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Glasboro Summit 1967 - History

Glasboro Summit 1967 - History

Glasboro Summit 1967

L-R: Mr. Sukhodrev (Kosygin's interpreter, partially obscured), Mr. William Krimer (Pres. Johnson's interpreter), President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin.

President Johnson met with his Soviet counterpart, Aleksi Kosygin, at a summit meeting in Glassboro, New Jersey. The meeting accomplished very little. An attempt was made to move toward an ABM (anti-ballistic missile) treaty, but Kosygin did not seem to have the ability to even discuss the issue. The summit took place on June 23, 1967



50 Years Ago This Week: The President Meets the Russians

Milestone moments do not a year make. Often, it&rsquos the smaller news stories that add up, gradually, to big history. With that in mind, in 2017 TIME History will revisit the entire year of 1967, week by week, as it was reported in the pages of TIME. Catch up on last week&rsquos installment here.

It was a somewhat strange place for the first U.S.-USSR summit in six years: Glassboro, N.J., a college town that boasted a convenient location between New York and Washington and a fancy enough house (the college president’s) to host President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Aleksei Nikolayevich Kosygin. As TIME noted in a cover story on the meeting, “neither side was going to open the way to a major breakthrough” but the meeting was still significant. When the two discussed the joys of grandfatherhood &mdash Johnson’s daughter had given birth that week&mdash it was not mere small talk. Rather, it was in hopes of securing a more peaceful world for future generations. As Johnson put it, “You don’t want my grandson fighting you, and I don’t want you shooting at him.”

For all that, the meeting almost never happened, as TIME explained:

From Washington’s viewpoint, there were at least four powerful arguments against the meeting &mdash the four sterile cold-war Summits during the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations, most notably the 1960 Paris meeting that broke up over the U-2 incident as soon as it began, and John Kennedy’s unhappy Viennese deadlock with Nikita Khrushchev in 1961. Also, Washington officialdom has a built-in predisposition against high-level meetings without detailed preparation and a concrete agenda. Finally, the Administration was opposed to a meeting that would strengthen Kosygin’s hand in his Middle Eastern propaganda push, which was the main reason for his visit to the U.S.

Yet from the moment word arrived on June 16 that Kosygin was coming, the White House felt that protocol as well as good taste required at least a gesture of hospitality. As speculation increased, White House Press Secretary George Christian announced in Washington: “The President has made it clear that Mr. Kosygin would be welcome here, or at Camp David, or some other convenient place near by for either a social visit or substantive discussions.”

…There, for two days, the invitation rested. Johnson’s calendar began filling up. Kosygin, who had landed in New York on June 17 with his married daughter, gracious, well-dressed Liudmila Gvishiani, went about his business and pleasure, giving the impression that he was waiting for further word from Washington. “It is not up to me,” he said. By foot and limousine, he toured Manhattan from Wall Street to Harlem and later, Liudmila, who speaks English and was full of smiles, took an excursion to Times Square, went to the opera (La Gioconda), the movies (Barefoot in the Park, Blow-up), and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, where the photographers delighted in finding her in the Egyptian wing. Kosygin made plans to go to the opera himself (when he had to cancel, he sent roses to “the workers of the opera house”).

One place he would not go was Washington. Just as Johnson was unwilling to appear to be buttressing the Russian’s presence at the U.N., Kosygin did not want the Arabs to view him as a supplicant at Johnson’s table. But four days after he arrived, the feeling in Washington had tilted in favor of a meeting. Johnson has been accused in the past of neglecting diplomacy and missing opportunities to treat with the Communists. Now, moreover, there was a human desire to size up Kosygin, who, despite his wooden mien, is recognized as the closest thing the Kremlin has to a statesman in the Western sense. West European sentiment favored the meeting. Furthermore, there was the belief in Washington that everything possible should be done to keep the line open to Moscow. Finally, at a noon-hour meeting with Kosygin, Secretary of State Dean Rusk made the deal. Kosygin had been a flop at the United Nations. He was increasingly eager to make some showing of success.

But there was clearly more work to be done. “One meeting,” Johnson told the press, “does not make a peace.”

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Golden Celebration

To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the summit, an open house will be held June 24 from noon to 4 p.m. at Hollybush. The former residence is at 501 Whitney Ave., Glassboro. Visitors will be restricted to the first floor, which includes the room in which President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin held talks. Hollybush also is open to visitors by appointment during the week. Call (856) 256-4240.

"The White House brought in furniture, china, linen and telephones for the meeting," says Lori Marshall, of Mullica Hill, Rowan's assistant vice president of university relations.

