Other VF-54 AD-4 Skyraiders and a F4U-5N Corsair of VC-3 came to the aid of the USN aircraft. One La-7 was shot down by AD-4 pilots Roy Tatham and Richard Cooks. The other LA-7 was shot down by AD-4 pilots John Damien, John Rochford, Paul Wahlstrom and Richard Ribble and the F4U-5N pilot Edgar Salsig. A Chinese gunboat also fired upon the US aircraft, but no damage was sustained.
1958 - A US Air Force RB-47, flying from Iran, was intercepted by Soviet fighters over the Caspian Sea 130 miles east-southeast of Astara. The RB-47 evaded the fighters and fled to safety.
1958 - United States Air Force test-pilot Iven Carl Kincheloe, Jr. is killed in unsuccessful ejection attempt after the engine of his Lockheed F-104A-15-LO Starfighter, 56-0772, fails during takeoff at Edwards Air Force Base, California. This aircraft was equipped with an improved Stanley Type C ejection seat. With the Starfighter well below 2,000 feet (610 meters), Kincheloe apparently thought that he needed to roll the airplane inverted before ejecting. This was not necessary and delayed his escape. By the time he had separated from the seat and could open his parachute, he was below 500 feet (152 meters). The parachute did open, but too late. Iven Kincheloe was killed on impact. His airplane crashed into the desert floor just over 9 miles (14.5 kilometers) from the west end of Runway 22 and was destroyed. Today, a large crater scattered with fragments of Kincheloe’s F-104 is still clearly visible.
(Poster’s Note: It may have been clearly visible from the ground when this source was published, but I did a Google search and tried to find the crater on Google Earth no joy.)
While flying a Bell X-2, Kincheloe became the first man to exceed 100,000 ft (30,500 m) of altitude, and he is often credited as the first man to enter outer space. Kinross Air Force Base, Michigan was renamed Kincheloe Air Force Base in September 1959. It’s now the Chippewa County International Airport.
1959 - Vought F8U-1 Crusader, BuNo 143696, from VMF-122, MAG-32, MCAS Beaufort, South Carolina, was passing through 47,000 feet (14,000 m) when the engine seized. The ram air turbine did not deploy and the pilot lost control of the aircraft causing him to eject from that altitude. Lt. Col. William H. Rankin, then commanding officer of the squadron earned a place in the Guinness Book of Records by surviving the longest recorded parachute descent in history. Leader of a flight of two aircraft, the second piloted by Lt. Herbert Nolan, he had ejected into a violent thunderstorm over the South Carolina coast which caused his descent to last 40 minutes vice the expected 11 minutes, finally coming down in North Carolina, near Ahoskie. In 1960 he published his account of the experience in a book, "The Man Who Rode the Thunder".
1962 – Test pilot Neil Armstrong flew X-15 #1 to check out aerodynamic stability and drag, plus handling qualities of the aircraft. He reached 30,143 meters (98,900 feet) and Mach 5.74. Flight time was 10’26”. Cockpit smoke was reported by the pilot, no details given.
Jul 27, 2019 #1469 2019-07-27T01:47
1776 - During the American Revolution, Continental brig Reprisal, commanded by Capt. Lambert Wickes, transports the newly appointed commercial and naval agent, William Bingham, to Martinique. While en route, British sloop-of-war HMS Shark, approaches the brig at the entrance to St. Pierre Harbor. After a sharp encounter and inconclusive action, HMS Shark withdraws and Reprisal enters port.
1862 – American Civil War: Sidewheel steamer USS Yankee, commanded by William Gibson, and sidewheel tug USS Satellite, commanded by Master Amos Foster, capture schooner J.W. Sturges in Chippoak Creek, Va.
1917 - Construction of the Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia is ordered to produce enough aircraft for Americas entry into World War I. The factory also introduces women into occupations that were previously only open to men. Following the war, the factory tests and manufactures aircraft to review costs and effectiveness. During the later stages of World War II, the aircraft factory is disestablished.
1917 - World War I: American auxiliary schooner Carmela was scuttled in the Atlantic, 25 nm (46 km) south west of The Lizard, Cornwall, United Kingdom by SM UC-62. Her crew of 20 survived and were picked up by destroyer HMS Attack (H86) on the same day.
1917 - World War I: U. S. schooner John Hays Hammond was sunk in the Atlantic, some 213 nm (395 km) north west of Ireland by SM U-44. Her crew survived.
1919 - USS May (SP 164) ran aground off Cape Engano, Santo Domingo. After efforts to refloat her failed she was declared abandoned on 28 February 1920.
1922 – Unclassified USS Granite State (former 74-gun ship-of-the-line New Hampshire) was in tow of tug Perth Amboy. Five days out of New York City, a fire of undetermined origin broke out aboard around 10AM and spread quickly. No sooner had the two-man crew abandoned ship, than the towline parted from the flaming bow and USS Granite State was adrift. Smoke could be seen for miles. The ship burned fiercely all day, preventing Perth Amboy from securing a new towline or even fighting the fire. At midnight, observers on shore saw the flames suddenly go out. The warship had fetched atop the granite shoals on the southwest corner of Graves Island, Massachusetts and was beyond recovery. The vessel was left to the mercy of the elements.
1942 - U-582 attacked and sank American merchantman Stella Lykes in the mid-Atlantic, some 507 nm (939 km) S by W of Cape Verde Island. The freighter was en route from Bombay, India, to Trinidad, Surinam. While steering a zigzagging course, Stella Lykes was struck by a torpedo on the starboard side between the engine room and the #4 hatch. The ship immediately burst into flames from the mainmast to just forward of the bridge, but the fire lasted for only three minutes before going out. The explosion wrecked the entire starboard side of the vessel. The crew began to muster at their boat stations while the radio operator sent distress signals and the gun crew manned the guns. At 0520 the ship's complement of ten officers, thirty-three men, and nine armed guards left in one lifeboat and three rafts. Minutes after the men abandoned the ship, a second torpedo struck the vessel on the port side amidships. U-582 then surfaced and began circling the ship, firing over 160 rounds into the freighter. The Germans took the master and the chief engineer as POWs and offered the men in the boats cigarettes and first aid supplies. Men from the U-boat boarded the Lykes and sank the ship with demolition charges. The fifty survivors boarded the single lifeboat and sailed for ten days, landing at Portuguese Guinea. One man died on watch below and constituted the only casualty.
1945 - On 27 April, Liberty Ship John A. Rawlins sailed from San Francisco, California, to Okinawa. While the ship was at anchor in Naha Harbor, a Japanese torpedo bomber attacked through an opening in the anchorage's protective smoke screen.
An aerial torpedo struck the ship on the port side at the #3 hold and blew a hole twenty feet by thirty feet in the ship's side. The cargo in the #3 hold caught fire and burned for forty hours. At the time of the attack the ship had 8 officers, 31 men, 28 armed guards, and 191 CBs on board. The explosion wounded only three men. The damage to the ship was considered extensive. As the ship awaited repairs in Buckner Bay, Okinawa, a typhoon drove her on a reef, and the WSA declared Rawlins a CTL.
1945 - On 27 May, Liberty Ship Pratt Victory sailed from San Francisco to Ie Shima, Okinawa, and arrived on 12 July. The freighter anchored in berth M-38, two miles offshore, and had discharged over one-third of her cargo. An air alert sounded at 1242, and an enemy torpedo plane approached from the starboard side of the ship. About 1,500 yards away the plane dropped a torpedo that struck at the #2 hold. The explosion blew asphalt through the hatch and 150 feet into the air and created a hole thirty feet high by thirty-five feet wide. The explosion ruptured the deep tanks and flooded the #1 and #2 holds, causing the ship to slowly settle by the head. When the plane attacked, LCT-I050 lay tied along the starboard side discharging cargo. The explosion blew the landing craft twenty feet into the air, and the LCT sank beside the freighter. Five of Pratt Victory's eight officers, forty-seven men, and twenty-seven armed guards, and twenty-eight other men stayed on the ship and had her remaining cargo discharged. She left for Buckner Bay on 8 August. The Navy surveyed the vessel, and repairs began on 10 September.
1953 - The Korean War armistice is signed at Panmunjon, Korea. The Korean cease-fire goes into effect at 22:00.
1953 - An Aeroflot Il-12 Coach was shot down by US Air Force F-86F Sabre pilot Ralph Parr, near Kanggye, North Korea, shortly before the armistice went into effect. All 21 people on board were killed. The Soviets claimed that the aircraft was over the People's Republic of China when shot down.
1956 - USAF Boeing B-47E-130-BW Stratojet, 53-4230, of the 307th Bomb Wing from Lincoln AFB (now Lincoln Airport), Nebraska, crashes while making touch-and-goes at RAF Lakenheath, skidding off runway and into nuclear weapons storage igloo holding three Mark 6 nuclear bombs, and burns. No weapons in the facility go off and all are later repaired. Stratojet was unarmed. One of the most common myths about this accident is that the weapons, if they had detonated, would have "turned southeast England into a desert." The three Mark 6 bombs were in storage, and therefore no nuclear capsules were installed, nor stored in the building (the nuclear capsule was manually installed in the Mk 6, and only when airborne and just prior to strike). Each Mk 6 did contain at least 5,000 pounds of high explosives, and depleted uranium. Even if the weapons detonated due to fire, there would not have been a nuclear reaction (U-238 is not fissionable through high explosive compression or fire).
