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The 5 Layers of the Atmosphere

The envelope of gas surrounding our planet Earth, known as the atmosphere, is organized into five distinct layers. These layers start at ground level, measured at sea level, and rise into what we call outer space. From the ground up they are: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere.
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Female Infanticide in Asia

In China and India alone, an estimated 2,000,000 baby girls go "missing" each year. They are selectively aborted, killed as newborns, or abandoned and left to die. Neighboring countries with similar cultural traditions, such as South Korea and Nepal, have also faced this problem. What are the traditions that lead to this massacre of baby girls?
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Hypothalamus Activity and Hormone Production

About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. Located in the diencephalon region of the forebrain, the hypothalamus is the control center for many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system. Connections with structures of the endocrine and nervous systems enable the hypothalamus to play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis.
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Inertia and the Laws of Motion

Inertia is the name for the tendency of an object in motion to remain in motion, or an object at rest to remain at rest unless acted upon by a force. This concept was quantified in Newton's First Law of Motion. The word inertia came from the Latin word iners , which means idle or lazy and was first used by Johannes Kepler.
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Definition and Examples of Digraphs in English

A digraph in the English language is a group of two successive letters ​that represents a single sound or phoneme. Common vowel digraphs include ai ( rain ), ay ( day ), ea ( teach ), ea ( bread ), ea ( break ), ee ( free ), ei ( eight ), ey ( key ), ie ( piece ), oa ( road ), oo ( book ), oo ( room ), ow ( slow ), and ue ( true ).
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Caffeine & Typing Speed

Purpose The purpose of this project is to determine whether taking caffeine affects typing speed. Hypothesis Typing speed is not affected by whether or not you take caffeine. (Remember: You cannot scientifically prove a hypothesis, however, you can disprove one.) Experiment Summary You are going to type the same text repeatedly for a specified length of time and compare how many words you typed before ingesting caffeine and afterward.
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The Imperfect Tense in Spanish

The imperfect tense in Spanish is the tense that expresses action in the past that has not been completed, that occurred habitually or frequently, or that took place over an indefinite period of time. It contrasts with the preterite tense, which expresses​ an action that took place at a definite time or has been completed.
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What Not to Bring to College

Putting together an awesome college packing list can seem simple enough…until you take a second look and begin to question whether or not you really need all of that stuff. So how can you decide what to bring -- and what to leave behind? While each student's situation is, of course, unique, there are some general don't-bring-'em items that definitely shouldn't be brought to college, whether you're a first-year student or a senior or at a large college or a super small one.
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Ten Tips for Coding Excel VBA Macros

Ten commonsense suggestions to make coding Excel VBA faster and easier. These tips are based on Excel 2010 (but they work in nearly all versions) and many were inspired by the O'Reilly book "Excel 2010 - The Missing Manual" by Matthew MacDonald. 1 - Always test your macros in a throwaway test spreadsheet, usually a copy of one that it's designed to work with.
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Ancient Egypt: Battle of Kadesh

Battle of Kadesh - Conflict & Date: The Battle of Kadesh was fought in 1274, 1275, 1285, or 1300 BC during the conflicts between the Egyptians and Hittite Empire. Armies & Commanders Egypt Ramses II approx. 20,000 men Hittite Empire Muwatalli II approx. 20,000-50,000 men Battle of Kadesh - Background: In response to waning Egyptian influence in Canaan and Syria, Pharaoh Ramses II prepared to campaign in the region during the fifth year of his reign.
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The Definition of Shape in Art

In the study of art, a shape is an enclosed space, a bounded two-dimensional form that has both length and width. Shapes are one of the seven elements of art, the building blocks that artists use to create images on canvas and in our minds. A shape's boundaries are defined by other elements of art such as lines, values, colors, and textures; and by adding value you can turn a shape into an illusion of its three-dimensional cousin, form.
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Second Grade Science Fair Projects

Second-graders tend to be very curious. Applying that natural inquisitiveness to a science fair project can yield great results. Look for a natural phenomenon that interests the student and have him or her ask questions about it. Expect to help a second-grade student plan the project, and offer guidance with a report or poster.
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The 10 Most Important Slavic Gods

Despite many Slavic areas being heavily Christian, there is still an interest in the old Slavic folk gods. In Slavic mythology, the gods and spirits are polarized, and typically represent opposites-darkness and light, masculine and feminine, etc. Many of these old gods have been folded into Slavic Christianity.
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Biography of Robert Cavelier de la Salle, French Explorer

Robert Cavelier de la Salle (November 22, 1643-March 19, 1687) was a French explorer credited with claiming Louisiana and the Mississippi River Basin for France. In addition, he explored much of the Midwest region of what would become the United States as well as portions of Eastern Canada and the Great Lakes.
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Hybrid Car Battery Life and Replacement Costs

It is expensive to replace hybrid batteries-it can cost in the neighborhood of $3,000 for a full hybrid battery replacement. But on the other hand, hybrid batteries have proven themselves to be extremely reliable. And as long as they are not abused and the vehicle charging control system operates effectively, they can be-not unrealistically-expected to last for nearly the life of the vehicle.
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Abraham Lincoln Quotations Everyone Should Know

Abraham Lincoln's quotations have become a part of American life, and for good reason. During years of experience as a courtroom advocate and political stump speaker, the Rail Splitter developed a remarkable knack for saying things in a memorable way. In his own time, Lincoln was often quoted by admirers.
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What Teachers Should Never Say or Do

Teachers are not perfect. We make mistakes and occasionally we exercise poor judgment. In the end, we are human. There are times that we are simply overwhelmed. There are times we lose focus. There are times we cannot remember why we choose to stay committed to this profession. These things are human nature.
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Coordination Number Definition in Chemistry

The coordination number of an atom in a molecule is the number of atoms bonded to the atom. In chemistry and crystallography, the coordination number describes the number of neighbor atoms with respect to a central atom. The term was originally defined in 1893 by Swiss chemist Alfred Werner (1866-1919).
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How to Convert Strings to Numbers and Vice Versa in Java

Typically in a graphical user interface, there will be text fields that are expecting the user to enter in a numerical value. This number value will end up in a String object which doesn't really help your program if you want to do some arithmetic. Fortunately, there are wrapper classes that provide methods for converting those String values into numbers and the String class has a method to convert them back again.
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How to Prepare a Solution

Here's a quick overview of how to prepare a solution when the final concentration is expressed as M or molarity. You prepare a solution by dissolving a known mass of solute (often a solid) into a specific amount of a solvent. One of the most common ways to express the concentration of the solution is M or molarity, which is moles of solute per liter of solution.
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