"Each room was used for a different purpose," she says. The East Parlor served as the White House press room and other rooms were designated for use separately by the Americans and Soviets.

Johnson and Kosygin, along with their interpreters, met in Robinson's library, a small room in which the two could sit in adjacent chairs and talk without distraction. New drapes were installed to ensure privacy.

The biggest change to Hollybush, however, may have been the installation of air conditioning. At the time of the summit, only two buildings on campus --the administration building and the library -- had air conditioning. In Bole's book, one White House aide recalled the heat and its impact on Hollybush, a Victorian mansion built in 1849. "If Kosygin walks into this house and it is as hot and sticky as it is right now, he will turn around and walk right out." So, a dozen air conditioners were quickly installed in six rooms in the middle of the night.

While Hollybush was undergoing its makeover, the college prepared for the arrival of media from across the country and aroung the world. Esbjornson Gym became a media center for print, radio and television.

Penny Whilden, then 22 and a member of the public relations office, worked closely with the media. "I got called into work on Thursday evening by Don Bagin (director of media relations). I had to take members of the White House press corps over to Esby Gym," the Pitman resident says.

On Friday, she was assigned to the gym, where Bell Telephone employees installed more than 350 phones and two microwave towers for newspaper reporters and television crews. "I never saw so many cables in my life. There were wires all over the floors."

The sounds of manual typewriters, teletype machines and telephones reverberated around the building. "It was loud, but you got used to it," says Whilden, now 72 and retired.

Among the journalists was Jim Dufford, likely the youngest reporter there. He had just completed his freshman year and wrote for the college newspaper, The Whit. Dufford, then 20, was able to get a press credential, thanks to Ben Resnik, a media relations staffer.

"There were camera stands set up outside Hollybush and reporters gathered around," says Dufford, now 69, who remembers CBS newsman Dan Rather in attendance. "I was in awe of those guys," he adds.

But he didn't feel intimidated. "I was treated as a colleague because I had a press pass around my neck. They were nice to me and supportive of me," says Dufford, now a Jackson resident who works in public relations.

Not every member of the media was stationed at the gym. Nick Petroni, who was 18 years old and had just completed his freshman year at Notre Dame, found himself and his family at the center of the action.

"My family had cut short our vacation to the World's Fair in Montreal and returned to our home on June 22," says Petroni, now 68, and a Glassboro-based auditor. "Lee Linder (a reporter for) the Associated Press knocked on our door around 9:30 p.m. and asked my dad if they could use our home during the summit."

His parents agreed and the wire service set up a temporary bureau in the family's Whitney Avenue home, about 50 yards from Hollybush.

Petroni was pressed into service as a photo runner. When Associated Press photographers finished shooting a roll of film, he was part of a relay team that navigated its way through the crowds and returned the film to his home to be developed. He recalls that each runner received a $100 U.S. savings bond from the AP for their work.

Anticipation grew on the morning of June 23 as crowds began lining up near Hollybush to await the leaders' arrival. Security was tight, with memories of President John F. Kennedy's assassination on Nov. 22, 1963, ever present.

Members of the Secret Service, New Jersey State Police and the Glassboro Police Department, as well as police officers from other South Jersey towns, fanned out across the campus.

"There were sharpshooters on tops of the buildings," Whilden recalls.

Johnson, who arrived first by helicopter from Philadelphia, received a warm welcome from the cheering crowds outside Hollybush. Their signs told the story: "Glassboro Loves God, Country and Lyndon Johnson" and "Congratulations, Grandpa." The latter was a reference to the birth of Johnson's first grandchild earlier in the week.

Kosygin arrived in Glassboro via the New Jersey Turnpike, having gotten an impromptu look at the industrial and agricultural facets of the state. Glassboro and its college impressed the premier. "You have chosen a beautiful place," he told Johnson.

The two leaders met at 11 a.m. and spent the first hour getting to know each other, finding common ground in the fact that they were both grandfathers. They, then exchanged their views on the world, including Vietnam, the Middle East and the nuclear arms race, specifically the prospect of limiting anti-ballistic missile systems.

After a luncheon with their staffs and key government officials, the leaders resumed talks. As the day wound down, Kosygin suggested returning for more dialogue on Sunday and Johnson immediately accepted the offer.

Outside Hollybush, the president spoke to reporters. At the end of his remarks, Johnson casually mentioned: "We are inviting ourselves to return here at 1:30 on Sunday afternoon and will continue our discussions here then."