1960 - North American F-100C Super Sabre, reported as 53-1740, assigned to the USAF Thunderbirds on 28 March 1960, is destroyed this date during a solo proficiency flight when it crashes fifty miles from Nellis AFB, Nevada, killing Capt. John R. Crane, team narrator. Joe Baugher lists this serial as shot down by gunfire 14 March 1969, in Southeast Asia. Confirmation needed.
1982 - A USAF Sikorsky HH-53C, 69-5792, (conflict here—second source lists it as 69-5782) from the 1551st CCTW at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, crashed following a descent from a night time refueling mission, four killed.
1982 - A United States Air Force F-5B and a F-5F collide over Tucson, Arizona, three crew ejected but one was killed.
Jul 28, 2019 #1470 2019-07-28T00:15
1861 - American Civil War, Union blockade: On the same day she departed Charleston, South Carolina, on her first voyage as a Confederate privateer, Petrel, the former United States Revenue Cutter, mistook 52-gun frigate USS St. Lawrence for a U.S. merchant ship in the North Atlantic off the coast of South Carolina and fired three shots at her.
St. Lawrence returned fire, and one of her 8-inch (203-mm) shells sank Petrel 42 nm (78 km) ESE of Charleston, thirty minutes after the engagement began. Four of Petrel′s crew were killed. Her 36 survivors were taken prisoner by St. Lawrence and later tried for piracy, but ultimately treated as POWs.
1863 - American Civil War, Union blockade: Various Confederate vessels were destroyed at New Smyrna, Florida, by schooner USS Beauregard, sidewheel paddle steamer USS Oleander, and boats from schooner USS Para and gunboat USS Sagamore.
1926 - USS S-1 surfaced and launched a Cox-Klemin (XS-2) seaplane flown by Lt. D.C. Allen. The submarine recovered the aircraft and submerged, successfully completing an airplane transport on board a submarine.
1942 – U. S. trawler Ebb sailed from Boston bound for the Western Bank, part of the Sable Island Bank. When some 87 nm (161 km) due south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, U-754 shelled and sank the vessel. A lookout sighted the submarine off the starboard quarter steering parallel to Ebb. The U-boat opened fire from just over fifty yards away, and the master hove to. The sub continued to fire with its 88-mm and 20-mm guns, as the crew of four officers and thirteen men abandoned ship. The master and four men died as a result of the shelling, and the gunfire wounded seven others. The U-boat eventually fired about fifty shots into the fishing vessel before she sank. Destroyer HMS Witherington (I-76) rescued the surviving three officers and nine men fourteen hours later and landed them in Boston.
1943 - On 26 July, Liberty Ship John A. Poor sailed from Boston for Halifax, Nova Scotia, in Convoy BX-65. She steamed in station #14 in the convoy but lost contact in heavy fog. The ship, streaming her anti-torpedo nets, wandered into mines laid by U-119. When some 133 nm (247 km) SSW of Halifax, a heavy concussion occurred off the starboard side, the ship suffered only minor damage, and the master continued the voyage. An hour later another explosion occurred off the starboard side, and the master, thinking he saw a U-boat, turned the vessel. Fifteen minutes later, an explosion rocked the ship and damaged the steam lines, the boilers, and the generators, and cracked the spring bearings. The armed guards fired the guns at a nonexistent enemy. The ship's complement of eight officers, thirty-four men, and twenty-eight armed guards remained at their posts as the ship lay dead in the water. At 1430, patrol boat #123 came alongside, informing the master that tugs were en route. The watch below got one boiler lit, and the crew retrieved the torpedo nets and proceeded at just over four knots. At 1500, the vessel took a tow line from tug North Star. On 30 July, forty-four miles off Sambro Light, tug Foundation Aramore towed the vessel to St. George Island, Halifax.
1945 - A US Army Air Forces North American B-25D-20 Mitchell bomber, 41-30577, named "Old John Feather Merchant", crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building in fog at 0949 hrs., killing 3 on aircraft plus 11 on ground and causing over US$1 million in damage.
1945 - A Ford CG-4A-FO glider, 45-16072, of the 809th Base Unit, Camp Atterbury, Indiana, crashes at Paducah-McCracken County Airport, Paducah, Kentucky, killing the two crew. "Airport officials said that the plane towing the glider was forced down in a rainstorm and that the pilot, seeing that the glider could not clear a clump of trees, cut it loose from the plane." KWF are pilot Major George S. Branson, 33, of Rock Hill, South Carolina, and Sergeant Maurice J. Aucoin, 21, of Houston, Texas. "Next of kin have been notified, and an investigation by a board of officers has been called to determine the cause of the crash."
1950 - Royal Navy Supermarine Seafire F.47 VP473 of 800 Naval Air Squadron operating from HMS Triumph (R16), is a victim of “friendly fire” when it is shot down over Korean waters by a USAF Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Pilot is rescued by an American destroyer.
1957 - Two Mark 5 nuclear bombs without nuclear capsules installed were jettisoned from a Douglas C-124 Globemaster II in the Atlantic Ocean
100 miles (160 km) SE of Naval Air Station Pomona, New Jersey (also called Naval Air Station Atlantic City), just outside Delaware Bay E of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, and S of Wildwood and Cape May, New Jersey. The aircraft was carrying three weapons and one nuclear capsule the weapons were in Complete Assembly for Ferry (CAF) condition. Nuclear components were not installed power supplies were installed but not connected.
The C-124 was en route from Dover AFB, Delaware, to Europe via the Azores islands when its two port engines lost power. Maximum power was applied to the two starboard engines, however, level flight could not be maintained. The crew decided to jettison one weapon at an altitude of 4,500 feet (1,400 m)
75 miles (121 km) off the coast of New Jersey. The second weapon was jettisoned soon afterwards at an altitude of 2,500 feet (760 m), some 50 miles (80 km) from the New Jersey coast. No detonation was seen to occur from either weapon, and both bombs were presumed to have been damaged or destroyed on impact with the sea and to have sunk almost instantly. The C-124 landed at an airfield in the vicinity of Atlantic City, New Jersey (probably Naval Air Station Atlantic City, now Atlantic City International Airport), with the remaining weapon and the nuclear capsule aboard. After a three-month long search, neither the weapons nor any debris were located. By November 1957, the AEC was taking action to issue replacement weapons to the DOD. No public announcement of this incident was made at the time it happened.
1966 – Test pilot Jack McKay flew X-15 #1 to conduct wing-pod experiments that included a micrometeorite collector and the Nortronics Skybrightness scanner. During the flight an altitude of 73,697 meters (241,800 feet) and a speed of Mach 5.19 were attained. Flight time was 9’43”.
1973 - Skylab 3 is launched. The mission is the second to the first U.S. manned space station. The commander of the mission is Capt. Alan L. Bean, USN, the pilot is Maj. Jack R. Lousma, USMC, and the Science Pilot is Owen K. Garriott, a former Navy electronics officer. The mission lasts 59 days, 11 hours and includes 858 Earth orbits. USS New Orleans (LPH-11) recovers the crew.
1973 – Former USS Gunason (DE-795) was sunk as a target off California by an AGM-84 Harpoon missile launched from a P-3 Orion. Another source says 15 December 1974.
2010 - USAF Boeing C-17A Lot XII Globemaster III, 00-0173, c/n P-73, "Spirit of the Aleutians", callsign Sitka 43, of the 3d Wing, on a training mission, crashed at ≈1822 hrs into a wooded area on Elmendorf Air Force Base in Anchorage, Alaska, killing three members of the Alaska Air National Guard and one member of the US Air Force. The cause of the accident was nearly immediately placed under investigation. This is apparently the first C-17 accident to result in the loss of life. The crash damaged tracks of the Alaska Railroad, which temporarily suspended operations in the area of the accident. The aircraft departed Runway 06 to practice maneuvers for the upcoming 30 July 2010 Arctic Thunder Airshow at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson.
"After the initial climbout and left turn, the mishap pilot executed an aggressive right turn. As the aircraft banked, the stall warning system activated to warn the crew of an impending stall. Instead of implementing stall recovery procedures, the pilot continued the turn as planned, and the aircraft entered a stall from which recovery was not possible. Although the pilot eventually attempted to recover the aircraft, he employed incorrect procedures, and there was insufficient altitude to regain controlled flight. The aircraft impacted wooded terrain northwest of the airfield, damaged a portion of the Alaska Railroad, and was destroyed."
KWF were the pilot, co-pilot, safety observer, and loadmaster. All died instantly. The aircraft was valued at $184,570,581. The investigative board president found "clear and convincing evidence that the cause of the mishap was pilot error. The mishap pilot violated regulatory provisions and multiple flight manual procedures, placing the aircraft outside established flight parameters at an attitude and altitude where recovery was not possible.
Furthermore, the mishap pilot and the mishap safety observer did not realize the developing dangerous situation and failed to make appropriate inputs. In addition to multiple procedural errors, the board president found sufficient evidence that the crew on the flight deck ignored cautions and warnings and failed to respond to various challenge and reply items. The board also found channelized attention, overconfidence, expectancy, misplaced motivation, procedural guidance, and program oversight substantially contributed to the mishap."
2011 - An Alabama Air National Guard General Dynamics F-16C Block 30H Fighting Falcon, 87–296, c/n 5C-557, of the 187 th Fighter Wing, flying out of Montgomery Air National Guard Base, overruns the runway at the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh air show at Wittman Regional Airport, Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The nose gear collapsed, the nose radome broke and the airframe skidded to a stop. Pilot was uninjured.
2016 - United States Navy McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Hornet, BuNo 165194, c/n 1337, of the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, crashes near Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms in Twentynine Palms, California, during a strafing run as part of a training mission. The pilot, a major, was killed.
1769 – Father Juñpero Serra, a Spanish Franciscan missionary, founds the first Catholic mission in California on the site of present-day San Diego.
1790 – The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
1912 – A Naval torpedo, launched from an airplane, was patented by Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske.
1945 – The United States conducts the first test of the atomic bomb in New Mexico.
1945 – USS Indianapolis (CA-35) left San Francisco for Tinian with parts and enriched U235 for “Little Boy” atom bomb.
1957 – Marine Maj. John Glenn set a transcontinental speed record when he flew his F8U-1P Crusader from California to New York in 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds.
1962 – Test pilot Joe Walker takes the X-15 to 32,675 meters (107,201 feet) and Mach 5.57.
1968 – Test pilot Pete Knight takes the X-15 to 67,513 meters (221,500 feet) and Mach 4.79.
1969 – At 9:32 a.m. EDT, Apollo 11, the first U.S. lunar landing mission, is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, for the first manned moon landing.
Jul 17, 2018 #1103 2018-07-17T01:59
1821 – Spain ceded Florida to the United States.
1862 – In a big step toward emancipation, President Lincoln approves the Confiscation Act, which declares that any slaves whose owners were in rebellion against the government, would be freed when they came into contact with the Union army.
1862 – Congress passed an act which established that “every officer, seaman, or marine, disabled in the line of duty, shall be intitled to receive for life, or during his disability, a pension from the United States.”
1918 - RMS Carpathia, which rescued survivors of RMS Titanic in 1912, is torpedoed and sunk by U-55.
1927 – First organized dive bombing attack in combat by Marine Corps pilots against Nicaraguan bandits who were surrounding U.S. Marine garrison at Ocotal, Nicaragua.
1940 – A new Cabinet headed by Prince Konoye is appointed. Matsuoka is the new Foreign Minister and will be very influential. The Cabinet also includes a number of supporters of a more aggressive policy. The most important is General Tojo who becomes Minister of War.
1944 – An explosion at Port Chicago, now the Concord Naval Weapons Station in Ca., killed 320 seamen when a pair of ammunition ships exploded.
1945 – The final “Big Three” meeting between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain takes place at Potsdam, Germany.
1945 – The first Anglo-American carrier air strike on the Tokyo area is conducted by the forces of the British Pacific Fleet (Admiral Sir Bernard Rawlings), designated Task Force 37, and the US 3rd Fleet (Admiral Halsey). During the night (July 17-18), the HMS King George V and 5 US battleships bombard Hitachi on Honshu. The Allied battleships fire some 2000 tons of shells on Hitachi in fifty minutes.
1953 – Lieutenant Guy P. “Lucky Pierre” Bordelon scored his fifth aerial victory and qualified as the only U.S. Navy ace of the Korean War and the only Korean War ace who did not fly an F-86 Sabre jet. Bordelon, detached to K-6 airfield from the carrier USS Princeton, flew an F4U-5N Corsair named “Annie Mo.” All his victories were the so-called “Bedcheck Charlies” engaged on nighttime harassment bombing missions.
1962 – Test pilot Robert White takes the X-15 to 95,936 meters (314,750 feet) and Mach 5.45.
1975 – As part of a mission aimed at developing space rescue capability, the U.S. spacecraft Apollo 18 and the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 19 rendezvous and dock in space.
1989 – The controversial B-2 Stealth bomber underwent its first test flight at Edwards Air Force Base in California, two days after a technical problem forced a postponement.
USS Anthony (DD-172/ DM-12) - History
(October 27, 1853 – 1899)
Private (later Sgt. Maj.) William Anthony
Marine Private William Anthony gained famed for his actions aboard the Battleship MAINE the night it was sunk in Havana Harbor, on February 15, 1898.
William Anthony was born in Albany, New York on October 27, 1853. His family eventually moved to New Jersey. According to some stories, Anthony, who was struggling at school, simply disappeared from the family home to enlist in the U.S. Army at the age of 17. Other sources indicate that he enlisted in the army in 1875.
Anthony served at least term terms of enlistment in the army, serving in the American west in units such as the 7th U.S. Cavalry. Eventually Anthony found himself at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point serving as a drum major. His broad-shouldered six foot – two inch frame made him an imposing figure.
Anthony was reported to be an excellent soldier, generally with good discipline. However, he had one tragic flaw – a penchant for alcohol. Other soldiers reported that he did not drink often or at least not to excess. However, when he did, he chose the wrong times, being caught and busted in rank. Many thought that if it were not for this flaw, William Anthony would have eventually received a commission.
After serving between eight and fourteen years in the army (depending on the source), Anthony joined the U.S. Marine Corps at Brooklyn, New York on July 1, 1885. He served for two years as a clerk in the Brooklyn recruiting office. Anthony’s good judgement concerning the capabilities of the recruits. Anthony had a belief that the members of the Marines should be U.S. citizens. When it was discovered that he turned away eligible recruits because they were not citizens, he lost the position and was busted in rank. Anthony also served at sea, serving aboard the cruiser U.S.S. BROOKLYN, a vessel destined for fame in the naval Battle of Santiago.
Anthony sent a portion of each pay home to his mother, now a widow. After not seeing her son for several years, Anthony’s mother traveled to Brooklyn to see her son. She found him on guard duty. Anthony forestalled her immediate tendency by stating “Don’t kiss me now. I’m, on guard duty.”
On May 12, 1897 Anthony, still a private, reported for service aboard the Battleship MAINE. Anthony’s actions on the night that the ship exploded in Havana, Cuba on February 15, 1898, were notable in that he remained at his post and continued his duty within the sinking vessel by reporting to the ship's commander and reporting what had occurred, rather than simply abandoned the vessel. His actions were recorded by the MAINE’s commanding officer, Capt. Charles Sigsbee, as follows:
Following the MAINE’s loss, Sigsbee kept only a few crewmen with him in Havana, shipping the majority out as soon as possible. One of those chosen to stay behind was Private Anthony. Anthony's actions aboard the MAINE were reported to the Navy Department by Capt. Sigsbee, and the Secretary of the Navy, John Longm responded by sending Anthony a letter stating that "Your conduct was a credit to the naval service and entitles you to the hearty thanks and approval of the department." For his actions on the night of the sinking, Anthony was promoted to sergeant. During the war, Anthony served aboard the U.S.S. DETROIT from March 5, 1898 until being transferred to the U.S. Marine Barracks at his former station of Brooklyn, New York.
Following the massive amount of publicity that Anthony received after the loss of the MAINE, Anthony received a complimentary letter from Adella Maude Blancet, a native of Yates County, New York but living in Philadelphia. Eventually, the two started a strong correspondence, exchanged photos etc. A short courtship began that culminated on October 13, 1898, when the couple was married in Philadelphia.
Anthony departed his service in the U.S. Marine Corps with the rank of sergeant major. Following his departure from the military, he was less successful. He seems to have been unable to find permanent work. He worked in the grape industry around Guyanoga, New York for a time. Meanwhile, he and Adelia had a son. Mrs. Anthony and their son lived with her sister near Guyanoga while William Anthony apparently traveled in search of work.
On November 24, 1899, Anthony was seen at an entrance to New York City’s Central Park near two police officers and an ambulance attendant. Suddenly, Anthony pulled out a bottle and drank a substance which was later found to be cocaine in an attempt to commit suicide. He was taken to Presbyterian Hospital, refusing to identify himself, only stating that he was from Albany. He died at the hospital. In his pockets were a medal issued to survivors of the MAINE, a Mauser cartridge, and a photo of his wife. On the back of the photo was written “Bury this with me.” Also in his pocket was a letter to Mrs. Edward Kritsh of New York, his wife’s aunt. It simply read:
Anthony’s body was not immediately claimed at the hospital, but two days later was taken to the Stephen Merritt Burial Company by order of Mrs. Kritsch. Anthony’s wife was too distraught to come to the city but his mother did come to view the body. Both the Philadelphia Times newspaper and Brooklyn’s Tammany Hall offered to defray the costs with the latter offer apparently being accepted.
Sgt. Maj. William Anthony was buried at Evergreen Cemetery on Long Island.
Mrs. Anthony obtained a position as a clerk in the pension office in Washington DC. While there she met New York State Treasurer Hauser, who she eventually married. After the death of Mr. Hauser, Adella and her son returned to Yates County, residing there for the remainder of their lives.
Anthony has been honored by the U.S. Navy by naming two destroyers after him - the World War One era U.S.S. ANTHONY (DD-172) and the World War Two era U.S.S. ANTHONY (DD-515). The DD-515 was christened by William Anthony's grand-daughters, Florence and Alice.