The news rejuvenated the crowd, some of whom had been waiting in the heat for nine hours. As he was leaving in his limousine, Kosygin ordered his driver to stop the car and he addressed the cheering crowd briefly. Speaking in Russian, with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin as his translator, Kosygin said: "I would like to assure you that our Soviet people want only one thing -- to live in peace with you and for war everywhere to be stopped."

Sunday's talks did not produce a breakthrough, but Johnson believed the meetings were not in vain since the two leaders got the chance to discuss world issues for 11 hours. It was the first summit between U.S. and Soviet leaders since Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev met in 1961.

"It's fair to say that (this) summit has made the world a little less dangerous," Johnson said.

Lawrence P. Markowitz, associate professor of political science at Rowan University, believes the summit remains relevant today.

"The 1967 Hollybush summit between U.S. President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin, held at the height of the Cold War, provides an enduring example of international cooperation and diplomacy," he says. "Fifty years later, this 'Spirit of Hollybush' offers some hope that America can identify mutual interests, even with her greatest adversaries -- and build on them to pursue peace and prosperity in the 21st century."

Marshall says that even after 50 years, students know the history of Hollybush. It's simply part of the school's DNA.

"Hollybush and (the) summit history are part of our admission tours and there is summit 'trivia' in student and alumni activities and programming," says Marshall. "History classes and the Bantivoglio Honors program have conducted research projects and hosted seminars there to help immerse students in the history."

Somehow, Glassboro and the college had met the challenge of hosting the hastily organized, but historic, meeting of world leaders. New York newspaper columnist Jimmy Breslin, who died in March, captured the scene best. In describing the moment when Kosygin addressed the crowd at the end of the first day of talks, he wrote:

"When the people who govern the world think of the world as they would like it to be," he wrote, "they are thinking of Glassboro, N.J., at 4:45 on a hot summer afternoon yesterday."

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These 14 Photos of New Jersey In The 1960s Are Mesmerizing

The 1960s were a tumultuous time in New Jersey’s history. On March 6, 1962, a savage snowstorm hit the state – hundreds of residents were evacuated from the shore area. On August 2, 1964, New Jersey experienced its first race riot, in Jersey City. In the following weeks, similar riots occurred in Paterson and Elizabeth dozens were injured and hundreds were arrested. From June 23 to June 25, 1967, President Johnson met with Soviet premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey. In the midst of the Cold War, the Glassboro Summit Conference helped improve relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, though no specific agreements were reached. Just weeks later, New Jersey’s worst race riots broke out in Newark.

Of course, there was creation, innovation and plenty of fun amidst the chaos. In 1961, the first enclosed shopping mall on the East Coast opened in Cherry Hill. In 1963, snowboarding pioneer Tom Sims of Haddonfield created the “ski board,” an early version of the snowboard. In 1965, Mildred Barry Hughes was first woman elected to the New Jersey Senate. In 1969, the New Jersey lottery got its start and New Jersey native Buzz Aldrin (from Glen Ridge) landed on the moon with Neil Armstrong. Life isn’t all about the big events though, sometimes it’s about the little moments. The following shots capture everyday life in New Jersey in the 1960s.


Makeshift news bureau

AP borrows family's home

Across the street and less than 100 yards away, Rocco and Josephine Petroni and their four children lived in a white two-story home with a columned porch at 600 Whitney Ave. The family had just returned early from a vacation to the Montreal Exposition in the late afternoon of June 22.

That night they heard a knock at their door.

Interested in this topic? You may also want to view these photo galleries:

"It was Lee Linder, an Associated Press reporter, who told us what was about to happen at the college," recalled Nicholas Petroni, one of the family sons who was home for the summer after his freshman year at Notre Dame University.

Linder was scouting around for a base of operation for the wire service editors, photographer and himself to cover the imminent summit in an era of manual typewriters and public pay phones &mdash long before cellphones, computers, the Internet and social media.

Thrilled at the prospect of being part of the event, Petroni's parents allowed the AP to use the father's accounting business office as a satellite newsroom complete with teletype machines.

Nick L. Petroni stands in the room where President Lyndon B. Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin held a summit back in June 1967 at the Hollybush Mansion in Glassboro. Petroni, A teenager who lived across the street at the time, Petroni was recruited as a film runner for the Associated Press during the event.
(Photo: Joe Lamberti/Staff Photographer)

The AP also converted the basement into a darkroom for the chemical development of photographs from camera film so the pictures could be sent via telephone lines and photo machines to AP offices and to newspaper offices around the world &mdash including the Courier-Post &mdash that subscribed to its wire service.

What's more, Petroni was hired by the AP and given a press ID to be a runner so he could shuttle the photographer's camera film between Hollybush and his own home for speedy development.