"Anthony's Body Not Yet Claimed," New York Times (New York, NY), November 26, 1899, p. 15.
"Brave Bill Anthony," Hornellsvill Weekly Tribune (Hornellsville, NY), December 1, 1899.
Creamer, John - Data on the spelling of Adella's first name, info., on her return to Yates County, and data on the christening of the DD-515.
"Maine Hero a Suicide," Naugatuck Daily News (Naugatuck, CT), November 25, 1899, p 1.
"Monument to Him," Naugatuck Daily News (Naugatuck, CT), December 14, 1899, p 1.
"Sergeant Major William Anthony, USMC (1853-1899), Naval Historical Center, http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-a/w-anthny.htm
Sigsbee, Capt. Charles D., The Maine - An Account of her Destruction in Havana Harbor. (New York: The Century Co., 1899) 64-65.
"Story of Bill Anthony," Dubuque Daily Herald (Dubuque, IA), December 2, 1899, p. 2.
"To Bury William Anthony," New York Times (New York, NY), November 27, 1899, p. 7.
"Treasurer Huaser's Bride Maine Hero's Widow," Brooklyn Standard Union (Brooklyn, NY), June 14, 1907
With her book The Feminine Mystique (1963), Betty Friedan (1921-2006) broke new ground by exploring the idea of women finding personal fulfillment outside of their traditional roles. She also helped advance the women’s rights movement as one of the founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW). She advocated for an increased role for women in the political process and is remembered as a pioneer of feminism and the women’s rights movements.
A bright student, Betty Friedan excelled at Smith College, graduating in 1942 with a bachelor’s degree. Although she received a fellowship to study at the University of California, she chose instead to go to New York to work as a reporter. Friedan got married in 1947 and had three children. She returned to work after her first child was born, but lost her job when she was pregnant with her second, according to The Christian Science Monitor. Friedan then stayed home to care for her family. But she was restless as a homemaker and began to wonder if other women felt the same way. To answer this question, Friedan surveyed other graduates of Smith College. The results of this research formed the basis of The Feminine Mystique. The book became a sensation𠅌reating a social revolution by dispelling the myth that all women wanted to be happy homemakers. Friedan encouraged women to seek new opportunities for themselves.
As an icon in the women’s rights movement, Betty Friedan did more than write about confining gender stereotypes—she became a force for change. She co-founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966, serving as its first president. Friedan also fought for abortion rights by establishing the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws (now known as NARAL Pro-Choice America) in 1969. She wanted women to have a greater role in the political process. With such other leading feminists as Gloria Steinem and Bella Abzug, Friedan helped create the National Women’s Political Caucus in 1971.
Ships hit by U-boats in WWII
New! See shipping losses during each month of the war. Then view each ship for full details. Includes a map showing positions of all ships hit during each month.
Information on this section:
|Number of incidents:||3,474|
|Number of vessels:||3,304|
This database in always in very heavy maintenance and this page shows the latest updates on allied ships hit.
Ships removed from database
We've removed over 45 ships from the database as a part of our constant revision of the data and later reaearch. We wanted to continue to list them someplace though.
Allied Warship lost to U-boats
See a list of all the Allied Warships hit by German U-boats during WWII.
All Allied Warship losses
See a list of all the Allied Warships hit during WWII.
All convoys attacked
There were over 650 Allied convoys hit by German U-boats during World War Two.
Merchant ships by class
Now you can browse the ships hit by their class, for example all Liberty-class ships.
Sources and thanks
A simple page giving credit and thanks to those who have helped us make this section even better!
5 nations hit the hardest
Note: All times in this database are given in MEZ/CET (Mitteleuropäische Zeit / Central European Time), respectively in MESZ/CEST (Mitteleuropäischer Sommerzeit/Central European Summer Time). Therefore the dates and times can differ from other (mostly Allied) sources, especially when ships were hit in distant areas.
The first years of the Bundeswehr - years of development
On the military situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the early 1950s, see the article Himmeroder memorandum .
The "Office Blank"
After the Second World War, the allied occupying powers USA , Great Britain , France and the Soviet Union decided among other things in the Potsdam Agreement to completely demilitarize the former German Reich. The Wehrmacht was officially dissolved by the Allies with Control Council Act No. 34 on August 20, 1946.
As early as March 1949, the President of the Parliamentary Council Konrad Adenauer ( CDU ) described the full accession of a West German state to NATO as an urgent task of the first West German government and, as Federal Chancellor , spoke publicly in an interview on November 30, 1949 about the willingness to take a position a German contingent for a European army and the associated rearmament. In its first foreign policy debate on November 24 and 25, 1949, a majority of the German Bundestag rejected national rearmament. At the beginning of the 1950s, the East-West conflict increasingly became the focus of the German government. On March 16, 1950, the British opposition leader Winston Churchill spoke out in favor of a German defense contribution.
On May 24, 1950, Adenauer appointed former tank general Gerhard Graf von Schwerin as his advisor on technical security issues . He was supposed to make preparations in secret to set up a “mobile federal gendarmerie” as a counterweight to the barracked readiness of the GDR . In particular, the Korean War , which began on June 25, 1950, intensified efforts in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in western Europe and the USA to set up German armed forces to defend against a threat from the east, then known as the "West German defense contribution". Adenauer was of the opinion that a new German army was necessary to protect the West and its democracy and thereby achieve more stability and strength of democracy. In this way, western democracy in the Federal Republic could defend itself against the eastern anti-democratic system of the GDR. The American High Commissioner, John J. McCloy , declared on July 6, 1950 in Frankfurt am Main that the Western powers would regard an attack on West Germany as an attack on themselves.
For Adenauer, the achievement of the extensive sovereignty of the Federal Republic of Germany, which was still severely restricted by the occupation statute, also played an important role. In the negotiations with the Allies, the principle applied to him was: rearmament against sovereignty.
On July 26, 1950, the majority of the German Bundestag announced its readiness to conclude a European federal pact and to create supranational federal authority.
On August 11, 1950, the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe approved with a majority the proposal of the British opposition leader, Winston Churchill , to create a European army with German contingents.
On August 18, 1950, in an interview with the US newspaper New York Times , Chancellor Adenauer called for the Allied forces in Europe to be strengthened and, as a counterweight to the barracked People's Police in the Soviet zone, their own defense troops in the Federal Republic of Germany.
From October 5th to 9th, 1950 a commission of former high armed forces members met in the Eifel monastery in Himmerod . They wrote a "memorandum on the establishment of a West German contingent as part of an international armed force to defend Western Europe", in which the structures and scope of new West German armed forces were described for the first time, the so-called Himmeroder memorandum . It also contained initial reflections on the internal order of the Bundeswehr, later known as the Inner Leadership . Federal Interior Minister Gustav Heinemann (CDU) resigned on October 9, 1950 in protest against the rearmament policy .
On October 24, 1950, the French Prime Minister René Pleven presented a Pleven Plan named after him for a European army as a prerequisite for Germany's contribution to the defense of Europe.
On October 26, 1950, Adenauer appointed Theodor Blank as the Federal Chancellor's representative for questions related to the increase in Allied troops . The Federal Ministry of Defense , which was housed in the Ermekeil barracks in Bonn , later emerged from this so-called Amt Blank . The work of the Blank Office, which served to prepare for rearmament, actually contradicted the Allied provisions, according to which the states of Germany should remain demilitarized in the long term however, it was known to the Western Allies and, in view of the looming Cold War, was tolerated and even promoted by them.
Rearmament discussion and Pleven plan
In the German Bundestag on November 8, 1950, the governing parties CDU , CSU , FDP and DP approved the German defense contribution on the basis of the French Pleven Plan . On December 19, 1950, the NATO defense ministers approved the participation of German contingents in a European army. It remained open, however, whether this should take place within the framework of the Pleven Plan or in the form of German divisions in the Atlantic Alliance system.
Important for the development of new defense forces, which were initially trained in the paramilitary organized Federal Border Guard (BGS today Federal Police ) from March 16, 1951 , was the declaration of honor for the soldiers of the Wehrmacht on January 23, 1951 by the then commander-in-chief of the NATO armed forces, Dwight D. Eisenhower to Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. This made the reintegration of former Wehrmacht cadres and men possible in the first place, since at that time only a few post-war cohorts and almost no officers were available. Therefore, the first soldiers in the Bundeswehr were officers and NCOs who had served in the Wehrmacht. On April 5, 1951, the Federal Chancellor made a declaration of honor for the German soldiers before the German Bundestag.
The BGS, equipped with infantry weapons and armored personnel carriers, is in its former form the forerunner organization of the Bundeswehr and represented the counterpart to the barracked units of the German People's Police of the GDR.
At the Foreign Ministers' Conference from December 27 to 30, 1951, with participation from Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Federal Republic of Germany, the Ministers and Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who was also Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs , decided to approve the adoption of the Pleven Plan and set up a European army by June 30, 1954.
The domestic political resistance to rearmament was enormous. Especially the two major parties SPD and CDU were completely opposing views on the question whether it was morally responsible that the new Federal Republic of Germany after Hitler - dictatorship should have in the previous German Reich of an army. Nevertheless, the debate about arming led to the establishment of peace movements such as the Without Me movement . On February 8, 1952, the German Bundestag basically approves a German defense contribution against the votes of the SPD.
On March 10, 1952, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR , Josef Stalin , offered the Western powers ( France , Great Britain , USA ) in a note negotiations on the reunification and neutralization of Germany . This note and Stalin's replies to the Western powers' responses are known as the Stalin Notes .
On May 26, 1952, the Germany Treaty, Treaty on Relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Three Powers, also known as the General Treaty, was concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany and the western victorious powers ( France , Great Britain , USA ), but it was not concluded until May 5 1955 entered into force in a slightly modified version at the same time as joining NATO. It regulated the end of the occupation statute in the Federal Republic of Germany and in this context gave it the rights of a sovereign state . From then on, the right of foreign troops to stay on the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany was subject to their consent.
On May 27, 1952, the treaty for the European Defense Community (EDC) was signed and the Western powers made a guarantee for the EDC and Berlin and assured the stationing of troops.
On April 25, 1953, an agreement was reached between the Federal Republic of Germany, the other members of the EVG as well as Great Britain and the USA on the amount of the German defense contribution for 1953/54. This amounted to DM 950 million per month.
On March 18, 1954, the Blank Office published plans for a German defense contribution. According to this, six infantry divisions, four armored divisions, two armored infantry divisions, a tactical air force with 1,400 aircraft and ships up to 1,500 tons were planned for coastal protection.
On February 26, 1954, a “German military contribution” was debated in the German Bundestag. This had become necessary because the treaties on the European Defense Community (EDC), also adopted by the Federal Republic, provided for the creation of a common army in Western Europe. Finally, after the third reading, the 1st amendment to the defense (“Law to Supplement the Basic Law”) was adopted with a 2/3 majority (mainly by members of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group). The Federal Council also agreed, so that the law could come into force when it was signed by Federal President Theodor Heuss on March 26, 1954. The Basic Law was changed in three points:
- Article 73 : The federal government now also receives the exclusive legislation on the "defense including the military service of men from the age of 18 and the protection of the civilian population"
- Article 79 Paragraph 1 : The constitutional amendment procedure is facilitated for international treaties that "have as their object a peace settlement [. ] or are intended to serve the defense of the Federal Republic"
- Article 142a : The newly created article declares “The provisions of this Basic Law are not in conflict” with the TOE contract.
As soon as the constitutional amendment came into force, the recruiting of volunteers for the new European army, which was provided for in the EDC contracts, began. However, when the French National Assembly postponed the adoption of the EDC Treaty on August 31, 1954, this army had failed. A new option had to be found for a Federal German military contribution.
Accession to NATO
From the beginning, the Bundeswehr was planned as an army in an international context. Thus (as with the EVG contracts) the Federal Republic of Germany should be prevented from going it alone. As early as March 1949, the future Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer spoke of Germany joining NATO as an urgent task for a German government.
The London Nine Powers Conference from September 28 to October 3, 1954 with the participating states Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Great Britain and the USA resolved the sovereignty of the Federal Republic, the accession of the Federal Republic to the Brussels Pact (WEU) and to NATO and provides assurances from the USA, Great Britain and Canada that they will keep their troops on the European continent.
On October 23, 1954, Chancellor Adenauer issued a declaration on arms restrictions. In it, the Federal Republic renounces the production of atomic, chemical and biological weapons. With regard to the West German defense contribution, the Paris Treaties stipulated a list of twelve divisions, with a maximum strength of around 500,000 soldiers not to be exceeded. The German soldiers should be placed under the command of the integrated NATO staffs and the integration should take place as a rule at the level of the army groups.
On December 18, 1954, the NATO Council, amending the Lisbon resolutions, set the target strength of NATO forces in Central Europe at 30 divisions. Compensation for this decrease in conventional strength was the increase in the use of tactical nuclear weapons.
The Soviet Union declared on January 25, 1955 the state of war with Germany was over. However, it continued to reserve all rights and obligations arising from the Allied treaties on Germany as a whole. The Eastern European countries followed this step.
On February 27, 1955, the German Bundestag ratified the Paris Treaties, making the Federal Republic a member of NATO . The treaties came into force on May 5, 1955. The accession of the Federal Republic was completed with a ceremony on May 9, 1955 in Paris .
On April 20, 1955, the USA and the Federal Republic deposited the ratification documents for the protocol on the end of the occupation regime (Germany Treaty) and for the contracts on the stay of foreign armed forces in the Federal Republic (troop, finance and tax treaties). Great Britain and France deposited their instruments of ratification on May 5th. A Mutual Defense Treaty was also signed with the United States on December 27, 1955.
On May 14, 1955, the Warsaw Pact between Albania, Bulgaria, GDR, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, CSR and Hungary established a counter-alliance to NATO. The "Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance" signed in Warsaw is the reaction of the Eastern Bloc to the ratified Paris Treaties.
In July 1956, the first NATO maneuver with German participation by units of the 2nd Grenadier Division from Kassel took place in the Göttingen area .
NATO troop statute
The Federal Republic of Germany signed the NATO troop statute with the member states Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the USA on June 19, 1951 (Federal Law Gazette 1961 II 1120) with additional agreements of June 3, 1951 August 1959 (Federal Law Gazette 1961 II 1218).
Foundation of the Bundeswehr
In the following, the actual establishment of the Bundeswehr began, which, however, had not yet had a name and was referred to in contemporary documents as the "Federal German Wehrmacht". On June 7, 1955, the former "Amt Blank" was renamed. With Theodor Blank as the first defense minister, it was now the "Federal Ministry of Defense".
On June 30, 1955, US Ambassador James B. Conant and Foreign Minister Heinrich von Brentano signed an agreement on mutual defense aid between the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany. In this contract, the USA assured the newly formed armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany extensive arms deliveries.
On July 13, 1955, US Ambassador Conant and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed to hand over semi-automatic assault rifles, tanks, artillery pieces, field howitzers and fighter planes. In return, West Germany was obliged to use the weapons only for defense purposes within the framework of the NATO alliance and not to sell or surrender them to third parties. The SPD opposition in the German Bundestag only approved the treaty at the third reading, which came into force on December 14, 1955.
On July 15 and 16, 1955, against the votes of the SPD, the German Bundestag passed the Volunteers Act , which allowed 6,000 volunteers to be employed in the Bundeswehr. The Bundestag unanimously approved the law on the personnel appraisal committee, which was to decide on the reuse of former officers of the old Wehrmacht from the colonel upwards. Just ten days later, the first officers of the new Bundeswehr - before their official appointment - were sent to the Supreme Headquarters of NATO ( SHAPE ) to familiarize themselves there. At the same time, the training of jet pilots began in the USA and Great Britain. By August 1, 1955, 150,000 citizens volunteered for the armed forces.
The deployment plan announced by the federal government on September 21, 1955, provided that the establishment of the army with twelve divisions and the establishment of the air force and navy should be completed by January 1960 . The estimated total costs of this plan were put at 51 billion DM (approx. 25 billion €). A shipbuilding plan approved by Parliament also provided for the construction of the following units: twelve destroyers, six escort boats, 40 speedboats, 24 coast minesweepers, 30 speed minesweepers, twelve submarines, 36 landing craft, two mine ships, ten coast guard boats, eleven tenders for small boats, one training ship Sailing training ship, 65 aircraft, various auxiliary, test and training vehicles.
On October 10, 1955, Federal President Theodor Heuss appointed the first soldiers of the new German armed forces.
On November 12, 1955, Theodor Blank presented the first 101 volunteer soldiers with their certificates of appointment in the Ermekeil barracks in Bonn. At the beginning of 1956 the first three locations were put into operation and a total of 1,000 soldiers were stationed there:
November 12, 1955 was the 200th birthday of the Prussian general Gerhard von Scharnhorst , who had rendered outstanding services to the Prussian army reform from 1807 to 1813. With this election of the founding day of the new Federal German Armed Forces, it was already clear in which tradition the Bundeswehr should be. A reservist and conscription system was created.
On January 20, 1956, Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer visited the first 1,500 volunteer soldiers of the Bundeswehr in Andernach.
On August 21, 1956, the staffs of the 3rd and 5th Panzer Divisions and the 1st, 2nd and 4th Panzer Grenadier Divisions, as well as one airborne and one mountain infantry brigade each, are set up. The strength of the Bundeswehr is around 47,000 soldiers.
On September 24, 1956, Federal President Theodor Heuss designated a black cross ( iron cross ) with a white border as an identification mark for the Bundeswehr's air and combat vehicles.
In October 1956, according to an Allensbach survey, 38% of German citizens supported the Bundeswehr. After the Berlin Wall was built in 1961, this figure rose to 60%.
In December 1956 the German Navy had 65 units and 7657 soldiers.
During the founding period, the terms " Wehrmacht " and "Bundeswehr" were the most popular names for the new German army . While the term “Wehrmacht” was heavily burdened by the National Socialist regime , the name “Bundeswehr” seemed more appropriate to the security committee of the German Bundestag . He leaned on the designation " Reichswehr " for the armed forces of the Weimar Republic . During the debate on the Soldiers Act on February 22, 1956, Chairman Richard Jaeger's motion to name the new armed forces “Bundeswehr” was granted. Jaeger himself named the former general and former FDP deputy Hasso von Manteuffel as the actual namesake .