"It was an amazing experience," he said.

"I stood by their photographer on the Hollybush lawn both of the two days and would run through the crowd to take the film back to the house as quickly as possible," he said last week near the same Hollybush lawn spot where he stood in 1967 as a teen.

An envelope from the Associated Press that held pictures from the Johnson-Kosygin summit. The AP, which used a neighbor's house across the street as a makeshift newsroom, gifted every photo published during the summit to the family who housed them.
(Photo: Joe Lamberti/Staff Photographer)

The 68-year-old Petroni recalled that on the final day, the photographer asked him to go back to his house to retrieve a telephoto camera lens and meet him at the college's baseball field, where Johnson was to depart by helicopter.

Petroni said he was stopped by three Secret Service agents en route, who made him open the lens case each time to check the contents.

"My dad would not accept any money from AP for use of our home, so they gave us copies of every photograph AP published of the summit, all of which were developed in our basement," he said, showing an album of dozens of photographs.

He said AP also wrote about the family's generous hospitality in a news journal and also gave him and his three siblings U.S. savings bonds.


Contents

Glassboro's early history was built on the manufacturing of glass. The town was first established in 1779 by Solomon Stanger as "Glass Works in the Woods" glass manufacturers over the years since include Heston-Carpenter Glass Works, Olive Glass Works, Harmony Glass Works, Temperanceville Glass Works, Whitney Brothers Glass Works, Owens Bottle Company, Owens Illinois Glass Company, and Anchor Hocking. [28]

In 1958, an epidemic of typhoid fever broke out in the predominantly African American neighborhoods of Elsmere and Lawns, which was attributed to 20 years of municipal neglect of the sanitary infrastructure. [29]

The Glassboro Summit Conference between U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin took place in Glassboro. Johnson and Kosygin met for three days from June 23 to June 25, 1967, at Glassboro State College (later renamed Rowan University). The location was chosen as a compromise. Kosygin, having agreed to address the United Nations in New York City, wanted to meet in New York. Johnson, wary of encountering protests against the Vietnam War, preferred to meet in Washington, D.C. They agreed on Glassboro because it was equidistant between the two cities. [30] The generally amicable atmosphere of the summit was referred to as the "Spirit of Glassboro," although the leaders failed to reach agreement on limiting anti-ballistic missile systems.

On June 19, 1986, Ronald Reagan became the first sitting president to speak at a high school graduation when he spoke at the Glassboro High School commencement ceremonies. [31]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 9.36 square miles (24.24 km 2 ), including 9.32 square miles (24.14 km 2 ) of land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km 2 ) of water (0.41%). [2] [3]

Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the borough include Elsemere. [32]

Climate Edit

The climate in the area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Glassboro has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. [35]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18802,088
18902,642 26.5%
19002,677*1.3%
19102,821*5.4%
19203,073 8.9%
19304,799 56.2%
19404,925 2.6%
19505,867 19.1%
196010,253 74.8%
197012,938 26.2%
198014,574 12.6%
199015,614 7.1%
200019,068 22.1%
201018,579 −2.6%
2019 (est.)20,288 [13] [36] [37] 9.2%
Population sources: 1880–2000 [38]
1880–1920 [39] 1880–1890 [40]
1890–1910 [41] 1910–1930 [42]
1930–1990 [43] 2000 [44] [45] 2010 [10] [11] [12]
* = Lost territory in previous decade. [22]

Census 2010 Edit

The 2010 United States census counted 18,579 people, 6,158 households, and 3,972 families in the borough. The population density was 2,022.9 per square mile (781.0/km 2 ). There were 6,590 housing units at an average density of 717.5 per square mile (277.0/km 2 ). The racial makeup was 72.25% (13,423) White, 18.67% (3,469) Black or African American, 0.11% (21) Native American, 2.87% (534) Asian, 0.05% (10) Pacific Islander, 3.12% (580) from other races, and 2.92% (542) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.42% (1,378) of the population. [10]

Of the 6,158 households, 28.1% had children under the age of 18 44.4% were married couples living together 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present and 35.5% were non-families. Of all households, 22.5% were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.13. [10]

19.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 26.4% from 18 to 24, 21.1% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.4 years. For every 100 females, the population had 97.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 95.0 males. [10]

The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $54,795 (with a margin of error of +/- $3,793) and the median family income was $67,171 (+/- $9,496). Males had a median income of $49,695 (+/- $4,361) versus $43,489 (+/- $2,608) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $23,108 (+/- $1,421). About 9.3% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over. [46]

Census 2000 Edit

As of the 2000 United States Census [18] there were 19,068 people, 6,225 households, and 4,046 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,071.3 people per square mile (799.4/km 2 ). There were 6,555 housing units at an average density of 712.0 per square mile (274.8/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the borough was 74.5% White, 19.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.8% of the population. [44] [45]

There were 6,225 households, out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.0% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.17. [44] [45]

In the borough the population was spread out, with 22.1% under the age of 18, 25.6% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 16.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males. [44] [45]

The median income for a household in the borough was $44,992, and the median income for a family was $55,246. Males had a median income of $40,139 versus $30,358 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $18,113. About 8.5% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. [44] [45]

The Glassboro Wildlife Management Area covers almost 2,400 acres (970 ha) in portions of Glassboro, Clayton and Monroe Township. [47] [48]

Local government Edit

Glassboro is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government, which is used in 218 municipalities (of the 565) statewide, making it the most common form of government in New Jersey. [49] The governing body is comprised of the Mayor and the Borough Council, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. The Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council is comprised of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. [8] The Borough form of government used by Glassboro is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council. [50] [51]

As of 2020 [update] , the Mayor of Glassboro is Democrat John E. Wallace, whose term of office ends December 31, 2022. [4] Members of the Borough Council are Council President George P. Cossabone Sr. (D, 2022), Joseph M. D'Alessandro (D, 2020), Anthony J. Fiola (D, 2020 elected to serve an unexpired term), Andrew Halter (D, 2021), Anna Miller (D, 2021) and Daniele Brida Spence (D, 2022). [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57]

In March 2019, Danielle Spence was selected to fill the seat on the Borough Council expiring in December 2019 that had been held by Edward A. Malandro. [58] Spence served on an interim basis until the November 2019 general election, when she was elected to serve the balance of the term of office and won a full three-year term, while Anthony J. Fiola was elected to serve an unexpired term. [55]

Anna Miller was appointed by the borough council in March 2013 from among three candidates offered by the municipal Democratic committee to fill the vacant seat of George Cossabone. [59] [60]

Federal, state and county representation Edit

Glassboro is located in the 1st Congressional District [61] and is part of New Jersey's 3rd state legislative district. [11] [62] [63] Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Glassboro had been in the 4th state legislative district. [64]

Gloucester County is governed by a board of county commissioners, whose seven members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis in partisan elections, with two or three seats coming up for election each year. At a reorganization meeting held each January, the Board selects a Director and a Deputy Director from among its members. As of 2021 [update] , Gloucester County's Commissioners are Director Robert M. Damminger (D, West Deptford Township 2021), [72] Deputy Director Frank J. DiMarco (D, Deptford Township 2022), [73] Lyman J. Barnes (D, Logan Township 2023), [74] Daniel Christy (D, Washington Township 2022), [75] Jim Jefferson (D, Woodbury 2023), [76] Jim Lavender (D, Woolwich Township 2021), [77] and Heather Simmons (D, Glassboro 2023). [78] [79]

Constitutional officers elected countywide are: County Clerk James N. Hogan (D, Franklinville in Franklin Township 5-year term ends 2022), [80] [81] [82] Sheriff Carmel Morina (D, Greenwich Township 3-year term ends 2021) [83] [84] [85] and Surrogate Giuseppe "Joe" Chila (D, Woolwich Township 5-year term ends 2022). [86] [87] [88] [82] [89] [85]

Politics Edit

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 9,772 registered voters in Glassboro, of which 3,733 (38.2%) were registered as Democrats, 1,408 (14.4%) were registered as Republicans and 4,617 (47.2%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 14 voters registered to other parties. [90]

In the 2020 presidential election, Democrat Joe Biden received 59.9% of the vote (5,162 cast), ahead of Republican Donald Trump with 38.5% (3,320), and other candidates with 1.6% among the 8,798 ballots cast by the borough's 11,661 voters, for a turnout of 75.4%. [91] [92] In the 2016 presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 56.3% of the vote (4,135 cast), ahead of Republican Donald Trump with 37.8% (2,779 votes), and other candidates with 5.9% among the 7,347 ballots cast by the borough's 11,512 registered voters, for a turnout of 63.8%. [93] [94] In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 63.7% of the vote (4,578 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 34.6% (2,485 votes), and other candidates with 1.8% (128 votes), among the 7,252 ballots cast by the borough's 10,804 registered voters (61 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 67.1%. [95] [96] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 62.8% of the vote (4,516 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 35.4% (2,547 votes) and other candidates with 0.9% (62 votes), among the 7,195 ballots cast by the borough's 10,312 registered voters, for a turnout of 69.8%. [97] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 58.5% of the vote (3,930 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 40.1% (2,699 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (60 votes), among the 6,723 ballots cast by the borough's 9,801 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 68.6. [98]