The term "Bundeswehr" goes back to the suggestion of the MP and Major Daniel Friedrich Gottlob Teichert about a concept for the formation of a people's armed forces by merging vigilante groups on the occasion of a negotiation of the Frankfurt National Assembly on March 5, 1849.
Personnel Expert Committee and the National Socialist Past
The hiring of new officers of higher ranks was particularly problematic in the early years of the Bundeswehr. A “clean” filling of these posts was hardly possible, since almost all militarily trained citizens had a troubled past during the National Socialist dictatorship , but such persons were absolutely necessary for the creation of a management structure. In order to minimize the risk of hiring the “wrong” soldiers, all officers from the Colonel upwards were checked by the Personnel Appraisal Committee, a committee made up of 38 public figures who had been appointed by the Federal President on the proposal of the Federal Government and after confirmation by the Bundestag . This committee examined a total of 600 applicants by November 25, 1957, accepted 486 and rejected 53.
In response to the accusation that all high officers served in the Wehrmacht , Chancellor Adenauer replied that NATO did not take 18-year-old generals from him.
When the Bundeswehr was founded, its officers and NCOs came almost without exception from the Wehrmacht - sometimes also from the Waffen SS. In 1959, 12,360 of the 14,900 Bundeswehr officers had already been appointed officers in the Reichswehr or Wehrmacht. 300 officers came from the Waffen SS .
Takeover of staff from the BGS and allied service groups
In order to ensure an accelerated development of the Bundeswehr, the 2nd law on the Federal Border Guard came into force on May 30, 1956 . With this law, the Federal Minister of Defense was empowered to set up Bundeswehr associations from voluntary associations of the BGS. In the period from June 1 to 30, 1956, BGS officials had the opportunity to make a declaration that they wanted to remain in the Federal Border Police. Anyone who did not do this was transferred to the Bundeswehr on July 1, 1956. The former BGS officials were given the next higher rank and opportunities for faster promotion. In particular, former members of the German Armed Forces in the BGS took advantage of this, as they were often three ranks lower in the Federal Border Guard than in the Wehrmacht, but were judged by their last rank in the Wehrmacht in the German Armed Forces.
Initially, the mass of the new German armed forces consisted of 9,572 former BGS officials and volunteers, some of whom had served in various Allied service groups . On August 21, 1956, the strength of the Bundeswehr was given as 47,000 soldiers. First, the staffs of the 3rd and 5th Panzer Divisions, the 1st, 2nd and 4th Grenadier Divisions as well as one airborne and one mountain infantry brigade each were set up. From April 1, 1957, the first draftsmen of the 1937 class joined them. The BGS formed the basis for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th grenadier divisions, three music corps and the management level of the armored reconnaissance battalion 5 and the armored telecommunications battalion 3. The German navy was also mainly recruited from members of the maritime border protection and other sea units under Allied control . Due to a lack of Bundeswehr uniforms and accommodation, the former Federal Border Guard initially kept their previous equipment and stayed in the BGS barracks. All you had to do was remove the badge with the federal eagle from the left upper sleeve. As early as December 1957, the Bundeswehr had around 118,000 soldiers.
Basic Law 1949 and Bundeswehr
When the Basic Law came into force on May 23, 1949, there were no German armed forces. Nevertheless, the Basic Law already contained a number of provisions relating to them at that time:
- In the basic rights section, Art. 4, Paragraph 3: “No one may be forced to do military service with a weapon against their conscience” .
- Article 24, Paragraph 2 stipulates that the Federation can transfer sovereign rights to intergovernmental institutions “to maintain peace in a system of mutual collective security” .
- Art. 26, Para. 1 prohibits the preparation of a war of aggression
- Art. 26, para. 2 states that "certain warfare weapons,""made only with the approval of the Federal Government, transported and placed on the market" must
Defense constitution and defense laws after 1955
On March 22, 1956, the military constitution passed by a large majority in the German Bundestag came into force. By supplementing the Basic Law with Article 87a, it was determined that the federal government should set up armed forces for defense.
On April 1, 1956, the Law on the Status of Soldiers ( Soldiers Act ) came into force.
On July 21, the conscription law followed , which provided for compulsory military service for men between the ages of 18 and 45.
With the adoption of the Law on Military Complaints Regulations (WBO) on 14 December 1956, the Law on the Military Commissioner on 11 April 1957, the Office of was Defense Commissioner of the Bundestag created. It was not until February 19, 1959, that the Bundestag elected Helmuth von Grolman as the first official.
On February 21, 1957, the Defense Disciplinary Act (WDO) and on April 12, the Soldiers Supply Act (SVG) are passed by the Bundestag.
Even before the founding of the Bundeswehr, the Himmeroder memorandum proposed a conscription system, as this was the only way to achieve an adequate troop strength. In addition, conscription should be a close link between the state or citizens and the army. In this way, the formation of a “state within a state”, as it developed with the Reichswehr in the Weimar Republic after the Treaty of Versailles, should be avoided. Conscription is an integral part of the idea of the “ citizen in uniform ”.
With the enactment of the conscription law of July 7, 1956, the proposal of the Himmeroder memorandum was implemented and an initially 12-month basic military service was introduced for men. In 1956 the first regular soldiers received their certificates of appointment. On April 1, 1957, the first 10,000 conscripts began their service. On January 16, 1958, 7,600 conscripts entered the Air Force and Navy for the first time. By 1960, in addition to regular and professional soldiers, there were already 268,629 basic military service members in the Bundeswehr. In addition, it was also possible to do his military service with the Federal Border Police. By 2010, over eight million young men in Germany had done their military service. The legal duration of basic military service changed several times. She cheated:
- from January 1, 1957 to March 31, 1962: 12 months
- from April 1, 1962 to June 30, 1962: 15 months
- from July 1, 1962 to December 31, 1972: 18 months
- from January 1, 1973 to September 30, 1990: 15 months
- from October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1995: 12 months
- from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2001: 10 months
- from January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2010: 9 months
- from December 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011: 6 months (practically from July 1)
- from March 1, 2011: only voluntary.
From June 1, 1989, after the lower birth cohorts had to do basic military service from the end of the 1960s, a renewed extension of the service period to 18 months was planned. In April 1989, the federal government initially decided to postpone it until the summer of 1992. Due to the influx of young emigrants and the analysis of the census, the required number of personnel (495,000 peacekeeping soldiers, 1,340,000 defensive soldiers) could be maintained. With the end of the Cold War, which was formally resolved on November 21, 1990, an extension of the basic military service to 18 months followed.
Defense Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg (CSU) announced in August 2010 the suspension of compulsory military service and the introduction of voluntary military service, which should last twelve to 23 months. At the same time, he also announced a reduction in the Bundeswehr to 163,500 soldiers in Germany. In the meantime, however, it is assumed that the armed forces will have up to 185,000 soldiers. On July 1, 2011, conscription was suspended. The 2011 deployment concept was announced on October 26, 2011 .
Military order according to the Basic Law
The military mandate of the Bundeswehr was only included in the Basic Law in 1968. Establishment and deployment are formulated in Art. 87a: The Confederation sets up armed forces for defense . This provision in the Basic Law has the following four dimensions:
- Defense against armed forces from outside
- preparatory measures for defense in the event of tension and defense
- Use to establish and maintain internal security (see emergency laws )
- Use in the event of natural disasters and accidents.
The legal basis of compulsory military service was Article 12a of the Basic Law as early as 1956, in which it says in paragraph 1: "Men can be obliged to serve in the armed forces from the age of eighteen onwards". However, Article 4 paragraph 3 regulates: "No one may be forced to do military service with a weapon against their conscience".
Even in the early days of compulsory military service, conscripts referred to this passage in the Basic Law. However, in the first ten years the number of conscientious objectors remained low. The catchphrase “ Ohnemichel ” was used to denote conscientious objectors. It was not until 1967 that their number rose significantly as a result of the then burgeoning demonstrations against the Vietnam War , so that one could speak of a social phenomenon. Until 1983, an oral "hearing" was customary in order to be recognized as a conscientious objector, in which the objector had to give a detailed account of the reasons of conscience for which he refused the service. Due to various reasons, including the reduced need for military service, this test is no longer carried out. Recognized conscientious objectors are not used for military service according to Section 1 of the Conscientious Objection Act, but for community service outside the Bundeswehr.
The concept of "Inner Leadership"
The term Inner Leadership , which was officially adopted on March 5, 1953 for the "inner structure" of the troops, initially by the Blank Office, describes the complex leadership concept of the Bundeswehr, closely linked to the model of the citizen in uniform . The Inner Leadership's task is to alleviate the tensions that arise from the individual rights of the free citizen on the one hand and the military duties of the soldier on the other. On October 28, 1956, the Bundeswehr School for Inner Guidance was officially founded in Cologne and relocated to Koblenz on February 1, 1957 .
The concept of Inner Guidance has to fulfill three tasks which can be described with the terms legitimation , integration and identity .
After 1945 the first question arose as to the legitimacy of the soldier: could one still be a soldier after what had happened and in view of what a nuclear war would entail? The use of armed forces could only be justified as a last resort , for defense and crisis management. Human rights and international law were binding in any case. It had to be the task of the soldiers to secure and shape the peace. As Gustav Heinemann later said, peace was the real thing.