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 53.0% of the vote (2,106 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 45.0% (1,786 votes), and other candidates with 2.0% (80 votes), among the 4,074 ballots cast by the borough's 10,838 registered voters (102 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 37.6%. [99] [100] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 51.7% of the vote (2,198 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 39.0% (1,659 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 6.7% (287 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (29 votes), among the 4,255 ballots cast by the borough's 9,958 registered voters, yielding a 42.7% turnout. [101]

The Glassboro Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. [102] As of the 2017–18 school year, the district, comprised of five schools, had an enrollment of 2,088 students and 179.2 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 11.7:1. [103] Schools in the district (with 2017–18 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics [104] ) are J. Harvey Rodgers School [105] 291 students in grades PreK and kindergarten, Dorothy L. Bullock School [106] 462 students in grades 1–3, Thomas E. Bowe Elementary School [107] 463 students in grades 4–6, Glassboro Intermediate School [108] 287 students in grades 7-8 and Glassboro High School [109] 533 students in grades 9-12. [110] [111]

Students from across the county are eligible to apply to attend Gloucester County Institute of Technology, a four-year high school in Deptford Township that provides technical and vocational education. As a public school, students do not pay tuition to attend the school. [112]

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden operates St. Michael the Archangel School in Clayton [113] the former St. Bridget Regional School in Glassboro merged into St. Michael in 2008. [114]

Rowan University is a public university with an enrollment of 19,500 undergraduate and graduate students in 2018–19. [115] The university was founded in 1923 as Glassboro Normal School on a 25-acre (10 ha) site donated by the borough. The school became New Jersey State Teachers College at Glassboro in 1937 and Glassboro State College in 1958. Starting in the 1970s, it expanded into a multi-purpose institution, adding programs in business, communications, and engineering. [27] Rowan Boulevard is a mixed-use development intended to provide a vibrant downtown district for Glassboro, incorporating university student life into its design, as part of an effort to accommodate a student body that is projected to grow to about 25,000 in 2023. [116]

Roads and highways Edit

As of May 2010 [update] , the borough had a total of 78.43 miles (126.22 km) of roadways, of which 57.61 miles (92.71 km) were maintained by the municipality, 13.29 miles (21.39 km) by Gloucester County and 7.53 miles (12.12 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation. [117]

Glassboro is crisscrossed by a number of major roads. County Route 553, [118] Route 47 [119] and Route 55 (limited access) [120] travel north–south, while U.S. Route 322 (much of which is also Mullica Hill Road) passes through east–west. [121]

Public transportation Edit

NJ Transit provides bus service to and from Philadelphia on the 313, 408 and 412 routes. [122] [123]

The Pureland East-West Community Shuttle connects the Pureland Industrial Complex and the Avandale Park and Ride. [124]

Passenger train service to Glassboro existed from 1860 to 1971. The Glassboro station used by the Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines is being renovated as a visitor center. [125] [126] [127] [128] A new station at Rowan University in the vicinity of the historic depot is the planned for the proposed Glassboro–Camden Line, an 18-mile (28.97 km) diesel multiple unit (DMU) light rail system. The terminal station would be one stop further at Main and High streets. [129] [130] [131] [132]

Walking and cycling Edit

Walking is a popular form of transportation especially around the university where many underclassmen are not permitted to have cars. [133]

The Glassboro - Williamstown Trail (also known as the Monroe Township Bikepath) runs for more than 6 miles (9.7 km) between Glassboro and the Williamstown section of Monroe Township. The trail traverses the Glassboro State Wildlife Refuge before terminating at Delsea Drive. [134] Future work will extend this trail along former railroad right of way from Delsea Drive to Rowan U's Bunce Hall. Path links to Elmer and Pitman are also proposed.

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Glassboro include:


Contents

With the United States gradually losing ground in the Vietnam War, the administration was looking for other solutions to the conflict.