The armed forces had to be integrated into the democratic structures of society and subject to parliamentary control. The soldier is a citizen with the same rights, which are only restricted in exceptional military cases. The internal order and the role of the armed forces in the state must be compatible with democracy. This leads to the model of the “ citizen in uniform ”.
The soldiers' self-image, their identity , is derived from this. Soldiers are citizens who serve the state in their profession. You take part in the social and political discussion in the country. This not only means that - unlike the soldiers of the Reichswehr in the Weimar Republic - they have the right to vote and to stand as a candidate . They can and should express themselves as experts in the discussion on military and security issues. These rights find their limits in the duty of loyalty , the duty of restraint and confidentiality in confidential matters. As a citizen, the soldier is a political actor who has to endure the constant tension between the roles of civil servant and citizen.
Problems of the first few years
The Inner Leadership had to prove itself in the early years, especially in a daily training routine in which methods adopted from the Wehrmacht were still in use. Two incidents resulting in death, which can be traced back to management behavior that was no longer accepted, led to heated discussions about the new management concept that lasted for decades.
On June 3, 1957, 15 conscripts drowned during an exercise when a non-commissioned officer of the 2nd Company of Airborne Infantry Battalion 19 near Kempten ordered his subordinates to cross the Iller unsecured . This action had been banned in advance, but was carried out anyway. As a result of the Iller disaster, the Bundeswehr soldiers' relief organization was founded to support soldiers and their relatives in need.
On July 25, 1963, the 19-year-old recruit Gert Trimborn collapsed from the heat on a baggage march of the training company 6/9 from Nagold and died a week later in the hospital. It became known that in the paratrooper training company 6/9 non-compliant training methods were the order of the day, whereupon the superior general disbanded the company completely. Those responsible, one of whom came to be known as the “ Nagold Grinder ”, were brought to justice in several lawsuits.
Both incidents triggered both in the armed forces and the public from the discussion about whether the soldiers involved as citizens in uniform did not have the unlawful orders must disagree and in particular, the principle of how internal leadership may have failed. In summary, it can be said that in the early 1960s a number of Wehrmacht soldiers who had been taken over feared the "softening" of their subordinates as a result of the new concept of Innere Leben and did not fulfill their duty of care.
On April 1, 1956, the establishment of twelve army schools with teaching units begins .
On January 1, 1957, the command academy of the German Armed Forces was established in Bad Ems and the first course began on April 1. The official inauguration took place on May 15, 1957.
Upgrading with equipment and weapon systems
For the development of the Bundeswehr, the US provided the BMVg with defense material worth around DM 3.8 billion free of charge as part of the so-called " Nash List " (for example the M41 and M47 battle tanks ). On site, a US military organization , the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG), supported the introduction and training of the incoming initial equipment. In addition, were in particular to balance the foreign trade surplus earned from new allies armaments (for example, armored personnel from Switzerland and France ( HS 30 and armored personnel carriers shortly ), ships and planes from Britain, handguns from Belgium, mortar from Israel and ammunition from Turkey) . Federal German companies only built individual weapon systems under license and built the infrastructure for the young Bundeswehr. During these years of the economic miracle , German industry was too busy building up and expanding civil production to have a great interest in the production of financially less lucrative armaments. That changed with the end of the boom in the early 1960s. As early as the end of the 1950s, the Bundeswehr command was planning to award contracts for the development of new weapon systems to German companies.
- March 3, 1956 : Arrival of M 47 Patton main battle tanks in Andernach. From 1956 the anti-aircraft tank M42 Duster was also used
- May 29, 1956 to July 1, 1956 : Commissioning of five torpedo speedboats of the herring gull class in Kiel
- June 5, 1956 : Four former navy clearing boats put into service after being taken over by the US Navy
- January 21, 1957 : Takeover of the fleet service boatOste
- April 1, 1957 : Subordination of the 1st mine sweeping squadron to NATO as the first association of the German Navy
- June 20, 1957 : Arrival of the first F-84F Thunderstreak fighter aircraft from the USA in Bremerhaven
- August 24, 1957 : Lufttransportgeschwader 61 is set up in Erding as the first flying unit of the Air Force.
- November 16, 1957 : The Jaguar speedboat is the first German ship to be launched.
- January 17, 1958 : The first US-borrowed destroyerUSS Anthony is taken over by the German Navy as Destroyer 1 .
- Spring 1958 : 1800 of the planned 10,680 armored personnel carriers of the type HS 30 are ordered.
- August 1, 1958 : Two naval squadrons with aircraft of the type Fairey Gannet and Hawker Sea Hawkbegin flight operations at Schleswig Air Base near Jagel
- November 6, 1958 : An extensive aircraft procurement program is approved. This provides for the procurement of 300 Lockheed F-104 “Starfighter” aircraft, 200 Fiat G.91 fighter-bombers and 60 “ Alouette ” helicopters .
- December 17, 1958 : Commissioning of the training ship Gorch Fock
- March 26, 1960 : Launch of the destroyer Hamburg (D 181) , type ship of class 101
The first major arms scandal broke out when the new army bought weapons for the first time. Several million D-Marks are said to have been paid as a bribe when buying almost 4,500 HS 30 armored personnel carriers. An investigative committee of the Bundestag could neither confirm nor refute these allegations.
DM, diabetes mellitus CAD, coronary artery disease CI, confidence interval.
Only a few case control studies have specifically examined the graft and patient survival in patients with preexisting DM. Some of these studies have produced conflicting results. While one study showed comparable short-term survival (mean follow-up 23 months) in patients with pre-transplant DM (n = 45) and matched non-diabetic controls (n = 45), another study reported better survival in diabetics requiring pharmacologic treatment to achieve glycemic control as compared to diet-controlled diabetics or non-diabetics during a median follow-up of 41 months. 15 , 16 In the later study, two thirds of patients were diagnosed with DM only after referral to a transplant center suggesting a shorter duration of DM prior to transplantation and hence a better outcome. 16 In contrast, when Shields et al. retrospectively compared 78 patients with pre-transplant DM to age- and gender-matched patients without DM undergoing transplantation during the same period, there was a higher mortality in patients with DM compared to non-diabetics (36 vs. 9%, P = 0.001) over a median follow-up of 15 and 21 months, respectively. 17 In this study, 1- and 5-year graft and patient survival was significantly worse for diabetics. Although there was no significant difference in survival between diet-controlled diabetics and non-diabetic controls, posttransplant survival was lowest for those who required insulin to control their DM followed by those who required oral hypoglycemic agents. 17
We performed a case control study where 57 patients with preexisting DM were compared to 114 age-, gender-, and race-matched patients without DM transplanted at our institution during the same period. 18 Of the 57 patients with DM, 26 were on insulin, 28 were on oral hypoglycemic agents, and three were on diet. 18 Diabetic patients were followed for a mean of 38 months and case-controls for 45 months. Acute rejection episodes (51% vs. 25%, P = 0.0009) and incidence of cardiovascular (61% vs. 22%, P < 0.001), renal (60% vs. 20%, P < 0.001), respiratory (25% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.001), and neurological (32% vs. 7.0%, P <0.001) complications were found to be significantly higher in DM group compared to non-DM group. Both major (54% vs. 30%, P = 0.002) and minor (30% vs. 8%, P < 0.001) infections were also higher in the DM group. Despite higher complication rates, 1-year (87% vs. 77%) and 2-year (82% vs. 70%) patient survival was similar in both groups. However, 5-year survival was only 34% in the diabetic group compared with 68% in the non-DM group (P = 0.002). This difference in survival remained significant even when patients with pre-transplant renal insufficiency were excluded. 18 Post transplant hospital stay was similar in both groups suggesting that immediate post-operative recovery was excellent in patients with DM. Our study and other previous studies confirmed that the presence of DM has only marginal impact on short-term (1-2 years) survival but significantly lower survival was noted with longer follow-up.
To corroborate the above observations, and to determine whether the severity of DM was a predictor of outcome, we examined United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database from 1994 (when UNOS started entering data on the presence of DM among liver transplant recipients) to 2001. 19 After excluding patients with incomplete data, retransplantation, and children, we identified 3,417 (16%) patients with DM and 17,974 without DM. Approximately half the patients (n = 1,591) with DM were using insulin, and we assumed that the dependency on insulin was an indirect measurement of the severity of liver disease. Patients with DM were about 5 years older than non-diabetics, and had a higher prevalence of hypertension (20% vs. 8.5%, P < 0.001) and coronary artery disease (CAD 6.3% vs. 1.7%, P < 0.001). The characteristics of diabetic patients who were on insulin were similar to those who were not on insulin. The patient and graft survival was significantly lower in patients with DM, and this difference was apparent at 1 year after transplantation and worsened with longer follow up. Five-year survival in patients who were on insulin at the time of transplantation was 56.7% as compared to 67% in those without diabetes. Survival of those diabetics who were not on insulin was relatively better than those who were on insulin. Patients with CAD had lower patient survival (5-year survival 57.3% vs. 74.3%, P <0.0001), and on multivariate analysis, presence of CAD was an independent predictor of mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.4, confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.7). In this analysis, presence of hypertension was associated with lower survival, but it was not an independent predictor. When patients with both CAD and DM were compared with those with either disease alone, patients with both CAD and DM were 60% more likely to die than those with either disease alone. 19 These observations confirmed the independent and confounding effects of the severity of DM and the presence on CAD on patient survival.