On 5 June 1967 the Six-Day War began between Israel and the Arab states. The war led to an increase in Soviet-US diplomatic contact and cooperation there were some who hoped this could continue to help the US solve the Vietnam war and other pressing international issues. [ 1 ] Several days later the Soviet Union sent Premier Alexei Kosygin to New York to hold a speech on the then-ongoing Middle Eastern crisis at the United Nations headquarters. When the United States government was informed of this the Americans gladly welcomed Kosygin to a meeting between him and President Lyndon B. Johnson. On 13 June 1967 Johnson sought out J. William Fulbright, a Senator, at a White House reception. Llewellyn Thompson, then US ambassador to the USSR, believed that a conference could "start the process of moving toward an understanding with the Soviets". Fulbright even believed that Johnson was reconsidering his Vietnam strategy. Later Fulbright wrote two letters to Johnson about the importance of a summit between the two nations. Johnson agreed, and wrote a letter in return, which said they were waiting for a Soviet response for US invitation. Walt Rostow, the National Security Advisor at the time, said it was a 20 percent chance of the summit having a good effect on Soviet-US relations, and only a 10 percent chance of the summit going awry. [ 2 ]

The Soviet Political Bureau (Politburo) were divided over the usefulness of the summit. Andrei Gromyko, the Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time and still not a member of the Politburo, was able to win support for it. Gromyko noted that Soviet-US dialogue which had been suspended in 1963 should be reactivated, despite the Vietnam War putting a great deal strain on the two countries' relations. [ 3 ]

Kosygin agreed to address the United Nations wished to conduct the summit in New York. Johnson, wary of encountering protesters against the war in Vietnam, preferred to meet in Washington, D.C.. Roughly equidistant, Hollybush was selected as a compromise. The summit took place at Glassboro State College (now Rowan University) in Glassboro, New Jersey.


Resources

The following is a limited list of articles, books, and documents related to the Glassboro Summit. Each Section is provided separately through the Resource link on the top navigation bar. The items are primarily cited using the Chicago 16th Edition (Notes & Bibliography) style. You may need a Rowan University login to directly access some of the articles using the links below.

Detailed description of the Glassboro Summit:

Mccollister, Robert Jarrett. &ldquoSummit Diplomacy : the Consequences of Cold War Summits&rdquo. The Ohio State University / OhioLINK, 1992. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume XIV, Soviet Union. https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1964-68v14/pg_491

Various Documents and Speeches:

Books:

Bole, Robert D. Summit at Holly Bush. 1969 (New Jersey: Standard Publishing Company. 1969) | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Bole, Robert D. More Than Cold Stone: A History of Glassboro State College, 1923 - 1973. pp.239-241 | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Clearwater, John. Johnson, McNamara, and the Birth of SALT and the ABM Treaty 1963-1969. (Rutherford, Jew Jersey: Academic Research Group, 1999) | WorldCat Search

Gibbons, William Conrad. The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships: July, 1965-January, 1968. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1995) | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Johnson, Lyndon Baines. The Vantage Point: Perspective of the Presidency. 1963-1969. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1971), pp. 253-255. Rowan | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Newhouse, John. Cold Dawn: The Story of SALT. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1973), pp. 87-91. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Rostow, W.W. The Diffusion of Power: An Essay in Recent History. (New York: the Macmillan Co. 1972), pp. 415-418. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Wefing, John B. The Life and Times of Richard J. Hughes: The Politics of Civility. (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2009)
https://muse.jhu.edu/book/6151

News Articles:

"The Summit Comes to Glassboro, N.J." New York Times (1923-Current File), Jun 23, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

"Glassboro Meeting is the 8th U.S.- Soviet Summit." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Jun 24, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

TOM WICKER. "In the Nation: Reflections on Glassboro." New York Times (1923-Current File), Jun 27, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Roscoe Drummond. "Glassboro a Beginning." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Jun 28, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

"Glassboro Asks Trip to Moscow." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Jul 04, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Martin Weil Washington Post, Staff Writer. "Soviet Aims Haven't Changed since Glassboro, Ike Feels." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Jul 11, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Louis Harris. "Harris Survey: 19-Point Drop." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Aug 12, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

George Gallup. "LBJ Makes 3% Gain for Handling of Job." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Nov 26, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

JAMES F CLARITYSpecial to The New,York Times. "Glassboro Changes Little in a Year Now 'Summit City'." New York Times (1923-Current File), Jun 05, 1968. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Joseph Kraft. "Moment for Detente." The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), Jun 30, 1968. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

ELEANOR PINGREE. "A Parley at Glassboro, Recalling the Summit." New York Times (1923-Current File), May 28, 1972. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

MAURICE CARROLL. "Glassboro Returning to Normal as Summit Cleanup is Pressed." New York Times (1923-Current File), Jun 27, 1967. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

FRANK GRAZIAN. "Glassboro Ponders the Future of Hollybush, 1967 Summit Site." New York Times (1923-Current File), Mar 04, 1973. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

BERNARD WEINRAUB. "REAGAN DISCLOSES A 'SERIOUS EFFORT' BY SOVIET ON ARMS." New York Times, Jun 20, 1986, Late Edition (East Coast). | Linked to Rowan Library Search

"GLASSBORO: HISTORY'S TWIST." New York Times, Jun 20, 1986, Late Edition (East Coast). | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Gary Lee. "Soviet Officials Hint at Possibility of Better Relations." The Washington Post (1974-Current File), Jun 23, 1986. | L inked to Rowan Library Search

GELB, LESLIE H. "U.S. AIDES REPORT COMPROMISE OFFER BY SOVIET ON ARMS." New York Times, Jun 29, 1986, Late Edition (East Coast). | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Shapley, Deborah. "A Lesson from the Glassboro Summit." The Washington Post (1974-Current File), Oct 09, 1986. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

Malcolm, Andrew H. "Recalling Three Days that Shook Glassboro." New York Times (1923-Current File), Jun 23, 1992. | Linked to Rowan Library Search

US DEPT OF STATE: Release of Foreign Relations Volume on the Soviet Union, 1964-1968." M2 Presswire, Feb 22, 2001. | Linked to Rowan Library Search


Contents

With the United States gradually losing ground in the Vietnam War, the administration was looking for other solutions to the conflict.

On 5 June 1967 the Six-Day War began between Israel and the Arab states. The war led to an increase in Soviet-US diplomatic contact and cooperation there were some who hoped this could continue to help the US solve the Vietnam war and other pressing international issues. [1] Several days later the Soviet Union sent Premier Alexei Kosygin to New York to hold a speech on the then-ongoing Middle Eastern crisis at the United Nations headquarters. When the United States government was informed of this the Americans gladly welcomed Kosygin to a meeting between him and President Lyndon B. Johnson. On 13 June 1967 Johnson sought out J. William Fulbright, a Senator, at a White House reception. Llewellyn Thompson, then US ambassador to the USSR, believed that a conference could "start the process of moving toward an understanding with the Soviets". Fulbright even believed that Johnson was reconsidering his Vietnam strategy. Later Fulbright wrote two letters to Johnson about the importance of a summit between the two nations. Johnson agreed, and wrote a letter in return, which said they were waiting for a Soviet response for US invitation. Walt Rostow, the National Security Advisor at the time, said it was a 20 percent chance of the summit having a good effect on Soviet-US relations, and only a 10 percent chance of the summit going awry. [2]

The Soviet Political Bureau (Politburo) were divided over the usefulness of the summit. Andrei Gromyko, the Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time and still not a member of the Politburo, was able to win support for it. Gromyko noted that Soviet-US dialogue which had been suspended in 1963 should be reactivated, despite the Vietnam War putting a great deal strain on the two countries' relations. [3]

Kosygin had agreed to address the United Nations and as such, wished to conduct the summit in New York. Johnson, wary of encountering protesters against the war in Vietnam, preferred to meet in Washington, D.C.. Roughly equidistant, Hollybush was selected as a compromise. The summit took place at Glassboro State College (now Rowan University) in Glassboro, New Jersey.


Glasboro Summit 1967 - History

Glassboro has a rich history built on, none other than, the manufacturing of glass. Established in 1779 by Solomon Stanger, the town was first known as “Glass Works in the Woods.” Over the years, the glass factory changed ownership many times. It was known as Heston-Carpenter Glass Works, the Olive Works, the Harmony Glass Works, the Temperanceville Glass Works, the Whitney Brothers Glass Works, the Owens Bottle Company, the Owens Illinois Glass Company and Anchor Hocking.

During the 1840’s, the factory was under the ownership of the Whitney Brothers and Glassboro became one of the largest communities in Gloucester County with a blacksmith, wheel right, carpenter, shoemaker and mason. The Whitney Brothers also built the historic Hollybush mansion, where in 1967 President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin hosted the summit conference that led to a thaw in the Cold War and eased world tensions.

During the twentieth century the factory was relocated from the center of the town and changed its focus from glass manufacturing to the production of metal closures for glass and metal containers. Then in 1923, Glassboro gained recognition, as it became the home of the New Jersey Normal School, later to become Glassboro State College and now the renowned Rowan University.

History – The Past continued

conference that led to a thaw in the Cold War and eased world tensions.

During the twentieth century the factory was relocated from the center of the town and changed its focus from glass manufacturing to the production of metal closures for glass and metal containers. Then in 1923, Glassboro gained recognition, as it became the home of the New Jersey Normal School, later to become Glassboro State College and now the renowned Rowan University.


Watch the video: Glassboro Summit Oral History - Dr. George Neff (December 2021).

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