The lower survival in diabetic patients with CAD is predictable. Cardiovascular complications are the major causes of mortality after liver transplantation and other non-cardiac surgery in patients with DM. 20-23 CAD is independently [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 10.4] associated with perioperative myocardial infarction following noncardiac surgery. 20 Of patients with known or suspected cardiac disease undergoing intra-abdominal or thoracic procedures, 13.1% had serious cardiac complications, including death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. 21 Since most patients with CAD are not transplanted, there are no large prospective studies examining at the incidence of cardiac complications after LT in patients with preexisting CAD. In one small retrospective study of 32 patients with known CAD, overall 3-year mortality after LT was 50%. In addition, 81% of survivors had intra-operative and post-operative complications. 22 We and others have shown than CAD is a major cause of late morbidity and mortality. 18 , 23 A retrospective review of liver transplant recipients surviving over 3 years found that cardiovascular complications were the cause of death in 8 of 22 patients. 23
The prevalence of CAD in patients with end-stage liver disease is at least the same or greater than in the general population, 24 but patients with DM are 3-4 times more likely to have history of CAD. 13 Significant coronary stenosis is often clinically silent in patients with liver disease. 25 , 26 A retrospective study of cardiac catheterization data on 97 renal transplant recipients showed asymptomatic stenosis (≥ 70% stenosis) of one or more coronary arteries in 33% of type 1 and 48% of type 2 DM patients. 27 These data suggest that patients with long-standing DM and those with history suspicious of CAD may have a high prevalence of CAD and this may partly explain the higher mortality in these patients. Patients with DM may benefit from routine, pre-operative cardiac catheterization in addition to dobutamine echocardiogram or thallium scans. Although all transplant centers perform at least one form of stress test to evaluate the underlying risk of CAD, one of the caveats of the stress test is the failure to achieve target heart rate, principally due to usage of beta-blockers or fatigue. In patients with DM, it is also prudent to evaluate carotid and intracranial arteries with Doppler ultrasound. Physicians caring for patients with potential liver transplant recipients should aggressively pursue early detection of coronary artery disease, anatomic correction of existing CAD before transplant, and modification of any identified risk factors. It is reasonable to deny liver transplantation to those with coronary artery disease that is not amenable to surgery or stents and to those with borderline left ventricular ejection fraction.
Patients with DM have many other confounding risk factors including obesity and renal failure. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1999-2002) showed that the prevalence of obesity, defined as BMI > 30, is 54.8% among patients with DM. 13 Among patients who undergo liver transplantation, 14% are obese and 7% are either severely obese (BMI > 35) or morbidly obese (BMI > 40). 27 , 28 We had shown a higher morbidity and significantly higher 30-day and 1- to 5-year mortality in morbidly obese (BMI > 40) patients. 28 , 29 In addition, we found that morbid obesity was an independent predictor, after adjusting for other comorbidities, of mortality after transplantation (OR 1.5), mostly due to cardiovascular complications. 29
Renal failure is another important negative predictor of survival after liver transplantation. Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, accounting for 44% of new cases in the US. 13 Renal dysfunction is very common in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and it is a major source of morbidity and mortality. We determined independent predictors and natural history of renal dysfunction in 172 consecutive liver transplant recipients and found that pre-existing DM was an independent predictor for immediate dialysis (OR 3.8, CI 1.1-13.1) and permanent, severe (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) renal failure (HR 0.0, CI 1.5-43.4). 30 Several studies, which had addressed the impact of renal function on liver transplant outcomes, have found that pre- and post-transplant renal dysfunction increased the risk of post-transplant complications and mortality. 31-39 Using UNOS database, our group had shown that patients with pre-operative moderate or severe renal dysfunction had an increased incidence of primary graft nonfunction, and significantly lower 30-day, 1-, and 2-year patient survival rates even after controlling for UNOS status, BMI, etiology of liver disease, age. and sex. 39 Similarly, new onset of severe renal failure after liver transplantation is an independent predictor of mortality. 30
One of the important functions of the selection process of transplant recipients is to determine whether the recipient can withstand a transplant operation and emerge with an acceptable quality of life. Given the limited number of organs, it is in the best interest of the transplant community to allocate them to patients who will benefit to the greatest extent. Although individual risk factors such as age, obesity, renal failure, and presence of CAD or DM may have an independent impact on the outcome, it is important to assess the confounding effects of these risk factors in each recipient before liver transplantation. We and others have found that the immediate and late outcome of liver transplantation is dependent on many recipient factors including age, race, body mass index (BMI), presence of diabetes, pre-transplant serum creatinine, cause and severity of liver disease, and UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) status at the time of transplantation. 40
Using some of the above variables, we developed a model that predicted mortality at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years in a reliable way and validated this model in a large cohort of patients. In our model, the seven pre-transplant variables that had a significant influence on the posttransplant outcome were age, race, BMI, UNOS status (predictably patients who were in ICU had a worse outcome), diagnosis, serum bilirubin, and serum creatinine. Unfortunately, we did not have information on DM and CAD on most patients and therefore these variables could not be included in the model. Although our model appeared to be very robust in validation analysis, our model has not been tested prospectively. In general, prediction models need to be treated with caution since the predicted mortality is only an approximation and may not apply to an “individual” patient. The decision not to transplant a patient should be based on sound clinical judgment and the expected outcome used only for guidance.
Based on published evidence, it appears that patients with long-standing DM have a lower survival and higher morbidity. Uncomplicated DM is not a relative or absolute contra indication for liver transplantation, but those patients with micro- or macro-vascular complications including CAD, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetic retinopathy, or renal complications including micro-albuminuria, gross proteinura, and renal failure should be considered as relative contra indication for liver transplantation. 31 , 41 Patients with long-standing DM should undergo extensive work-up including stress thallium or dobutamine echocardiogram, carotid duplex, and urine tests for micro- and macro-albuminuria. It is also reasonable to do routine coronary angiogram in these patients before liver transplantation especially those over 50 years of age and those with retinopathy, neuropathy, or nephropathy. Similarly, even asymptomatic patients with prior coronary artery stents should have routine coronary arteriogram. 42 Patients with generalized small vessel disease or those who have significant CAD that is not amenable to surgery or stenting should not be offered liver transplantation. Patients with renal disease could be considered for combined liver and kidney transplantation, but if they also have significant vascular disease, it should be considered an absolute contra indication for liver transplantation. Anecdotally, patients with severe gastroparesis, especially when it is seen in association with diabetic autonomic neuropathy, that is not responsive to medical therapy do not do well after liver transplantation and should be considered a relative or even an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. 43-45
Future studies should focus on risk stratification of patients with DM undergoing liver transplantation and better interventions to reduce the risk of diabetic complications before and after liver transplantation.
USS Anthony (DD-172/ DM-12) - History
This is a complete list of all Bath Iron Works production, listed in order by BIW hull number. Small repair or overhaul jobs that were not assigned hull numbers are not included.
This list was compiled and is maintained by Andrew Toppan, using sources listed at the bottom of the document.
The first column is the Bath Iron Works hull number, followed by the vessel's name, the type/size/class of the vessel, the owner/customer for the vessel, the type of work done (new construction, overhaul, etc.), the date the vessel was delivered, and the fate or status of the vessel. For ships that remain in existence the current name is listed in the status/fate column if no name is listed, the vessel retains its original name.
For conversions, repairs, etc., the vessel's new name (at completion) is listed under "name", the original name and description are listed under "type", and the nature of the conversion is listed under "work type" the date given is for redelivery or completion, as appropriate.
Eskew, Garnett Laidlaw. Cradle of Ships . G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1958.
Snow, Ralph L. Bath Iron Works: The First Hundred Years . Anthoensen Press, Portland, 1987.
List of Ships . Bath Iron Works Department 55, 1995.
Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships . Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C., 1959-1991.
Special thanks to everyone who has provided updated information about these ships.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Currently, the standard of care for a treatment-naïve patient with HIV-1 is a three-drug, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen that is started as soon as possible after a patient tests positive for HIV. A foundation of HAART is the administration of drugs that inhibit HIV viral replication at several stages in the lifecycle through different mechanisms to prevent viral resistance to any single agent. However, the selection of these drugs and the life-long treatment of a patient with HIV can be complex. Management of a HAART regimen is a multifaceted process that should be administered by, or in consultation with, a provider with specific training as defined by the HIV-Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This approach is crucial to optimize patient care as studies have demonstrated provider experience positively correlates with improved patient outcomes. Healthcare professionals should work as a team to ensure they have aomprehensive patient history before selecting a HAART combination. Additionally, a board-certified infectious disease pharmacist who specializes in HIV and HAART is an invaluable consulting member of the interprofessional healthcare team. Nurses will help monitor therapy, note progress or lack thereof, and verify patient compliance with therapy, which is of paramount importance with HAART. As always, healthcare team coordination and patient education are critical components to maximize patient adherence, prevent further spread of disease, and provideontinuity of care to the patients. Interprofessional teamwork will optimize the therapeutic benefit of HAART.